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AP Biology Test Corrections 2. a: hydrolysis: incorrect. There is no water involved. b: exergonic reaction: correct. Energy is a product.

c: endothermic reaction: incorrect. Energy is a reactant. d: catabolism: incorrect. This has multiple reactants. e: endergonic reaction: incorrect. Energy is a reactant. 4. a: lactic acid formation: correct. This is not lactic acid fermentation. b: oxidative phosphorylation: incorrect. This produces 32 to 34 ATP. c: glycolysis: incorrect. This produces 2 ATP. d: Krebs Cycle: incorrect. This produces 1 ATP per pyruvate. e: A and B: incorrect. A is not correct.

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8. a: non polar covalent bond: incorrect. This is an equal sharing of electrons. b: polar covalent bond: correct. This is an unequal sharing of electrons caused by an element being more electronegative. c: ionic bond: incorrect. This does not share electrons. It is a result of the stealing of electrons. d: hydrogen bond: incorrect. This is the slight attraction between H and C, N, O, or F. e: hydrophobic interaction: incorrect: This is where hydrophobic side chains of amino acids end up clustered at the core of a protein. 11. a: 6.02 x 1023 molecules of the substance: incorrect. This may be true, but it is not the only answer. b: 1 g of the substance dissolved in 1 L of solution: incorrect. c: the largest amount of the substance that can be dissolved in 1 L of solution: incorrect. d: the molecular mass of the substance expressed in grams: incorrect. This is true, but it is not the only answer. e: A and D only: correct. This encompasses the two correct answers (6.02 x 1023 = 1 mol and every element has a molecular mass that is in grams per mole. 12. a: 5 times more: incorrect. Five times more would still be close to a pH of 9. b: 100 times more: incorrect. This would be a pH of 7. c: 1,000 times more: incorrect. This would be a pH of 6. d: 10,000 times more: incorrect. This would be a pH of 5. e: 100,000 time more: correct. A pH of 4 has 10-4 H+ and the pH of 9 has 10-9 H+. This a difference of 100,000 times. 24. a: are synthesized from monomers by the process of hydrolysis: incorrect. Hydrolysis breaks apart compounds. b: are synthesized from monomers by dehydration reaction: correct. Glucose is combined with fructose via dehydration to form sucrose. Fat molecules are formed by the dehydration of glycerols and fatty acids. Proteins are formed by the dehydration of amino

AP Biology

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acids to form peptide bonds. c: are synthesized as a result of peptide bond formation between monomers: incorrect. Only proteins are formed with peptide bonds. d: are decomposed into their subunits by dehydration reactions: incorrect. Dehydration puts molecules together. e: all contain nitrogen in their monomer building blocks: incorrect. Lipids are mostly made of hydrocarbons, some with oxygen as well. 26. a: the primary structure of the protein would be changed: incorrect. Not the only correct answer. b: the tertiary structure of the protein might be changed: incorrect. Not the only correct answer. c: the biological activity or function of the protein might be altered: incorrect. Not the only correct answer. d: Only A and C are correct: incorrect. Not the only correct answer. e: A, B, and C are correct: correct. The primary structure is just the sequence of amino acids. This would obviously be changed. The secondary structure of the protein will be changed due to the change in the peptide bonds. Finally, the activity or function would be changed because the shape has been changed and shape is everything. 27. a: tertiary protein: incorrect. Tertiary is only a level of protein. b: chaperonin: correct. Protein molecule that assists in the proper folding of proteins. c: enzyme protein: incorrect. These do not exist. d: renaturing protein: incorrect. There is only a renatured protein, not a renaturing protein. e: denaturing protein: incorrect. There is only a denatured protein, not a denaturing protein. 35. a: endergonic: incorrect. Energy is not being absorbed. b: exergonic: correct. Energy is being absorbed c: anabolic: incorrect. This is endergonic. d: allosteric: incorrect. This is endergonic. e: nonspontaneous: incorrect. Since the reaction is endergonic then it is spontaneous. 39. a: substrate level phosphorylation: correct. ATP is generated by the phosphorylation of ADP b: electron transport: incorrect. This occurs after glycolysis. c: photophosphorylation: incorrect. This occurs in photosynthesis d: chemiosmosis: incorrect. This is what occurs in the electron transport chain. e: oxidation of NADH to NAD+: incorrect. This occurs during the ETC. 41. a: energy released as electrons flow through the electron transport system: incorrect. This attracts the H+ ions. b: energy released from substrate-level phosphorylation: incorrect. These are separate processes.

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c: energy released from ATP synthase pumping hydrogen ions against their concentration gradient: incorrect. ATP synthase uses energy. d: energy released from movement of protons through ATP synthase: correct. H+ is pumped forming a gradient. e: No external source of energy is required because the reaction is exergonic: incorrect. Energy is require to phosphorylate. 45. a: reduce NAD+ to NADH: incorrect. Fermentation replenishes NAD+, not take it away. b: reduce FAD+ to FADH2: incorrect. This is not included in fermentation. c: oxidize NADH to NAD+: correct. Fermentation replenishes NAD+. d: reduce FADH2 to FAD+: incorrect. This is not included in fermentation. e: none of the above: incorrect. C is correct. 50. a: oxygen is produced: incorrect. Oxygen is a product. b: NADP+ is reduced to NADPH: incorrect: incorrect. NADPH is a product. c: carbon dioxide is incorporated into PGA: incorrect. Carbon dioxide is incorporated into PGA d: ADP is phosphorylated to yield ATP: incorrect. ATP is a product. e: light is absorbed and funneled to the reaction-center chlorophyll a: correct. 52. a: ATP: correct. The cyclic flow only produces ATP b: NADPH: incorrect. There is no production of NADPH in cyclic electron flow. c: glucose: incorrect. This is produced in the Calvin Cycle. d: A and B: incorrect. B is not correct. e: A, B, and C: incorrect. B and C are not correct. 53. a: the splitting of water: incorrect. This occurs at the end of the process. b: the absorption of light energy by chlorophyll: incorrect. This is not along the outside of the cell. c: the flow of electrons from photosystem II to photosystem I: incorrect. The electrons will still be able to jump through the ETC. d: the synthesis of ATP: correct. A puncture would cause the H+ to flow straight through ATP synthase e: the reduction of NADP+: incorrect. This is not a part of the flow of H+. 54. a: establishment of a proton gradient: correct. This is created by pumping H+ b: diffusion of electrons through the thylakoid membrane: incorrect. c: reduction of water to produce ATP energy: incorrect. Water is not reduced d: movement of water by osmosis into the thylakoid space from the stroma: incorrect. e: formation of glucose, using carbon dioxide, NADPH, and ATP: incorrect. 58. a: A: incorrect. Three-carbon sugars are not produced. b: B: correct. The Calvin Cycle produces G3P

AP Biology c: C: incorrect. A is incorrect. d: D: incorrect. B is correct. e: E: incorrect. This is a part of photosynthesis.

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59. f. What would happen if you boiled the enzyme for 10 minutes before you did the experiment? The enzyme would have been denatured by the extreme heat. Heat denatures enzymes.