Anda di halaman 1dari 2

INTRODUCTION

WHAT IS GEOLOGY? Geology is the science that examines the Earth, its form and composition, and the changes that it has undergone and is undergoing. It is the key to finding new sources of energy-producing materials, additional reserves of mineral resources, and hidden quantities of ground water. PHYSICAL GEOLOGY examines the materials of the Earth and seeks to understand the processes and forces acting beneath and upon its surface.
astrogeology/planetary geology: surface conditions on the moon and other planets using knowledge of the Earth's geology crystallography: crystals forming minerals economic geology: exploration and recovery of natural resources, such as ores and petroleum (e.g. petroleum geology, mining geology, hydrogeology) engineering geology: interactions of the earth's crust with human-made structures such as tunnels, mines, dams, bridges, and building foundations environmental geology: environmental impact assessment; problems with pollution and urban development and to guard against hazards such as flooding and erosion geochemistry: chemical composition of earth materials and the chemical changes that occur within the earth and on its surface geodesy: earths size and shape geomorphology: origin of landforms and their modification by dynamic processes geophysics: behavior of rock materials in response to stresses and according to the principles of physics marine geology: the oceans, continental margins, and coastal environments mineralogy: chemical composition and structure of minerals petrology/petrography: composition and origin of rocks sedimentology erosion and deposition of rock particles by wind, water, or ice seismology: earthquakes speleology: caves structural geology: forces that deform the earth's rocks and the description and mapping of deformed rock bodies tectonics: dynamics of moving plates volcanology: geologic phenomena associated with volcanic activity

HISTORICAL GEOLOGY deals with the origin of the Earth and its development through time. Usually involves the study of fossils and their sequence in rock beds. - strives to establish an orderly chronological arrangement of the multitude of physical and biological changes that have occurred in the geologic past.
geochronology: rate of decay of certain radioactive elements to determine the age of certain rocks paleontology: fossils stratigraphy: investigates the thickness, shape and the distribution of layered rocks in addition to their mineral and fossil content.
ntr / geology 11 / june 2003

INTRODUCTION

CATASTROPHISM - introduced by Cuvier - the Earths landscapes were shaped by catastrophic events of a short-term nature; earth is relatively young, ~6000 years old! THE BIRTH OF MODERN GEOLOGY UNIFORMITARIANISM - introduced by James Hutton in his book Theory of the Earth - the physical, chemical, and biological processes that have shaped the Earth in the geologic past are essentially the same as those operating today - THE PRESENT IS THE KEY TO THE PAST

Charles Lyell, Principles of Geology

ntr / geology 11 / june 2003