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Snazzlefrags Organizational Behavior DSST Study Notes

Contact: Hosted at: OrgBeh: How people behave in organizations, application of this knowledge. Key Elements: People, structure, technology, environment Human Nature: Each indiv 1) Unique 2) Total human 3) Guided by motivations 4) Has dignity. Organizations: 1)Social systems/govnd by social laws & indiv needs. 2)Have mutual interests. Individual -> Group -> Organizational....interrelated systems. History: Industrial Revolution. 1800s=some training/improved conditions. Taylor (Principles of Scientific Management 1911): Father of Scientific Management. Human factors influence technical efficiency. 1920-30s: Org=Social System AND workers are most important. Mayo/Roethlisberger (Hawthorne). 1948-1952: Formal study of OB began to develop. 1957 Douglas McGregor: Management=Theory X (autocratic), Theory Y (humanistic) Modern Organizational Theory: Organizations are systems of interrelated variables. Study of OB: Scientific Method: Observe, Explain, Predict/Hypothesis, Test Hyp, Draw Conclusions. Dependent Variable: The Effect - to be explained/predicted (affected by the independent variable) In OB: Productivity (effectiv/effic), Absenteeism, Turnover, Job Satisfaction (expected/actual rewards). Independent Variable: The Cause - changes in IV affects the DV. In OB: Age, gender, marital status. Also: Job Satisfaction can affect Absenteeism and Turnover. Research Designs: Observation, Survey, Field Study, Case Study, Field Exp, Laboratory Exp Management Functions - Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Controlling. Managerial Skills - (Katz) Technical (expertise), Interpersonal (human), Conceptual (probsolv). Managerial Roles - (Mintzberg) Informational, Interpersonal, Decisional. Informational - Monitor, Disseminator, Spokesperson. Interpersonal - Figurehead, Liaison, Leader. Decisional - Entrepreneur, Disturbance-handler, Resource-allocator, Negotiator. Behavioral/Human Relations - (Mayo & Roethlisberger) Hawthorne Studies. Bureaucracy - (Weber) Systems - (Chester Barnard) Inputs/transformations/outputs, everything affects everything else. Participative - (Drucker) Management by Objectives (MBO). Approaches: Trait, Behavioral, Contingency

Contingency - Best approach that fits the situation.... Tannenbaum & Schmidt: Boss-centered and Subordinate-centered Leadership. Fiedler: High LPC (relationships), Low LPC (task-oriented/Extremes)....fav/unfavorable situations. House: Path-Goal Theory - Supportive and Directive Leadership Scientific - (Gilbreth,Taylor,Gantt) (oldest approach) Most efficient way to do a job (Focus on BOTTOM). Studying, Selecting, Training, Dividing. Administrative/Classical - (Fayol) (Focusses on the TOP). Behavioral/Human Relations - (Mayo & Roethlisberger) Hawthorne Studies. Considerate & Production-centered. Bureaucracy - (Weber) Humanistic - Rogers. workers are driven by the need to realize their own potential. Systems - (Chester Barnard) Inputs/transformations/outputs, everything affects everything else. Participative - (Drucker) Management by Objectives (MBO). Barnard - SYSTEMS (open system) Gilbreth - SCIENTIFIC, "One Best Way", Science of Bricklaying. Taylor - SCIENTIFIC, "Father of Scientific Management". Gantt - SCIENTIFIC, Gantt Charts (scheduling). Fayol - CLASSICAL/ADMINISTRATIVE, "Father of Modern Management". 1st defined functions of management. Mayo & Roethlisberger - BEHAVIORAL/HUMAN RELATIONS, Hawthorne Studies. Rensis Likert - System 4 (Participative) Drucker - PARTICIPATIVE, 8 Key Results Areas, MBO 8 Key Results Areas - Drucker. 1. Market Share 2. Productivity (Output divided by Input) 3. Profitability 4. Innovation 5. Resources 6. Worker Performance 7. Manager Performance 8. Social Responsibility Performance Appraisal - Ranking, MBO, Graphic Rating Scales (traits). Human Asset Accounting - Appraisal of overal company morale etc. Individual Process & Characteristics: Perception: Select/Organize(categorize)/Interpret Stimuli. Then behave accordingly. Selective Attention: Selecting what we will attend to out of 1000s of competing stimuli. "speed read" Perceptual Organization: (infl by personal experience) Organizing/categorizing the stimulus. Social Perception: Perceiving other people. Influenced by: Person being Perceived, Situation, Perceiver Barriers: Stereotyping, Halo Effect, Implicit bias, Contrast(context), Selective Perception, Projection(self). Influences: Attitudes, motives, interests, past experience (new experiences), expectations, situation Attributional Approaches (perception/beh): Behavior is influenced by environment/personal characteristics.

Decisions as to cause influenced by: Distinctiveness, Consensus, Consistency. Eg, Late for work: Boss perceives laziness(internal), Boss perceives traffic accident (external) Fundamental Error: Underestimate external factors for others, overestimate internal factors for self. Your success = hard work, their success = luck.....Your late = car broke, their late = laziness. Internal Locus of Control (Rotter): We can influence outcome of events. External Locus of Control (Rotter): Outcomes are imposed by others (out of our control). Self-fulfilling Prophecy (Pygmalion Effect): Meeting the Low or High Expectations of others. Personality: Psychoanalytic, Trait, Humanistic, Social-cognitive. Personality: Characteristic way of thinking, feeling, behaving. Ability to adjust to environment. Heredity, Environment, Situation Type A: Competetive, Urgency, Achievement, Ambitious, Obtaining Material Wealth("stuff"). Personality-Job Fit (Holland): Vocational Pref Inventory (1600q) Social, Conventional(accnt), Realistic(physical), Investigative, Enterprising(lwyr,power), Artistic Psychoanalytic: Personality = conflict b/n pleasure-seeking impulses(id) and social restraint(ego). Trait (biological): Self-esteem, Self-monitoring Emot Stab <-> Emot Instab, Extro <-> Intro, Open <-> Rigid, Agree <-> Disagree, Conscientious <-> Careless. Myers-Briggs: (MBTI) 100q, 16 pers types. Extro/Intro,Sensing/Intuit, think/feel,perciev/judge 3-factor (Eysenck) Extrov/introv, Neurotic/Stable, Psychotic/self-control. 5-factor (Norman) Extrov,Neurotic(emot stab),Openness,Agreeableness,Conscientiousness. Externals (outside forces - less job sat, more absentee,alienated) Internals (control own destiny) Machiavellianism (High Mach): Pragmatic, Emotional Distance, Ends Justify Means (at all costs) Flourish in face-to-face interactions, and when minimal rules/regulations. Humanistic: Maslow: Hierarchy, Self-actualization. Rogers: Self-concept (agent/I, object/me) Social-cognitive: Personality influenced by interrelationship b/n people and situations. Perceptions of Cntrl. Learning: Change in ACTIONS/BEHAVIOR (not just thought/attitudes) via an experience. Classical Conditioning (Pavlov): Learn an unusual response to a stimulus. (Dogs: Bell = Food/Salivate)

Operant Conditioning (Skinner): "Consequences". Desired behavior = reward, or prevents punishment. Rewards (positive reinf) = Behavior increases. Remove reward (negative reinf) = Behavior declines. Social-learning: Observation/Direct Experience (Eg, observe reward or punishment as in OpCond) Shaping: Gradually Increase pos/neg reinforcement. 30min late, 20min late, 10min late, on time. Self-management: Observe own behavior, compare to others, reward self if meets standards. Continuous Reinforcement Schedule : Every time a behavior is demonstrated. Extinction if stopped. Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule: "Slot machine". Just enough to encourage continued behavior. Fixed-interval Reinforcement Schedule: Uniform time intervals (ie, payday). Variable-interval Reinforcement Schedule: "Pop quizzes", "Unannounced Inspections" Fixed-ratio Reinforcement Schedule: "Piece work"..more work = more reward. Variable-ratio Reinforcement Schedule: "Sales Commission" - Number of calls to close a sale varies. Attitudes: Evaluative statements. 3 Components: Cognition, Effect, Behavior (beliefs/feelings/intentions) Influenced by: Stimuli in the Environment - Family, Peer Groups, Society, Previous Jobs. Attitude Formation: Cultural Influences, Group Membership, Family, Prior Experience. Job Satisfaction: I like my job (expect). Job Involvement: Identifying with, caring about, valuing the work you do. Cognitive Dissonance: (Festinger - Cult study) Discomfort w/ discrepancy b/n what you knew, and new information. Self-perception Theory: Attitudes formed after the fact. "I had this job for 10yrs, so I must like it". Escalation of Commitment: Increase commitment to a wrong decision. "good money after bad". Can't admit mistake. Values: What ought and what ought not to be. Content = Whether important. Intensity = How important? Value Hierarchy: Rank values in intensity(importance). Freedom, pleasure, self-respect, honesty, obedience, equality. Allport's 6 Types of Values: Theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, political, religious. Rokeach Value Survey: 2 sets of values (18 items each). Terminal (lifetime goals) v. Instrumental (how to achieve). Motivation: Effort, Organizational Goals, Individual needs. [Process Theories and Content Theories] Rogers: (Humanistic) People are driven by the need to realize their own potential. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Lower/Ext<--- Physiological, Safety | Social, Esteem,

Self-actualization --->Higher/Int McGregor - Theory X, Theory Y. Book: "The Human Side of Enterprise" Theory X - Employees=Lazy/no responsibility/no ambition --> External Threats/Incentives/Formal Direction Theory Y - Employees=Workhard/creative/responsible/self directed. Maslow --> Internal Motivation/Involvement Herzberg - Two-factor Theory (motivator-hygiene) Satisfaction=intrinsic Factors, Dissatisfaction=Extrinsic. Hygiene: Remove dissatisfaction = placate/peace but NOT motivate. Policy,admin,supervis,wk conds,salary. Motivator: Emphasize achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, growth. Alderfer's ERG Theory: Yale, reworked Maslow Hierarchy (not as rigid). Existence, Relatedness, Growth (all same time) McClelland's Needs Theory: Personal Respsibility for solving probs, mod diff goals, desire for feedback, preocc w/ tasks. Achievement (nAch), Power (nPow), Affiliation (nAff - like Dale Carnegie..friendship over profit) McClelland Says: Managers don't have high need for ach (too task oriented) or aff (indecisive, avoid conflict). Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Extrinsic Rewards (salary) in place of Intrinsic (achievement, responsib) = Less Motivation. Goal-setting Theory: (process theory) Locke (1960s) Specific Goals/Difficult Goals/Feedback...lead to higher performance. Reinforcement Theory: Opposite of Goal-setting theory. "Consequences" = motivation/effort/productivity Self-efficacy: Indiv's belief that they are capable of performing a task. Low SE = Less Effort in difficult situations or neg feedback. High SE = More Effort in diff situations or neg feedback. Equity Theory: Worker compares own input/outcomes to other employees. Expectancy Theory: Vroom. Anticipation of Rewards = motivation. 3 Relationships: Eff-Perf, Perf-rew, rew-personal goals. Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence. Reward Systems: Management by Objectives (MBO): Drucker. Participative, set goals (tang/verif/measurbl), timeframe, regular feedback OB Modification: 5-steps: ID perf-related behavs, meas behavs, ID contingencies, Dev intervent strat, Eval improvement. QWL (Quality of Work Life - Japan) - Quality Circles - Participative Management. Diagnose and Solve Problems. TQM (Total Quality Management) - Improves Bureaucracies: Break through hierarchy, teamwork, listen to customers. ESOP: Employee Stock Ownership Plan Variable-pay: Piece-rate, wage incentives, profit sharing, bonuses, gain sharing (productivity). Not guaranteed! Skill-based Pay: Pay levels based on skillset determine salary instead of job title.

Common in ERG Theory. Stress: Opportunity, constraint, or demand for which perceived outcome = uncertain and important. Task Demands: Stress factors related to a person's job. Job Design, Wk Cond, Physical Wk layout. Role Demands: Stress factors related to a person's role. Role Conflict: Unable to reconcile and/or satisfy expectations of different roles. Role Overload: Not enough time to meet required goals. Role Ambiguity: Not sure what to do, unclear expectations. Groups: Security, status, self-esteem, affiliation, power, goal achievement. (norms, roles, cohesiveness) Formal: Command (manager + all subordinates), Task. Informal: Interest, Friendship. Five-stages: Forming (testing), Storming (conflict), Norming (cohesion), Performing, Adjourning. Punctuated-equilibrium Model: Long periods of intertia (half time), brief periods of revolutionary change. Sociometry (Moreno): Technique to study grp interaction. Survey/Qstnnaires - "Who you like and don't like" Social Loafing (Ringelmann): Indivs expend less effort collectively than if on their own. Groupthink: Tendency of indivs to agree with the decision of the majority...or remain silent. Groupshift: Shift in viewpoint of group...tends toward increased risk-taking. Brainstorming: Free discussion of all criticism allowed. Generates ideas, not decisions. Nominal Group Technique: Each indiv own ideas, presents to grp, no discussion til ALL, then rank ideas. Delphi Technique: Like Nominal, but uses questionnaires (doesn't have to be face-to-face) Electronic Meeting: Like Nominal, but grp sits at computers around a table and type for all to see (anonymous). Conflict: Requires awareness/perception of conflict. If unaware, no conflict exists. Accomodating: Put other's interests above own. Self-sacrificing. Lose-win. Competing: Seek to satisfy own interests regardless of impact on other. Win-lose Collaborating: Both parties seek satisfaction for ALL parties. Cooperative, amicable, mutually beneficial outcome. Win-win Compromising: Each is willing to give up something. No loser or winner. Human Relations View (1940-70s): Conflict is natural, inevitable. Accept some Conflict. May even benefit grp perf. Interactionist View: Conflict =positive force in any grp. Absolutely necessary for grp to perf effectively. Encrg some confl. Tradional View: (1930-40s) All conflict is harmful and must be avoided. Lack of communication, openness, trust. 5-stages of Conflict: 1) Potential 2) Actualization 3) Perceived Intentions 4) Actual Behavior 5) Outcome/Consequences. Negotiation: 1) Preparation/Strategy 2) Ground Rules 3) Clarify Demands 4)

Bargaining 5) Agreement Distributive Bargaining: Divide up a fixed amount of resources. Union-Management (pay). Win-lose. Integrative Bargaining: Compromise settlements. Both sides satisfied, both achieve victory. Win-win. Leadership: Leader. Followers. Situation. Trait = early theories Trait Theories: Personality/social/phys/intell traits of leaders. Ambition,Desire,honesty,integ,intell,self-conf, knowledge. Behavioral Theories: Behaviors of leaders. Leadership can be taught, learned. Ohio State University (1940s): Study to find "dimensions" of leaders. "Initiating Structure" vs. "Consideration". Initiating Structure: Leader attempts to organize work, relationships, and goals. Sets standards, policies etc. Consideration: Leader has concern for comfort, well-being, status, satisfaction of subordinates. Friendly,approachable. University of Michigan: "Employee-oriented" (interpersonal) vs. "Production-oriented" (task oriented). Managerial Grid: Blake & Moulton. 9x9 matrix (81 leadership styles). "concern for people" vs. "Concern for Production". Linking Pin Theory: Mngrs = leaders of one group and subordinates in another group. Ldrship wrks UP as well as DWN Fiedler Contingency: "Least Preferred Coworker". Match style with situation. Leader-member, task structure, position pwr. Cognitive Resource Theory (Fiedler - Cntngncy): 1987 Good ldr = Plans,Decisions,Strategies,Communicate thru Directive Beh. Situational Leadership Theory: (Contingency). Focus on followers willingness to Accept or Reject the leader. Leader-member Exchange Theory: Leaders establish special relationship with small group of their subordinates. In-group. Path-goal Theory: (expctncy theory) Leader assists/directs subords to achieve goals. Ldr Beh, Emply Characts,Env Pressures Leader-participation Theory: Set rules for participative decision-making in different situations/tasks. Attribution Theory: Leadership is an attribution made by others. Committed, steadfast, consistent, unwavering, determined. Power: Authority is given, Power is earned. Legitimate (Position). Reward. Coercive (Punish) Expert (Knwldge) Referent Power (Admiration/Charisma) [French/Raven] Power Tactics: Reason, Flattery, Support of others, Negot, Demand Compliance, Support of superiors, Rewards/Punishment. Politics: Attempt to use power to influence the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within an organization. Political Traits: Self-monitors, internal locus, high need for power = more likely to behave politically.

Organizational Factors: Declining profits, promotions up for grabs, low trust, role ambiguity, democratic, high pressure. Legitimate Political Behavior: Complain to supervisor, develop contacts, bypass CofCommand, form coalitions. Illegitimate Political Behavior: Extreme, violates implied rules of the game. Sabotage, whistle-blowing, symbolic protests. Impression Management: Eg, High self-monitors read situations and mold their appearance and behavior to fit. Communication: 4-functions: Control of behavior, Motivation, Emotional Expression, Information. Barriers: Distortion, Omission, Overload, Refusal to accept (ie, uncredible source) Communication Process (Source to Receiver): Encode to symbol: Affected by - Speaking/Writing Skills, attitudes, emotions, knowledge, social-cultural system. Message: Actual content. Speech, Letter, etc.. Channel: Formal channels (forms, CofCommand), Informal channels (email, chat, telephone, note). Decode the message: Affected by - Reading/Listening Skills. Interpreting the message. Feedback Loop: Determines whether understanding has been achieved (two-way communication). Non-verbal Communication: (Kinesics) Intonation, emphasis, facial expression, distance, posture, stance. Filtering: Sender manipulates information so it is seen more favorably by the receiver. Eg, what they want to hear. Styles: Assertive + Responsive. Hi-A/R=good. Hi-R/Lo-A=listeners, Lo-R/Hi-A=Autocrat. Lo-R/A=guarded,poor. Organizational Structure: How tasks are divided, grouped, co-ordinated. Key Elements: Work Specializ, Departmentaliz, CofComm, Span of Control, Central/Decentralization, Formalization Work Specializ/Division of Labor: Task = various steps by different specialized people. (Ford assembly line) Departmentalization: Function, type of product, geography, territory, target customer (retail/wholesale/govt etc.) Unity of Command: Only ONE superior to report to. Span of Control: Number of subordinates a manager can efficiently lead. Wide=cheaper. Too wide=bad (lack support). Formalization: Formalized Job=little discretion for worker. Job Description, rules, procedures, policies=High Formaliz. Simple Structure: (flat) Low departmentalization, wide span of control, centralized authority, little formalization. Smll Biz. Bureaucracy: Routine, specialized jobs, formalized, rules, regs, funct departmentlztion, centralized, narrow span. Matrix Structure: Dual CofCommand, functional and product departmentalization. No unity of command. Team Structure: Decentralized, no departmentalization. Team members must be

generalists and specialists. Boundaryless Org: (flat) No CofCommand, limitless spans of control, no vertical boundaries. Global, telecommute etc. Feminine Org (Rothschild): Humanistic, service to others, employee grwth, caring, pwr sharing. Functional Org: Separate groups perform functions, each report to a manager responsible for that function. Line and Staff Org: Staff departments advise & support actual production (line) departments. (external locus) Virtual Org: Small, core that outsources major business functions. High central, no departmnt, very flexible, cheap. Reengineering (Hammer): How things would be done if start from scratch. Out with the old, in with the new. Job Charecteristic Model (JCM): 5 dimensions: Skill variety, Task identity, Task significance, Autonomy, Feedback. Job Rotation: Same level, similar skill reqs. Reduces boredom, increases motivation. Flexible workforce (multi-trained). Job Enrichment: Vertical expansion of job. More responsibility (cook gets management responsibilities as well). Job Enlargement: Horizontal expansion of job (same level). More task variety (dishwasher + waiter) Organizational Design: Classical: Work divided by function, level of responsibility (scalar process), level of authority. Work assigned by delegation. Highly specialized (greater productivity). Tall Org: Small Spn of Cntrl (few emplys to mngr). Many hierarchical levels. Close mngmnt control. Vert Comm (chain). Flat Org: Wide Spn of Cntrl. Few levels. Less mngmnt control (internal locus). Less stress, satisfied, better productivity Contingency (modern): Flexible. Changes with environment/situation. Mechanistic Org: Centralized, Task specialization, vertical lines of communic. Rules/Policy. Less flexible. Good for stable. Organic Org: Decentralized. Task interdependence, horizontal lines of communic. More flexible. Open to environment. Decision Making: Herbert Simon - 3 Phases of Decision-Making = Intelligence (recognize prob), Design (alts), Choice (select). - Administrative Man (satisficing) Economic Man (optimizing). Bounded Rationality Model: (heuristics) People try to find best solution, but settle for less. See "Satisficing" Econological Model: People are rational/orderly. Shows how decis should be made. But not how actually made. Implicit Favorite Model: Decisionmaker selects a preferred alt, bias evaluation of all other alts. (simplify process)

Intuitive Model: Unconscious process based on distilled experience. Use when: Uncertain/Unpredict, no precedent. Optimizing Model: Recog Need, ID criteria, allocate weight to criteria, develop alts, evaluate alts, select best alt. Rational Model: Objective, logical, clear goal....then utilize 6-step Optimizing Model. Satisficing Model: (heuristics=mental shortcuts) Choose first solution that is "good enough" satisfactory/sufficient. Utilitarian Model: "Consequences". Greatest good for greatest number. Most common method in business. Change: Management initiates..but origin is ENVIRONMENT (ie, reaction to environment). 3-Step Change Model (Lewin): Unfreeze status quo. Move to new state. Refreeze status quo. Action Research: Diagnose (what changes needed), Analyze, Sharing (involve employees), Take action, Evaluate. Group Development: Change attit/stereo/percep of other grps. Problem-solving, discussion, communicate differences. Organizational Development (OD): Planned/collab changes. OpSys. Humanistic/democratic values. Emplyee well-being. Time Consuming, must be supported by top mngmnt. Managerial grid, Systems 1-4, 3D Mngmnt, Sociotechnical. Process Consultation: ID processes req improvement (work flow, relationships, communication). Guide...not solve. Resistance to Change: Logical (reasoning), Psychological (emotion/attitudes), Sociological (group interests & values) Structural Inertia: Counterbalance to organizational change. Employee selection, training, socialization, roles, skills. Team Building: High interaction grp activities. Trust/openness. Goal set, interpers, role analysis, team process analysis.