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Mechanical Tests
Tensile Test
Hardness Test
Impact Test
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TENSILE TEST
TENSILE TEST
Main pourpose: to investigate the behaviour of a metallic material
under an uniaxial tensile stress
F F
The test must be carried out with a standard specimen.
During the test we can record and plot the values of force and elongation of
the sample so obtaining the so called Tensile Tensile curve curve. . Analizing these Analizing these data data its its
possible to calculate parameters very important for possible to calculate parameters very important for the the designer. designer.
During the test a force is applied along the main axis of the sample, pulling it
until fracture.
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Standards
Standards
UNI EN 10002 Metallic Materials - Tensile test
Section 1: test at room temperature
Section 5: test at high temperature
UNI 8899-1 Mechanical test for non ferrous materials (Al, Mg)
ASTM E 8 - 00b Standard test methods for tension testing of metallic materials
ISO 6892 Metallic materials - Tensile test at room temperature
ISO 783 Metallic materials - Tensile test at high temperature
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Fixed Crosshead
Load Cell
Grippers
Controller
Moving Crosshead
Tensile Machine
Tensile Machine
Sample -
Extensometer
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Proportional
Proportional
sample
sample
:
:
THE SAMPLE (1)
THE SAMPLE (1)
0 0
S k L =
For proportional samples with
For proportional samples with
round
round
section
section
:
:
K = 5.65
K = 5.65
short
short
K = 11.3
K = 11.3
normal
normal
0 0 0
5d S k L = =
0 0 0
10d S k L = =
Threaded head
Zone with uniform cylindrical section
Fillet
L L
t t
= = total length total length
L L
c c
= = length of the cylindrical tract length of the cylindrical tract
L L
o o
= = useful tract length useful tract length
L L
e e
= = reference length of the extensometer reference length of the extensometer
Le
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For
For
square
square
section
section
proportional
proportional
samples
samples
:
:
K = 5.65
K = 5.65
short
short
K = 11.3
K = 11.3
normal
normal
Proportional
Proportional
Sample
Sample
:
:
0 0
S k L =
a
Le
THE SAMPLE (2)
THE SAMPLE (2)
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0
S
F
=
Inside the useful tract we have an uniform value of the stress on the
whole section.
F F
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[

[
N
/
m
m
2
]
[%]
TENSILE CURVE
TENSILE CURVE
[ ]
2
0
/ mm N
S
F
=
(

=
mm
mm
L
L L
L
L
0
0
0

stress stress
Engineering strain Engineering strain
l [mm]
[
F

[
N
]
From the
Load Cell
From the
extensometer
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Elastic field - small deformations
Plastic field - large deformations
Plastic Field - Necking
[%]

[
N
/
m
m
2
]
TENSILE CURVE
TENSILE CURVE
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In this zone the tensile curve can be
approximated by a line:
I. Elastic Field
= E
Hooke Law
E = Young Modulus
[%]

[
N
/
m
m
2
]

E
The Young Modulus is very important for the designer, because it allows to calculate,
inside the elastic field, the deformation of a structure under some loads.
The Young Modulus depends on temperature:
E [Mpa] 20C 200C 400C
Acciaio al carbonio 207000 186000 155000
Acciaio inox 193000 176000 159000
Leghe di alluminio 72000 66000 54000
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Elastic Deformation
Elastic Deformation
If the forces on a metallic body cause stresses lower than
e
, the lattice can deform,
but the energy is not enough for a permanent deformation; when the applied forces
are removed the deformation come back to zero.
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II. Plastic Field - High deformations
[%]

[
N
/
m
m
2
]
During the plastic deformation two phenomena are important:
The resistant Area decreases and so the force would tend to decrease too (its like to pull
a smaller sample)
During the deformation the Strain-Hardening occurs: the material becomes stronger and
this makes the force increase
In this step the effect of the strain-hardening is strong and so the force increases
Increasing the stress, deformations tend to
became greater and greater
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s
Between small and high deformations we can identify an
important load value: the Yield Stress
s
R
eH R
eL
This zone of the tensile curve can have different shapes
Rp
0.2
0.2%
Alloyed Steels
Plain Carbon Steels
(%C<0.25)
II. Plastic Field - High deformations
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III. Plastic Field - Necking
This time the section reduction is the main phenomenon and so the force decreases until
the final rupture.
After the maximum load the deformations
concentrate in a small region and so the
area decrease quite fastly. This
phenomenon is called Necking. The state
of stress is no more uniaxial
[%]

[
N
/
m
m
2
]
Rm
R
m
(o
m
) is called Upper Upper Tensile Tensile Stress Stress. This value, as the yield stress, is referred to
the initial area of the sample section
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SUMMARY: TENSILE TEST RESULTS
SUMMARY: TENSILE TEST RESULTS
Young Modulus:
UTS:

[
N
/
m
m
2
]
[%]

[
N
/
m
m
2
]
[%]
Yield Stress:
[ ]
2
0
/ mm N
S
F
R
S
S s
= =
[ ]
2
0
/ mm N
S
F
R
m
r m
= =
( )
[ ]
2
0
0
0
/ mm N
L L
L
S
F
E

= =

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Percentage elongation at fracture:
dove:
L
u
= length of the useful tract after fracture
L
0
= initial length of the useful tract
A% depend on the relations between the geometrical dimensions of the sample; its
necessary to indicate some of these relations: ex. A
11.3
; A
5.65
; A
80mm
. Its possible to
compare elongations only if the samples have the same ratio L
0
/d
0
100
) (
%
0
0

=
L
L L
A
u
Percentage Necking Coefficient:
S
0
= initial value of the area
S
u
= final value of the area
100
) (
%
0

=
S
S S
Z
u o
SUMMARY: TENSILE TEST RESULTS
SUMMARY: TENSILE TEST RESULTS
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g

s
A
g
= elongation at maximum load

s
= permanent deformation due to
necking
A = elongation after fracture
Area under the stress-strain curve: it represents the work
necessary for sample fracture ([mJ/mm
3
])

SUMMARY: TENSILE TEST RESULTS


SUMMARY: TENSILE TEST RESULTS
Work before necking; sample shape
is uniformly cylindrical
Work after necking; the
deformation concentrates in
a small region
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[
N
/
m
m
2
]
, [%]
TRUE STRESS
TRUE STRESS
-
-
TRUE STRAIN CURVE
TRUE STRAIN CURVE
ist
S
F
=
*

Engineering Curve
True curve
If I referred the deformations
to the istantaneous values of
length (L
ist
) and area (S
ist
) of
the sample, I woul find the
true stress and the true strain.
Plotting these data I can find
the true tensile curve; the
stress continously increases
because its referred to the
istantaneous area.
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
0
*
ln
L
L
ist

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From the yield stress till the maximum load, the true tensile curve can be fitted by the
following equation * = K *
n
where: K = strength coefficient e n = strain-
hardening coefficient (for steels usually 0.1< n < 0.3). In a bilogarithmic plot, this
expression can be written as : ln(*)=ln(K)+n ln(*).
Using the volume constancy principle during plastic deformation, its possible to
relate engineering stress and strain with the true ones.
* = ln (+1) * = (+1)
ln *
ln *
ln(K)

n=tg()
n represents the true strain
at necking
TRUE STRESS
TRUE STRESS
-
-
TRUE STRAIN CURVE
TRUE STRAIN CURVE
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The hardness tests are based on the resistance to the indentation of a
material; hardness tests are always carried out using an indenter with
different shapes.
Brinell Hardness (UNI EN ISO 6506)
Vickers Hardness (UNI EN ISO 6507)
Rockwell Hardness (UNI EN ISO 6508)
HARDNESS TESTS
HARDNESS TESTS
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BRINELL HARDNESS
BRINELL HARDNESS
P
The
The
Brinell
Brinell
Hardness
Hardness
is
is
proportional
proportional
to
to
the
the
ratio
ratio
between
between
the
the
applied
applied
load
load
and
and
the
the
imprint
imprint
area.
area.
( )
2 2
2
d D D D
P
HB

=

P [kg]: applied load


D [mm]: sphere diameter
d [mm]: imprint diameter
( )
2 2
2
102 . 0
d D D D
P
HB

=

If P is given in [N]
Sample
Test
Indenter Imprint shape
Sphere of steel
or tungsten
carbid
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The test must be carried out on a flat quite clean surface
The test needs an optical measurement and so the sample must be
polished enough
In order to have meaningful results, the sphere diameter must be as higher
as possible, consistently with the load and sample thickness (t > = 8h)
P
D
From 4 to 6 d
d
h
> than 3 d
> than 8 h
The load must be
applied for 10 - 15 s
Its possible to perform different hardness tests on the same surface, but
its important to pay attention to the distance between two imprints and to
the distance of an imprint and the sample boundary.
BRINELL HARDNESS
BRINELL HARDNESS
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When we choose the sphere diameter, the applied load is automatically determined
Its important that the imprinting angle is about 136. This allows to have a similitude
condition between different tests. This condition is verified if we use the right value of P/D
2

P/D
2
=
BRINELL HARDNESS
BRINELL HARDNESS

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To choose a sphere diameter
To find the right load value using the previous table
To perform the test
To measure the imprint diameter (d) and to verify that d/D =
(cos /2) = 0.25 - 0.50
The test is not valid if HB>650 because the hardnesses of the sample and of the
sphere are too close
Its possible to estimate the UTS according to the following equation R
m
= c*HB
where c= 3.3 for quench and tempered steels
BRINELL HARDNESS
BRINELL HARDNESS
-
-
Procedure
Procedure
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VICKERS HARDNESS
VICKERS HARDNESS
P
2
854 . 1
d
P
HV =
P [kg]: applied load
d [mm]: imprint diagonal
The
The
Vickers
Vickers
Hardness
Hardness
is
is
proportional
proportional
to
to
the
the
ratio
ratio
between
between
the
the
applied
applied
load
load
and
and
the
the
imprint
imprint
area
area
2
1891 . 0
d
P
HV = If P is given in [N]
Test Indenter Imprint shape
Diamond pyramid
with vertex angle
equal to 136
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Diamonds allows to perform test even on very hard materials
Its possible to use very low loads in order to perform a
microhardness test
Its necessary to take more care in the finishing, above all for
microhardness tests
Brinell and Vickers hardness teoretically have the same value
untill 500HB, if the Brinell hardness imprint satisfies the rule of
=136
There arent any limits on the applied load (except the one given
from the test machine), being the similitude condition automatically
verified (the indenter angle is 136)
The lowest distance between two imprints is 4 x d, while the
minimum distance from sample boundary is 3 x d
Sample thickness must be >1.5 x d
VICKERS HARDNESS
VICKERS HARDNESS
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ROCKWELL HARDNESS
ROCKWELL HARDNESS
According to this scale, the hardness value has not a physical meaning; its
evaluated from the indenter sinking under a certain load
Procedure:
the indenter must touch the sample surface and the machine applies a pre-load Fo
(10 kg);
the comparatore (used for measuring the sinking) must be set to zero;
the test load F
1
is applied (It is different according to the kind of test - In this way
the total applied load is F
o
+ F
1
);
after 10s F
1
must be removed and its possible to measure the sinking;
hardness value can be calculated as:
N=100 for Rockwell A, C, D
N=130 for Rockwell B, E, F, G, H, K
S
h
N HR =
h: sinking[mm]
S: [0.002 mm]
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002 . 0
100
h
HR =
002 . 0
130
h
HR =
Different kind of Rockwell scales exist:
Pre-load: 10kg
ROCKWELL HARDNESS
ROCKWELL HARDNESS
Scale
Load
Diamond
Cone
Steel
sphere
Steel
sphere
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Very fast
Itnot necessary to measure the imprint and so a good finishing is
not requested
The Rockwell hardness cannot be related to Brinell and
Hardness ones except with empirical tables
Rockwell scales A, C, D are suitable for very hard materials; Rockwell C is not
suggested for very very hard materials because the diamond could damage
If the hardness decreases under 20 HRC its suggested to use HRB.
Lowest distance between two imprints : 4 x d
Lowest distance between one imprint and the boundary: 2.5 x d
Minimun sample thickness : 10 x h (sphere) or 15 x h (cone)
Advantages
Disadvantages
ROCKWELL HARDNESS
ROCKWELL HARDNESS
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Pre-load: 3Kg Superficial Superficial ROCKWELL ROCKWELL hardness hardness
001 . 0
100
h
HR =
ROCKWELL HARDNESS
ROCKWELL HARDNESS
Scale
Load
Diamond
Cone
Steel
sphere
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IMPACT TEST
IMPACT TEST
-
-
Resilience
Resilience
Test
Test
Resilience: its a measure of the material resistance to an impact
It can be evaluated measuring the work ([J]) spent to break a notched sample under
an Impact Machine (Charpy Pendolum).
Standard: UNI - EN 10045
High absorbed energy high high resilience resilience high deformation (tough fracture)
Low absorbed energy Low resilience Low resilience low deformation (brittle fracture)
Tensile and hardness tests are not enough to investigate the behaviour of a material
2 materials can have the same tensile behaviour, but completely different results if
submitted to an impact test
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Mesnager
Charpy U-notched
Izod
Mesnager
Samples
Charpy V-notched
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Charpy pendolum
Charpy pendolum
Main features:
Maximun Energy = 300 J
Distance between supports: 40 mm
Hammer speed at impact: 5 - 7 m/s
TEST MACHINE
TEST MACHINE
After the pendolum
broke tha sample, its
movement go on on the
other side of the
machine until a certain
height; this height is
related to its residual
energy. The difference
between the initial
height and the height
after fracture gives the
energy absorbed by the
sample.
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The results of this test depend on the proof conditions and on sample shape. In
particular they depend on:
Test temperature
load application speed
sample geometry and dimensions
sample machining
Some general information about Impact Test
Nevertheless this test is widely used because its fast, easy and give an idea of
material toughness.
Varying the tese temperature its possible to find the so called TRANSITION
TEMPERATURE.
Its defined as the test temperature at which a great variation of K (resilience
[J]) -T curve slope appears; the TT divides the zone where brittle fractures
occur from the zone where the material is ductile.
Not all the materials have a transition temperature. Some of them may be
ductile even at very low temperature
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Influence of test condition:
Here you can see a resiliece curve varying the sample geometrical dimensions
a
b
b/a
K

[
J
]
1.4 1.8 2
1
Ductile fracture
Brittle fracture
Scattering zone
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KCU
KV
[C]
K

[
J
]
0 20 -20
Transition
scattering
Transition
Temperature
Influence of test condition:
Here you can see a resiliece curve varying the temperature and the sample shape (two
different notches: U-notch (KCU) and V-notch (KV))