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Transformer Testing | Type Test and Routine Test of Transformer

For confirming the specifications and performances of an electrical transformer it has to go through numbers of testing procedures. Some tests are done at manufacturer premises before delivering the transformer. Mainly two types of transformer testing are done at manufacturer premises type test of transformer and routine test of transformer. In addition to that sometransformer tests are also carried out at the consumer site before commissioning and also periodically in regular & emergency basis throughout its service life. Type of transformer testing: 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. Tests done at Factory Type Tests Routine Tests Special Tests Tests done at Site Pre Commissioning Tests Periodic/Condition Monitoring Tests Emergency Tests

Type test of transformer: To prove that the transformer meets customers specifications and design expectations, the transformer has to go through different testing procedures in manufacturer premises. Some transformer tests are carried out for confirming the basic design expectation of that transformer. These tests are done mainly in a prototype unit not in all manufactured units in a lot. Type test of transformer confirms main and basic design criteria of a production lot. Routine tests of transformer: Routine tests of transformer is mainly for confirming operational performance of individual unit in a production lot. Routine tests are carried out on every unit manufactured.

Special tests of transformer: Special tests of transformer is done as per customer requirement to obtain information useful to the user during operation or maintenance of the transformer. Pre commissioning test of transformer: In addition to these, the transformer also goes through some other tests, performed on it, before actual commissioning of the transformer at site. The transformer testing performed before commissioning the transformer at site is called pre commissioning test of transformer. These tests are done to assess the condition of transformer after installation and compare the test results of all the low voltage tests with the factory test reports. Type tests of transformer includes: 1. 2. 3. 4. Transformer winding resistance measurement Transformer ratio test Transformer vector group test Measurement of impedance voltage/short circuit impedance (principal tap) and load loss (Short circuit test) 5. Measurement of no load loss and current (Open circuit test) 6. Measurement of insulation resistance 7. Dielectric tests of transformer 8. Temperature rise test of Transformer 9. Tests on on-load tap-changer 10.Vacuum tests on tank and radiators Routine tests of transformer include: 1. 2. 3. 4. Transformer winding resistance measurement Transformer ratio test Transformer vector group test Measurement of impedance voltage/short circuit impedance (principal tap) and load loss (Short circuit test) 5. Measurement of no load loss and current (Open circuit test) 6. Measurement of insulation resistance 7. Dielectric tests of transformer

8. Tests on on-load tap-changer 9. Oil pressure test on transformer to check against leakages past joints and gaskets. That means Routine tests of transformer include all the type tests except temperature rise and vacuum tests. The oil pressure test on transformer to check against leakages past joints and gaskets is included. Special Tests of transformer include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Dielectric Tests Measurement of zero-sequence impedance of three-phase transformers Short-Circuit Test Measurement of acoustic noise level Measurement of the harmonics of the no-load current Measurement of the power taken by the fans and oil pumps Tests on bought out components / accessories such as Buchhloz relay, temperature indicators, pressure relief devices, oil preservation system etc.

Transformer winding resistance measurement: Transformer winding resistance measurement is carried out to calculate the I2R losses and to calculate winding temperature at the end of a temperature rise test. It is carried out as a type test as well as routine test. It is also done at site to ensure healthiness of a transformer that is to check loose connections, broken strands of conductor, high contact resistance in tap changers, high voltage leads and bushings etc. There are different methods for measuring of transformer winding, likewise 1. 2. 3. 4. Current voltage method of measurement of winding resistance. Bridge method of measurement of winding resistance. Kelvin bridge method of Measuring Winding Resistance. Measuring winding resistance by Automatic Winding Measurement Kit.

Resistance

NB: Transformer winding resistance measurement shall be carried out at each tap.

Transformer Ratio Test: The performance of a transformer largely depends upon perfection of specific turns or voltage ratio of transformer. So transformer ratio test is an essential type test of transformer. This test also performed as routine test of transformer. So for ensuring proper performance of electrical power transformer, voltage and turn ratio test of transformer one of the vital tests. The procedure of transformer ratio test is simple. We just apply three phase 415 V supply to HV winding, with keeping LV winding open. The we measure the induced voltages at HV and LV terminals of transformer to find out actual voltage ratio of transformer. We repeat the test for all tap position separately.

Magnetic balance test of transformer: Magnetic balance test of transformer is conducted only on three phase transformers to check the imbalance in the magnetic circuit. Procedure of Magnetic balance test of transformer 1) First keep the tap changer of transformer in normal position. 2) Now disconnect the transformer neutral from ground. 3) Then apply single phase 230V AC supply across one of the HV winding terminals and neutral terminal. 4) Measure the voltage in two other HV terminals in respect of neutral terminal. 5) Repeat the test for each of the three phases. In case of auto transformer, magnetic balance test of transformer should be repeated for IV winding also. There are three limbs side by side in a core of transformer. One phase winding is wound in one limb. The voltage induced in different phases depends upon the respective position of the limb in the core. The voltage induced in different phases of transformer in respect to neutral terminals given in the table below.

Left side phase AN Voltage applied at left side phase Voltage applied at central phase Voltage applied at right side phase 230V 115V 50V

Central phase BN 180V 230V 180V

Right side phase CN 50V 115V 230V

Magnetizing Current Test of Transformer: Magnetizing current test of transformer is performed to locate defects in the magnetic core structure, shifting of windings, failure in turn to turn insulation or problem in tap changers. These conditions change the effective reluctance of the magnetic circuit, thus affecting the electric current required to establish flux in the core. 1. First of all keep the tap changer in the lowest position and open all IV & LV terminals. 2. Then apply three phase 415V supply on the line terminals for three phase transformers and single phase 230V supply on single phase transformers. 3. Measure the supply voltage and electric current in each phase. 4. Now repeat the magnetizing current test of transformer test with keeping tap changer in normal position. 5. And repeat the test with keeping the tap at highest position. Generally there are two similar higher readings on two outer limb phases on transformer core and one lower reading on the centre limb phase, in case of three phase transformers. An agreement to within 30 % of the measured exciting current with the previous test is usually considered satisfactory. If the measured exciting current value is 50 times higher than the value measured during factory test, there is likelihood of a fault in the winding which needs further analysis. Caution: This magnetizing current test of transformer is to be carried out before DC resistance measurement.

Vector Group Test of Transformer: In three phase transformer, it is essential to carry out a vector group test of transformer. Proper vector grouping in a transformer is an essential criteria for parallel operation of transformers. There are several internal connection of three phase transformer are available in market. These several connections gives various magnitudes and phase of the secondary voltage; the magnitude can be adjusted for parallel operation by suitable choice of turn ratio, but the phase divergence can not be compensated. So we have to choose those transformer for parallel operation whose phase sequence and phase divergence are same. All the transformers with same vector ground have same phase sequence and phase divergence between primary and secondary. So before procuring one electrical power transformer, one should ensure the vector group of the transformer, whether it will be matched with his or her existing system or not. The vector group test of transformer confirms his or her requirements. Insulation Resistance Test or Megger Test of transformer: Insulation resistance test of transformer is essential type test. This test is carried out to ensure the healthiness of over all insulation system of an electrical power transformer. Procedure of Insulation Resistance test of transformer 1. First disconnect all the line and neutral terminals of the transformer. 2. Megger leads to be connected to LV and HV bushing studs to measure Insulation Resistance IR value in between the LV and HV windings. 3. Megger leads to be connected to HV bushing studs and transformer tank earth point to measure Insulation Resistance IR value in between the HV windings and earth. 4. Megger leads to be connected to LV bushing studs and transformer tank earth point to measure Insulation Resistance IR value in between the LV windings and earth. NB : It is unnecessary to perform insulation resistance test of transformer per phase wise in three phase transformer. IR values are taken between the windings collectively as because all the windings on HV side are internally connected together to form either star or delta and also all the windings on LV side are internally connected together to form either star or delta.

Measurements are to be taken as follows: For Auto Transformer: HV-IV to LV, HV-IV to E, LV to E For Two Winding Transformer: HV to LV, HV to E, LV to E Three Winding Transformer: HV to IV, HV to LV, IV to LV, HV to E, IV to E, LV to E Oil temperature should be noted at the time of insulation resistance test of transformer. Since the IR value of transformer insulating oil may vary with temperature. IR values to be recorded at intervals of 15 seconds, 1 minute and 10 minutes. .With the duration of application of voltage, IR value increases. The increase in IR is an indication of dryness of insulation. Absorption Coefficient = 1 minute value/ 15 secs. value. Polarization Index = 10 minutes value / 1 minute value

Dielectric Tests of Transformer: Dielectric tests of transformer is one kind of insulation test. This test is performed to ensure the expected over all insulation strength of transformer. There are several test performed to ensure the required quality of transformer insulation, dielectric test is one of them. Dielectric tests of transformer is performed in two different steps, first one called Separate source voltage withstand test of transformer, where a single phase power frequency voltage of prescribed level, is applied on transformer winding under test for 60 seconds while the other windings and tank are connected to the earth and it is observed that whether any failure of insulation occurs or not during the test. Second one is induced voltage test of Transformer where, three phase voltage, twice of rated secondary voltage is applied to the secondary winding for 60 second by keeping the primary of the transformer open circuited. The frequency of the applied voltage should be double of power frequency too. Here also if no failure of insulation, the test is successful.

In addition to Dielectric tests of transformer there are other type test for checking insulation of transformer, such as lightning impulse test, switching impulse test and partial discharge test.

Induced voltage test of Transformer: The induced voltage test of transformer is intended to check the inter turn and line end insulation as well as main insulation to earth and between windings 1. Keep the primary winding of transformer open circuited. 2. Apply three phase voltage to the secondary winding. The applied voltage should be twice of rated voltage of secondary winding in magnitude and frequency. 3. The duration of the test shall be 60 second. 4. The test shall start with a voltage lower than 1/3 the full test voltage, and it shall be quickly increased up to desired value. The test is successful if no break down occurs at full test voltage during test.

Temperature Rise Test of Transformer: Temperature rise test of Transformer is included in type test of transformer. In this test we check whether the temperature rising limit of the transformer winding and oil as per specification or not. In this type test of transformer, we have to check oil temperature rise as well as winding temperature rise limits of an electrical transformer.

Transformer Winding Resistance Measurement: Transformer winding resistance measurement is carried out as a type test, routine test and also as a field test. In the factory, it helps in determining the following: (a) Calculation of the I2R losses in transformer (b) Calculation of winding temperature at the end of temperature rise test of transformer. (c) As a benchmark for assessing possible damages in the field. It is done at site in order to check for abnormalities due to loose connections, broken strands of conductor, high contact resistance in tap changers, high voltage leads and bushings. Procedure of Transformer winding resistance measurement For star connected winding, the resistance shall be measured between the line and neutral terminal. For star connected auto-transformers the resistance of the HV side is measured between HV terminal and IV terminal, then between IV terminal and the neutral. For delta connected windings, measurement of winding resistance shall be done between pairs of line terminals. As in delta connection the resistance of individual winding cannot be measured separately, the resistance per winding shall be calculated as per the following formula: Resistance per winding = 1.5 x Measured value The resistance is measured at ambient temperature and then converted to resistance at 75C for all practical purposes of comparison with specified design values, previous results and diagnostics.

Winding Resistance at standard temperature of 75oC

Rt = Winding resistance at temperature t. t = Winding temperature Generally transformer windings are immersed in insulation liquid and covered with paper insulation, hence it is impossible to measure the actual winding temperature in a de-energizing transformer at time of transformer winding resistance measurement. An approximation is developed to calculate temperature of winding at that condition, as follows Temperature of winding = Average temperature of insulating oil. (Average temperature of insulating oil should be taken 3 to 8 hours after deenergizing transformer and when the difference between top & bottom oil temperatures becomes less than 5oC) The resistance can be measured by simple voltmeter ammeter method, Kelvin Bridge meter or automatic winding resistance measurement kit (ohm meter, preferably 25 Amps kit) Caution for voltmeter ammeter method: Current shall not exceed 15% of the rated current of the winding. Large values may cause inaccuracy by heating the winding and thereby changing its temperature and resistance. NB: Measurement of winding resistance of transformer shall be carried out at each tap. Current Voltage Method of measurement of winding resistance The transformer winding resistances can be measured by current voltage method. In this method of measurement of winding resistance, the test current is injected to the winding and corresponding voltage drop across the winding is measured. By applying simple Ohms law i.e. Rx = V I, one can easily determine the value of resistance.

Procedure of current voltage method of measurement of winding resistance 1) Before measurement the transformer should be kept in OFF condition without excitation at least for 3 to 4 hours. During this time the winding temperature will become equal to its oil temperature. 2) Measurement is done with D.C. 3) To minimize observation errors, polarity of the core magnetization shall be kept constant during all resistance readings. 4) Voltmeter leads shall be independent of the current leads to protect it from high voltages which may occur during switching on and off the current circuit. 5) The readings shall be taken after the electric current and voltage have reached steady state values. In some cases this may take several minutes depending upon the winding impedance. 6) The test current shall not exceed 15% of the rated current of the winding. Large values may cause inaccuracy by heating the winding and thereby changing its resistance. 7) For expressing resistance, the corresponding temperature of the winding at the time of measurement must be mentioned along with resistance value. As we said earlier that after remaining in switch off condition for 3 to 4 hours, the winding temperature would become equal to oil temperature. The oil temperature at the time of testing is taken as the average of top oil and bottom oil temperatures of transformer. 8) For star connected three phase winding, the resistance per phase would be half of measured resistance between two line terminals of the transformer. 9) For delta connected three phase winding, the resistance per phase would be 0.67 times of measured resistance between two line terminals of the transformer.

10) This current voltage method of measurement of winding resistance of transformer should be repeated for each pair of line terminals of winding at every tap position.

Bridge Method of measurement of winding resistance

The main principle of bridge method is based on comparing an unknown resistance with a known resistance. When electric currents flowing through the arms of bridge circuit become balanced, the reading of galvanometer shows zero deflection that means at balanced condition no electric current will flow through the galvanometer. Very small value of resistance ( in milli ohms range) can be accurately measured by Kelvin Bridge method whereas for higher value Wheatstone bridge method of resistance measurement is applied. In bridge method of measurement of winding resistance, the errors are minimized.

The resistance measured by Kelvin Bridge:

All other steps to be taken during transformer winding resistance measurement in these methods are similar to that of current voltage method of measurement of winding resistance of transformer, except the measuring technique of resistance. The resistance measured by Wheatstone Bridge:

DGA or Dissolved Gas Analysis of Transformer Oil | Furfural or Furfuraldehyde Analysis: Whenever electrical power transformer goes under abnormal thermal and electrical stresses, certain gases are produced due to decomposition of transformer insulating oil, when the fault is major, the production of decomposed gases are more and they get collected in Buchholz relay. But when abnormal thermal and electrical stresses are not significantly high the gasses due to decomposition of transformer insulating oil will get enough time to dissolve in the oil. Hence by only monitoring the Buchholz relay it is not possible to predict the condition of the total internal healthiness of electrical power transformer. That is why it becomes necessary to analyse the quantity of different gasses dissolved in transformer oil in service. From Dissolved Gas Analysis of Transformer Oil or DGA of Transformer Oil , one can predict the actual condition of internal health of a transformer. It is preferable to conduct the DGA test of transformer oil in routine manner to get prior information about the trend of deterioration of transformer health and life. Actually in Dissolved Gas Analysis of Transformer Oil or DGA of Transformer Oil test, the gases in oil are extracted from oil and analyze the quantity of gasses in a specific amount of oil. By observing percentages of different gasses present in the oil, one can predict the internal condition of transformer. Generally the gasses found in the oil in service are hydrogen (H2), methane(CH4), Ethane (C2H6), ethylene(C2H4), acetylene (C2H3), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen(N2) and oxygen(O2). Most commonly used method of determining the content of these gases in oil, is using a Vacuum Gas Extraction Apparatus and Gas Chronographs. By this apparatus first gasses are extracted from oil by stirring it under vacuum. These extracted gasses are then introduced in gas Chronographs for measurement of each component. Generally it is found that hydrogen and methane are produced in large quantity if internal temperature of power transformer rises up to 150oC to 300oC due to abnormal thermal stresses. If temperature goes above 300oC, ethylene(C2H4) are produced in large quantity. At the temperature is higher than 700oC large amount of hydrogen(H2) and ethylene(C2H4) are produced. Ethylene(C2H4) is indication

of very high temperature hot spot inside electrical transformer. If during DGA test of transformer oil, CO and CO2 are found in large quantity it is predicted that there is decomposition of proper insulation. Furfural Test or Furfuraldehyde Analysis of Transformer Oil Transformer core and winding have mainly paper insulation. Base of paper is cellulose. The Cellulose has a structure of long chain of molecules. As the paper becomes aged, these long chains are broken into number of shorter parts. This phenomenon we often observe in our home. The pages of very old books become very much brittle. In transformer, the aging affect of paper insulation is accelerated due to oxidation occurs in oil. When insulating paper becomes mechanically weak, it can not withstand the mechanical stresses applied during electrical short circuit and leads to electrical breakdown. It is therefore necessary to monitor the condition of paper insulation inside a power transformer. It is not possible to bring out a piece of paper insulation from a transformer in service for testing purpose. But we are lucky enough, that there is a testing technique developed, where we can examine the condition of paper insulation without touching it. The method is called Furfuradehyde Analysis of in short Furfural test . Although by Dissolved Gas Analysis one can predict the condition of the paper insulation primarily, but it is not very sensitive method. There is a guide line in IEC 599, where it is told that if the ratio of CO2 and CO in DGA results is more than 11, it is predicted that the condition of paper insulation inside the transformer is not good. A healthy cellulose insulation gives that ratio in a range of 4 to 11. But still it is not a very sensitive way of monitoring the condition of paper insulation. Because CO2 and CO gases also produced during oil breakdown and sometimes the ratio may misleads the prediction. When oil is soaked into paper, it is damaged by heat and some unique oil soluble compounds are realized and dissolved in the oil along with CO2 and CO. These compounds belong to the Furfuraldehyde group. These are some times called Furfural in short. Among all Furfurals compounds 2 Furfural is the most predominant. These Furfural family compound can only be released from

destructive heating of cellulose or paper. Furfuraldehyde Analysis is very sensitive as because damage of few grams of paper is noticeable in the oil even of a very large size transformer. It is a very significant diagnostic test. It is best test for assessing life of transformer. The rate of rise of percentage of Furfurals products in oil, with respect to time, is used for assessing the condition and remaining life of paper insulation in power transformer.

Insulation Dielectric Test of Transformer The dielectric test of transformer is generally performed in two different steps, likewise, separate source voltage withstand test and induced voltage withstand test of transformer, which we have discussed one by one below. Separate source voltage withstand test of transformer This dielectric test is intended to check the the ability of main insulation to earth and between winding. Procedure 1) All three line terminals of the winding to be tested are connected together. 2) Other winding terminals which are not under test and also tank of the transformer should be connected to earth. 3) Then a single-phase power frequency voltage of shape approximately sinusoidal is applied for 60 seconds to the terminals of the winding under test. 4) The test shall be performed on all the windings one by one. 5) The test is successful if no break down in the dielectric of the insulation occurs during test.

In this transformer testing, the peak value of voltage is measured, that is why the capacitor voltage divider with digital peak voltmeter is employed as shown in the diagram above. The peal value multiplied by 0.707 (1/2) is the test voltage.

The values of test voltage for different fully insulated winding are furnished below in the table. Rated short duration power frequency withstand voltage 415V 1.1 KV 3 KV 11 KV 12 KV 28 KV 33 KV 36 KV 70 KV 132 KV 145 KV 230 / 275 KV 220 KV 245 KV 360 / 395 KV 400 KV 420 KV 570 / 630 KV Winding with graded insulation, which has neutral intended for direct earthing, is tested at 38KV Nominal system voltage rating for equipment Highest system voltage rating for equipment Induced voltage test of Transformer

The induced voltage test of transformer is intended to check the inter turn and line end insulation as well as main insulation to earth and between windings 1) Keep the primary winding of transformer open circuited. 2) Apply three phase voltage to the secondary winding. The applied voltage should be twice of rated voltage of secondary winding in magnitude and frequency. 3) The duration of the test shall be 60 second. 4) The test shall start with a voltage lower than 1/3 the full test voltage, and it shall be quickly increased up to desired value. The test is successful if no break down occurs at full test voltage during test.

Voltage and Turn Ratio Test of Transformer:

The performance of a transformer largely depends upon perfection of specific turns or voltage ratio of transformer. So transformer ration test is an essential type test of transformer. The voltage should be applied only in the high voltage winding in order to avoid unsafe voltage. Ratio test of transformer and check of phase displacement Actually the no load voltage ratio of transformer is equal to the turn ratio. So ratio test of transformer Procedure of transformer ration test 1) First, the tap changer of transformer is kept in the lowest position and LV terminals are kept open. 2) Then apply 3-phase 415 V supply on HV terminals. Measure the voltages applied on each phase (Phase-Phase) on HV and induced voltages at LV terminals simultaneously. 3) After measuring the voltages at HV and LV terminals, the tap changer of transformer should be raised by one position and repeat test. 4) Repeat the same for each of the tap position separately. The above transformer ratio test can also be performed by portable Transformer Turns Ratio (TTR) Meter. They have an in built power supply, with the voltages commonly used being very low, such as 8-10 V and 50 Hz. The HV and LV windings of one phase of a transformer are connected to the instrument, and the internal bridge elements are varied to produce a null indication on the detector. Lets have a discussion on Transformer Turns Ratio (TTR) Meter method of turn ratio test of transformer A phase voltage is applied to the one of the windings by means of a bridge circuit and the ratio of induced voltage is measured at the bridge. The accuracy of the measuring instrument is < 0.1 %

This theoretical turn ratio is adjusted on the transformer turn ratio tested or TTR by the adjustable transformer as shown in the figure above and it should be changed until a balance occurs in the percentage error indicator. The reading on this indicator implies the deviaton of measured turn ratio from expected turn ratio in percentage.

Out-of-tolerance, ratio test of transformer can be due to shorted turns, especially if there is an associated high excitation current. Open turns in HV winding will indicate very low exciting current and no output voltage since open turns in HV winding causes no excitation current in the winding means no flux hence no induced voltage. But open turn in LV winding causes, low fluctuating LV voltage but normal excitation current in HV winding. Hence open turns in LV winding will be indicated by normal levels of exciting current, but very low levels of unstable output voltage. The turn ratio test of transformer also detects high resistance connections in the lead circuitry or high contact resistance in tap changers by higher excitation current and a difficulty in balancing the bridge.

Vector Group Test of Power Transformer: The vector group of transformer is an essential property for successful parallel operation of transformers. Hence every electrical power transformer must undergo through vector group test of transformer at factory site for ensuring the customer specified vector group of transformer. The phase sequence or the order in which the phases reach their maximum positive voltages, must be identical for two paralleled transformers. Otherwise, during the cycle, each pair of phases will be short circuited. The several secondary connections are available in respect of various primary three phase connection in a the three phase transformer. So for same primary applied three phase voltage there may be different three phase secondary voltages with various magnitudes and phases for different internal connection of the transformer. Lets have a discussion in detail by example for better understanding. We know that, the primary and secondary coils on any one limb have induced emfs that are in time phase. Lets consider two transformers of same number primary turns and the primary windings are connected in star. The secondary number of turns per phase in both transformers are also same. But the first transformer has star connected secondary and other transformer has delta connected secondary. If same voltages are applied in primary of both transformers, the secondary induced emf in each phase will be in same time-phase with that of respective primary phase, as because the the primary and secondary coils of same phase are wound on the same limb in the core of transformer. In first transformer, as the secondary is star connected, the secondary line voltage is 3 times of induced voltage per secondary phase coil. But in case of second transformer, where secondary is delta connected, the line voltage is equal to induced voltage per secondary phase coil. If we go through the vector diagram of secondary line voltages of both transformer, we will easily find that there will be a clear 30o angular difference between the line voltages of these transformers. Now, if we try to run these transformers in parallel then there will be a circulating current flows between the transformers as because there is a phase angle difference between their secondary line voltages. This phase difference can not be compensated. Thus two sets of connections giving secondary

voltages with a phase displacement can not be intended for parallel operation of transformers. The following table gives the connections for which from the view point of phase sequence and angular divergences, transformer can be operated parallel. According to their vector relation, all three phase transformers are divided into different vector group of transformer. All electrical power transformers of a particular vector group can easily be operated in parallel if they fulfill other condition for parallel operation of transformers.
GROUP Yy0 0 (0o) Connection Dd0 Connection

Yd1 1 ( 30o)

Dy1

Yy6 6 ( 180o)

Dd6

Yd11 11 ( 30o)

Dy11

Procedure of vector group test of transformer

Lets have a YNd11 transformer. 1) Connect neutral point of star connected winding with earth. 2) Join 1U of HV and 2W of LV together. 3) Apply 415V, three phase supply to HV terminals. 4) Measure voltages between terminals 2U 1N, 2V 1N, 2W 1N, that means voltages between each LV terminal and HV neutral. 5) Also measure voltages between terminals 2V 1V, 2W 1W and 2V 1W. For YNd11 transformer, we will find, 2U 1N > 2V 1N > 2W 1N 2V 1W > 2V 1V or 2W 1W The vector group test of transformer for other group can also be done in similar way.

Transformer Oil and Winding Temperature Rise Test: Temperature rise test of Transformer is included in type test of transformer. In this test we check whether the temperature rising limit of transformer winding and oil as per specification or not. Temperature rise test for top oil of transformer 1) First the LV winding of the transformer is short circuited. 2) Then one thermometer is placed in a pocket in transformer top cover. Other two thermometers are placed at the inlet and outlet of the cooler bank respectively. 3) The voltage of such value is applied to the HV winding that power input is equal to no load losses plus load losses corrected to a reference temperature of 75oC. 4) The total losses are measured by three watt-meters method. 5) During the test, hourly readings of top oil temperature are taken from the thermometer already placed in the pocket of top cover. 6) Hourly readings of the thermometers placed at inlet and outlet of the cooler bank are also noted to calculate the mean temperature of the oil. 7) Ambient temperature is measured by means of thermometer placed around the transformer at three or four points situated at a distance of 1 to 2 meter from and half-way up the cooling surface of the transformer. 8) Temperature rise test for top oil of transformer should be continued until the top oil temperature has reached an approximate steady value that means testing would be continued until the temperature increment of the top oil becomes less than 3oC in one hour. This steady value of top oil is determined as final temperature rise of transformer insulating oil. 9) There is another method of determination of oil temperature. Here the test in allowed to be continued until the top oil temperature rise does not vary more than 1oC per hour for four consecutive hours. The least reading is taken as final temperature rise of the oil.

During temperature rise test for top oil of transformer we make the LV winding short circuited and apply voltage to the HV winding. So for full load rated electric current flows in the transformer, the supply voltage required will much less than rated transformer voltage. We know that core loss of a transformer depends upon voltage. So there will not be any considerable core loss occurs in the transformer during test. But for getting actual temperature rise of the oil in a transformer, we have to compensate the lack of core losses by additional copper loss in the transformer. For supplying this total losses, transformer draws electric current from the source much more than its rated value for transformer.

Temperature rise limits of transformer when it is oil immersed, given in the table below Temperature rise limit for air as cooling medium
o

Temperature rise limit for water as cooling medium


o

Condition

55 C

60 C

When oil circulation is natural When oil circulation is forced When transformer is sealed & Equipped with conservator tank

Winding 60 C
o

65 C

50oC

55oC

When transformer is neither sealed 45oC 50oC nor equipped with conservator tank NB: These temperature rises limits mentioned in the above table are the temperature rise above the temperature of cooling medium. That means these are the difference between winding or oil temperature and temperature of cooling air or water. Winding temperature rise test on transformer 1) After completion of temperature rise test for top oil of transformer the current is reduced to its rated value for transformer and is maintained for one hour. 2) After one hour the supply is switch off and short circuit and supply connection to the HV side and short circuit connection to the LV side are opened. 3) But, the fans and pumps are kept running (if any)

Top Oil

4) Then resistance of the windings are measured quickly. 5) But there is always a minimum 3 to 4 minutes time gap between first measurement of resistance and the instant of switching off the transformer, which can not be avoided. 5) Then the resistances are measured at the same 3 to 4 minutes time intervals over a period of 15 minutes.

6) Graph of hot resistance versus time is plotted, from which winding resistance (R2) at the instant of shut down can be extrapolated. 7) From this value, 2, the winding temperature at the instant of shut down can be determined by the formula given below

Where, R1 is the cold resistance of the winding at temperature t1.

For determining winding temperature rise we have to apply the above discussed indirect method. That means hot winding resistance is measured and determined first and then from that value we have to calculate the winding temperature rise, by applying resistance temperature relation formula. This is because unlike oil the winding of transformer is not accessible for external temperature measurement.

Impulse Test of Transformer:

Lighting is a common phenomenon in transmission lines because of their tall height. This lightning stroke on the line conductor causes impulse voltage. The terminal equipment of transmission line such as power transformer then experiences this lightning impulse voltage. Again during all kind of online switching operation in the system, there will be switching impulses occur in the network. The magnitude of the switching impulses may be about 3.5 times the system voltage. Insulation is one of the most important constituents of a transformer. Any weakness in the insulation may cause failure of transformer. To ensure the effectiveness of the insulation system of a transformer, it must confirm the dielectric test. But the power frequency withstand test alone cannot be adequate to demonstrate the dielectric strength of a transformer. That is why impulse test of transformer performed on it. Both lightning impulse test and switching impulse test are included in this category of testing. Lightning Impulse: The lightning impulse is a pure natural phenomenon. So it is very difficult to predict the actual wave shape of a lightning disturbance. From the data compiled about natural lightning, it may be concluded that the system disturbance due to natural lightning stroke, can be represented by three basic wave shapes. 1) Full wave 2) Chopped wave and 3) Front of wave Although the actual lightning impulse disturbance may not have exactly these three shapes but by defining these waves one can establish a minimum impulse dielectric strength of a transformer. If lighting disturbance travels some distance along the transmission line before it reaches the transformer, its wave shape may approach to full wave.

If during traveling, if flash-over occurs at any insulator of the transmission line, after the peak of the wave has been reached, the wave may become in form of choppedwave. If the lightning stroke directly hits the transformer terminals, the impulse voltage rises rapidly until it is relieved by a flash over. At the instant of flash over the voltage suddenly collapses and may form the front of wave shape. The effect of these wave forms on the transformer insulation may be different from each other. We are not going here in detail discussion of what type of impulse voltage wave forms causes what type of failure in transformer. But whatever may be the shape of lightning disturbance voltage wave, all of them can cause insulation failure in transformer. So lighting impulse test of transformer is one of the most important type test of transformer. Switching Impulse Through studies and observations reveal that the switching over voltage or switching impulse may have front time of several hundred microseconds and this voltage may be periodically damped out. The IEC 600060 has adopted for their switching impulse test, a long wave having front time 250 s and time to half value 2500 s with tolerances. The purpose of the impulse voltage test is to secure that the transformer insulation withstand the lightning overvoltage which may occur in service.

Impulse test

The impulse generator design is based on the Marx circuit. The basic circuit diagram is shown on Figure above. The impulse capacitors Cs (12 capacitors of 750 F) are charged in parallel through the charging resistors Rc (28 k) (highest permissible charging voltage 200 kV). When the charging voltage has reached the required value, breakdown of the sparkgap F1 is initiated by an external triggering pulse. When F1 breaks down, the potential of the following stage (point B and C) rises. Because the series resistors Rs is of low-ohmic value compared with the discharging resistors Rb (4,5 k) and the charging resistor Rc, and since the low ohmic discharging resistor Ra is separated from the circuit by the auxiliary sparkgap Fal, the potential difference across the spark-gap F2 rises considerably and the breakdown of F2 is initiated. Thus the spark-gaps are caused to break down in sequence. Consequently the capacitors are discharged in series-connection. The high-ohmic discharge resistors Rb are dimensioned for switching impulses and the low-ohmic resistors Ra for

lightning impulses. The resistors Ra are connected in parallel with the resistors Rb, when the auxiliary spark-gaps break down, with a time delay of a few hundred nano-seconds. The arrangement is necessary in order to secure the functioning of the generator. The wave shape and the peak value of the impulse voltage are measured by means of an Impulse Analysing System (DIAS 733) which are connected to the voltage divider. The required voltage is obtained by selecting a suitable number of seriesconnected stages and by adjusted the charging voltage. In order to obtain the necessary discharge energy parallel or series-parallel connections of the generator can be used. In these cases some of the capacitors are connected in parallel during the discharge. The required impulse shape is obtained by suitable selection of the series and discharge resistors of the generator. The front time can be calculated approximately from the equation: For R1 >> R2 and Cg >> C (15.1) Tt =.R.C.123 and the half time to half value from the T0,7.R.C In practice the testing circuit is dimensioned according to experience.
Performance of Impulse Test

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The test is performed with standard lightning impulses of negative polarity. The front time (T1) and the time to half-value (T2) are defined in accordance with the standard. Standardlightningimpulse Fronttime,T1 =1,2s30% Time to half-value T2 = 50 s 20% In practice the impulse shape may deviate from the standard impulse when testing low-voltage windings of high rated power and windings of high input capacitance. The impulse test is performed with negative polarity voltages to avoid erratic flashovers in the external insulation and test circuit. Waveform adjustments are necessary for most test objects. Experience gained from results of tests on similar units or eventual precalculation can give guidance for selecting components for the wave shaping circuit. The test sequence consists of one reference impulse (RW) at 75% of full amplitude followed by the specified number of voltage applications at full amplitude (F W) (according to IEC 60076-3 three full impulses). The equipment for voltage and current signal recording consists of digital transient recorder, monitor, computer, plotter and printer. The recordings at the two levels can be compared directly for failure indication. For regulating transformers one phase is tested with the on-load tap changer set for the rated voltage and the two other phases are tested in each of the extreme positions.
Connection of Impulse Test

All the dielectric tests check the insulation level of the job. Impulse generator is used to produce the specified voltage impulse wave of 1.2/50 micro seconds wave. One impulse of a reduced voltage between 50 to 75% of the full test voltage and subsequent three impulses at full voltage. For a three phase transformer, impulse is carried out on all three phases in succession. The voltage is applied on each of the line terminal in succession, keeping the other terminalsearthed. The current and voltage wave shapes are recorded on the oscilloscope and any distortion in the wave shape is the criteria for failure.

Sweep Frequency Response Analysis Test | SFRA Test


This is very reliable and sensitive method or tool for condition monitoring of the physical condition of transformer windings. The winding of transformer may be subjected to mechanical stresses during transportation, heavy short circuit faults, transient switching impulses and lightening impulses etc. These mechanical stresses may cause displacement of transformer windings from their position and may also cause deformation of these windings. Windings collapse in extreme cases, such physical defects eventually lead to insulation failure or dielectric faults in the windings. Sweep Frequency Response Analysis Test or in short SFRA Test can detect efficiently, displacement of transformer core, deformation and displacement of winding, faulty core grounds, collapse of partial winding, broken or loosen clamp connections, short circuited turns, open winding conditions etc. Principle of SFRA Test The principle of SFRA is quite simple. As all the electrical equipments theoretically have some resistance, inductance and some capacitance values hence each of them can be considered as a complex RLC circuit. The term theoretically means some equipment may have very low or zero resistance compared to their inductance and capacitance values again, some equipments may have very low or zero inductance compared to their resistance and capacitance and again some equipments may have very low or zero capacitance compared to their resistance and inductance but theoretically all of them can be considered as RLC circuit although may be R = 0, or L = 0 or C = 0. But in most cases the resistance, inductance and capacitance of an equipment have non zero values. Hence most of the electrical equipments can be considered as RLC circuit hence they response to the sweep frequencies and produce an unique signature. As in a transformer each winding turn is separated from other by paper insulation which acts as dielectric and windings themselves have inductance and resistance, a transformer can be considered as a complicated distributed network of resistance, inductance, and capacitance or in other words a transformer is a complicated RLC circuit.

Because of that each winding of a transformer exhibits a particular frequency response. In Sweep Frequency Response Analysis a sinusoidal voltage Vi is applied to one end of a winding and output voltage Vo is measured at the other end of the winding. Other windings are kept open. As the winding is itself an distributed RLC circuit it will behave like RLC filter and gives different output voltages at different frequencies. That means if we go on increasing the frequency of the input signal without changing its voltage level we will get different output voltages at different frequencies depending upon the RLC nature of the winding. If we plot these output voltages against the corresponding frequencies we will get a particular patter for a particular winding. But after transportation, heavy short circuit faults, transient switching impulses and lightening impulses etc, if we do same Sweep Frequency Response Analysis test and superimpose the present signature with the earlier patterns and observe some deviation between these tow graphs, we can asses that there is mechanical displacement and deformation occurred in the winding.

In addition to that, SFRA test also helps us to compare between physical condition of the same winding of different phases at the same tap position. It also compares different transformers of the same design. Analysis Low frequency response: 1. Winding behaves as a simple RL circuitformed by series inductance and resistance of the winding (At low frequencies capacitance cats as almost open circuit) 2. At low frequency winding inductances are determined by the magnetic circuit of the transformer core. High frequency response: At high frequency winding behaves as RLC circuits 1. Winding exhibits many resonant points 2. Frequency responses are more sensitive to winding movement.

Open and Short Circuit Test on Transformer: These two tests are performed on a transformer to determine (i) equivalent circuit of transformer (ii) voltage regulation of transformer (iii) efficiency of transformer. The power required for these Open Circuit test and Short Circuit test on transformer is equal to the power loss occurring in the transformer. Open and Short Circuit Test on Transformer: The connection diagram for open circuit test on transformer is shown in the figure. A voltmeter, wattmeter, and an ammeter are connected in LV side of the transformer as shown. The voltage at rated frequency is applied to that LV side with the help of a variac of variable ratio auto transformer. The HV side of the transformer is kept open. Now with help of variac applied voltage is slowly increase until the voltmeter gives reading equal to the rated voltage of the LV side. After reaching at rated LV side voltage, all three instruments reading (Voltmeter, Ammeter and Wattmeter readings) are recorded.

The ammeter reading gives the no load current Ie. As no load current Ie is quite small compared to rated current of the transformer, the voltage drops due to this electric current then can be taken as negligible. Since, voltmeter reading V1can be considered equal to secondary induced voltage of the transformer. The input power during test is indicated by watt-meter reading.

As the transformer is open circuited, there is no output hence the input power here consists of core losses in transformer and copper loss in transformer during no load condition. But as said earlier, the no load current in the transformer is quite small compared to full load current so copper loss due to the small no load current can be neglected. Hence the wattmeter reading can be taken as equal to core losses in transformer. Let us consider wattmeter reading is Po. Po =V1 2/Rm Where Rm is shunt branch resistance of transformer. If, Zm is shunt branch impedance of transformer. Then, Zm = V1/ Ie. Therefore, if shunt branch reactance of transformer is Xm Then, (1/ Xm)2 = (1/ Zm)2 (1/ Rm)2 These values are referred to the LV side of transformer as because the test is conduced on LV side of transformer. These values could easily be referred to HV side by multiplying these values with square of transformation ratio. Therefore it is seen that the open circuit test on transformer is used to determine corelosses in transformer and parameters of shunt branch of the equivalent circuit of transformer. Short Circuit Test on Transformer The connection diagram for short circuit test on transformer is shown in the figure. A voltmeter, wattmeter, and an ammeter are connected in HV side of the transformer as shown. The voltage at rated frequency is applied to that HV side with the help of a variac of variable ratio auto transformer. The LV side of the transformer is short circuited . Now with help of variac applied voltage is slowly increase until the ammeter gives reading equal to the rated current of the HV side. After reaching at rated current of HV side, all three instruments reading (Voltmeter, Ammeter and Watt-meter readings) are recorded. The ammeter reading gives the primary equivalent of full load current I L. As the voltage, applied for full load current in short circuit test on transformer, is quite small compared to rated primary voltage of the transformer, the core losses in transformer can be taken as negligible here.

Lets, voltmeter reading is Vsc. The input power during test is indicated by watt-meter reading. As the transformer is short circuited, there is no output hence the input power here consists of copper losses in transformer. Since, the applied voltage V sc is short circuit voltage in the transformer and hence it is quite small compared to rated voltage so core loss due to the small applied volate can be neglected. Hence the wattmeter reading can be taken as equal to copper losses in transformer. Let us consider wattmeter reading is Psc.

Psc = Re.IL2 Where Re is equivalent resistance of transformer. If, Ze is equivalent impedance of transformer. Then, Ze = Vsc/ IL. Therefore, if equivalent reactance of transformer is Xe Then, Xe2 = Ze2 Re2

These values are referred to the HV side of transformer as because the test is conduced on HV side of transformer. These values could easily be referred to LV side by dividing these values with square of transformation ratio. Therefore it is seen that the Short Circuit test on transformer is used to determine copper loss in transformer at full load and parameters of approximate equivalent circuit of transformer.

Electrical Insulator Testing | Cause of Insulator failure:

To ensure the desired performance of an electrical insulator, that is for avoiding unwanted insulator failure, each insulator has to undergo numbers of insulator test. Before going through testing of insulatorwe will try to understand different causes ofinsulator failure. Because insulator testing ensures the quality of electrical insulator and chances for failure of insulation depend upon the quality of insulator.

Causes of Insulator Failure: There are different causes due to which failure of insulation in electrical power system may occur. Lets have a look on them one by one Cracking of Insulator The porcelain insulator mainly consists of three different materials. The main porcelain body, steel fitting arrangement and cement to fix the steel part with porcelain. Due to changing climate conditions, these different materials in the insulator expand and contract in different rate. These unequal expansion and contraction of porcelain, steel and cement are the chief cause of cracking of insulator. Defective insulation material If the insulation material used for insulator is defective anywhere, the insulator may have a high chance of being puncher from that place. Porosity in the insulation materials If the porcelain insulator is manufactured at low temperatures, it will make it porous, and due to this reason it will absorb moisture from air thus its insulation will decrease and leakage current will start to flow through the insulator which will lead to insulator failure. Improper glazing on insulator surface If the surface of porcelain insulator is not properly glazed, moisture can stick over it. This moisture along with deposited dust on the insulator surface, produces a

conducting path. As a result the flash over distance of the insulator is reduced. As the flash over distance is reduced, the chance of failure of insulator due to flash over becomes more. Flash over across insulator If flash over occurs, the insulator may be over heated which may ultimately results into shuttering of it. Mechanical stresses on insulator If an insulator has any weak portion due to manufacturing defect, it may break from that weak portion when mechanical stress is applied on it by its conductor. These are the main causes of insulator failure. Now we will discuss the different insulator test procedures to ensure minimum chance of failure of insulation. Insulator Testing According to the British Standard, the electrical insulator must undergo the following tests 1. Flashover tests of insulator 2. Performance tests 3. Routine tests Lets have a discussion one by one,

Flashover Test There are mainly three types of flashover test performed on an insulator and these are, Power Frequency Dry Flashover test of Insulator 1. First the insulator to be tested is mounted in the manner in which it would be used practically. 2. Then terminals of variable power frequency voltage source are connected to the both electrodes of the insulator. 3. Now the power frequency voltage is applied and gradually increased up to the specified value. This specified value is below the minimum flashover voltage. 4. This voltage is maintained for one minute and observe that there should not be any flash-over or puncher occurred. The insulator must be capable of sustaining the specified minimum voltage for one minute without flash over.
Power Frequency Wet Flashover Test or Rain Test of Insulator

1. In this test also the insulator to be tested is mounted in the manner in which it would be used practically. 2. Then terminals of variable power frequency voltage source are connected to the both electrodes of the insulator. 3. After that the insulator is sprayed with water at an angle of 45o in such a manner that its precipitation should not be more 5.08 mm per minute. The resistance of the water used for spraying must be between 9 k 10 11 k per cm3 at normal atmospheric pressure and temperature. In this way we create artificial raining condition. 4. Now the power frequency voltage is applied and gradually increased up to the specified value.

5. This voltage is maintained for either one minute or 30 second as specified and observe that there should not be any flash-over or puncher occurred. The insulator must be capable of sustaining the specified minimum power frequency voltage for specified period without flash over in the said wet condition. Power Frequency Flashover Voltage test of Insulator 1. The insulator is kept in similar manner of previous test. 2. In this test the applied voltage is gradually increased in similar to that of previous tests. 3. But in that case the voltage when the surroundings air breaks down, is noted. Impulse Frequency Flashover Voltage test of Insulator The overhead outdoor insulator must be capable of sustaining high voltage surges caused by lightning etc. So this must be tested against the high voltage surges. 1. The insulator is kept in similar manner of previous test. 2. Then several hundred thousands Hz very high impulse voltage generator is connected to the insulator. 3. Such a voltage is applied to the insulator and the spark over voltage is noted. The ratio of this noted voltage to the voltage reading collected from power frequency flashover voltage test is known as impulse ratio of insulator.

This ratio should be approximately 1.4 for pin type insulator and 1.3 for suspension type insulators.

Performance Test of Insulator Now we will discuss performance test of insulator one by one Temperature Cycle Test of Insulator 1. The insulator is first heated in water at 70oC for one hour. 2. Then this insulator immediately cooled in water at 7oC for another one hour. 3. This cycle is repeated for three times. 4. After completion of these three temperature cycles, the insulator is dried and the glazing of insulator is thoroughly observed. After this test there should not be any damaged or deterioration in the glaze of the insulator surface. Puncture Voltage Test of Insulator 1. The insulator is first suspended in an insulating oil. 2. Then voltage of 1.3 times of flash over voltage, is applied to the insulator. A good insulator should not puncture under this condition. Porosity Test of Insulator 1. The insulator is first broken into pieces. 2. Then These broken pieces of insulator are immersed in a 0.5 % alcohol solution of fuchsine dye under pressure of about 140.7 kg cm2 for 24 hours. 3. After that the sample are removed and examine. The presence of a slight porosity in the material is indicated by a deep penetration of the dye into it. Mechanical Strength Test of Insulator 1. The insulator is applied by 2 times the maximum working strength for about one minute. The insulator must be capable of sustaining this much mechanical stress for one minute without any damage in it.

Routine Test of Insulator Each of the insulator must undergo the following routine test before they are recommended for using at site. Proof Load Test of Insulator In proof load test of insulator, a load of 20% in excess of specified maximum working load is applied for about one minute to each of the insulator. Corrosion Test of Insulator In corrosion test of insulator, 1. The insulator with its galvanized or steel fittings is suspended into a copper sulfate solution for one minute. 2. Then the insulator is removed from the solution and wiped, cleaned. 3. Again it is suspended into the copper sulfate solution for one minute. 4.The process is repeated for four times. Then it should be examined and there should not be any disposition of metal on it.