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BE/MECH/GM-1232

A PROJECT REPORTIFF1749565 and Password:54669094 ON DESIGN AND TESTING OF SUBMERSIBLE PUMP Submitted by PRAJAPATI CHIRAG.A (090160119081) MERUTHA JATIN.R (090160119080) MISTRI AJIT.C (090160119097) RAHEVAR SACHIN.S (090164119402) In fulfillment for the award of the degree of BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING in MECHANICAL GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE MODASA Gujarat Technological University, Ahmadabad

Government Engineering College Modasa Mechanical Engineering Department 2012-2013


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CERTIFICATE TO WHOMSOEVER IT MAY CONCERN This is to certify that Mr. PRAJAPATI CHIRAG AMRUT BHAI(090160119081),MERUTHA BHAI(090160119080), BHAI(090160119097), MISTRI JATIN AJIT RAMESH CHANDU SACHIN

RAHEVAR

SAMARSINH(090164119402) of B.E. (Mech.) Semester VIII has satisfactorily completed his8th semester project work titled DESIGN AND TESTING OF SUBMERSIBLE PUMP in fulfillment of Degree of Bachelor of Engineering from Government Engineering College, MODASA under Gujarat Technological University in the year 2012-13. Date of Submission: (18 /04 /2013) Project Guide Prof. Dr P.K.BRAHMBHATT K.P.TRIVEDI MECHANICAL Dept, Dept, Head of Department Prof. HOD MECH
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GEC, MODASA.

GEC, MODASA.

BE/MECH/GM-1232

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We are the students of Government Engineering College Modasa,we has take industrial training in duke Plasto technique pvt.ltd at badarpura nearby palanpur. when a good thing comes to end, memories are left behind, in this regard, I am thankful to respected chairman Prabhubhai Patel, Managing director P.P.Patel, Marketing Manager S.N.Patel and purchase director R.P.Patel for giving us this wonderful opportunity to a project in a organization, we are highly obliged to Duke Plasto technique pvt.ltd. Where we have done our summer training.weare thankful to R.M.Patel (HR Manager) for giving us permission for doing summer training. We are also thankful to Mr.P.K.Brahmbhatt for supporting us throughout the entire project.

BE/MECH/GM-1232

ABSTRACT

With teaching our knowledge become good, training is developing our habit.It assures that technical studies cannot perform adroit without practical training. Hence the practical training is exorbitant for Engineering student. The actual objective of plant training is to get all detail about organization and main enhance about all operation and process, which are carried out practical knowledge. Its inviting feature is to learn industrial management and discipline. In this report of training we include all the details related to our project as well as company.In this report we have include pump detail and tried to acquire knowledge about submersible pump. Efforts are put up to design of submersible pump. A various testing of submersible pump has been carried out at DUKE PLASTO PVT LTD. Performance of the submersible pump has been measured critically.

BE/MECH/GM-1232

List of figure
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S.R.NO NAME OF THE FIGURE 2.1.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4 2.5.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 Detail drawing of submersible pump Parts of the pump Spare parts of motor V-3 special submersible pump V-4 submersible pump V-6 submersible pump DSP5MF Installation of submersible pump closed impeller semi open type impeller open type impeller

PAGENO 15 17 20 22 24 26 29 32 36 38 38 52 62

4.11.1 impeller 5.2.1 Characteristics curve of pump

BE/MECH/GM-1232

List of table

S.R.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

TABLE V-3 special submersible pump V-4 special submersible pump V-6 special submersible pump Material for construction Characteristics of two phase three Pole motor Motor Testing table Full load test Temperature rise test at rated Voltage High voltage Test

PAGE NO 23 25 27 33 34

57 58 58 59

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CONTENTS S.r.No. Particulars Acknowledgement Abstract Page No. 3 4


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List of figure TITLE OF CHAPTER 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2 Chapter Introduction Problems occur with submersible pump What are the submersible pump Why shaft break Chapter Brief history of work 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 3 3.1 Description of submersible pump Main components of pump Definition and brief Types of submersible pump andTheir specification How to remove submersible pump Material of construction Chapter Impeller are used in submersible pump Radial Flow Solids Handling Impellers 4 Chapter Design of Submersible pump 4.1 Design Parameter 15

10 11 12 13

16 18 21

30 33

36

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4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 5 5 5.1. 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.2 6 6.1 7

Properties of water for which submersible pump is to be used Voltage and frequency selection Cavitation phenomenon of pump Net positive suction head (NPSH) Work done by impeller on water Pump shaft design Shaft subjected to twisting moment Shaft subjected to bending moment To achieve diameter of the shaft Pressure head development by pump impeller Chapter Testing of Submersible pump Motor Testing on submersible pump Full load test Temperature rise test at rated Voltage High voltage Test Performance test Chapter Result analysis Chapter

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43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51

55 56 58 58 59 60

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7.1 8

Conclusion Reference

66 67

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(1) INTRODUCTION

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1.1Introduction

This project attempts to design submersible pump and humble efforts are made to Testing of submersible pump. Now a days most of organization is showing keen interest in using submersible pump. The study about all operation and process, which are carry out in practical knowledge. Its inviting feature is to learn industrial management & discipline. In this report I include types of pump they manufactured, its application, analysis and design. A properly installed check valve will prevent a backspin with is when the pump begins moving in reverse direction. This put a undo strain on mechanism. This prevents an up thrust or leaking back into the well without check valve, the reversal movement of water can cause hammering effect
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putting pressure on pipes and resulting in damaged plumbing. In submersible pump all horse power ratings are within the service limits of motor and pump can be operated continuously without fear of damage to motor bearing with sand channel all bearing are water lubricated and have a squared shape enabling sand particles if any to leave pump together with pumped liquid.

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1.2

Problems occur with submersible pump are as follow

1.Pump takes too much power. Mechanical friction. Misalignment. Low voltage. High specific gravity. 2.Less discharge. Motor is running in reverse direction. Gas in water. Inadequate water level

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1.3

What are the submersible pump ?

A submersible pump is one of the type of centrifugal pump that is designed to function the pump and motor submerged in the fluid to be pumped. The Motor is sealed in the way that prevents even tiny amount of the fluid from seeping in which would case the motor to short out. The main advantage of submersible pump is that there is no motor above grade so floor space is better utilization and the cost of the installation may be reduced. They also tend to have lower maintenance cost and create less noise than pump which has motor mounted at the grid.There is no cancer for priming this type of submersible pump and less cancer about cavitations, since the impeller and casing are always submerged and there is no suction pipe within it.

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1.4

Why shafts break?

The most prominent reasons for failure of shaft are they are twisted and they are bend. Another reason for breakdown of shaft is excessively worn out. The information for salvation is given below. 1. Calculate the diameter of the shaft required carrying maximum horsepower that any particular
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submersible pump could draw; this can be done by adding factor of safety. 2. Bend the shaft until it breaks though not any pump we have ever seen in any pump. 3. Shaft can wear out. This is the cause of the vast majority of submersible pump shaft breakage.

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(2)

LITERATURE SURVEY

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Brief history of work 2. 1Description A submersible pump is a turbine pump close coupled to a submersible electric motor. Both pump and motor are suspended in the water, thereby eliminating the long drive shaft and bearing retainers required for a deep well turbine pump. Because the pump is located above the motor, water enters the pump through a screen located between the pump and motor.The submersible pump uses enclosed impellers because the shaft from the electric motor expands when it
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becomes hot and pushes up on the impellers. If semi-open impeller were used, the pump would lose efficiency. The pump curve for a submersible pump is very similar to a deep well turbine pump. Submersible motors are smaller in diameter and much longer than ordinary motors. Because of their smaller diameter, they are lower efficiency motors than those used for centrifugal or deep well turbine pumps. Submersible motors generally referred to as dry or wet motors. Dry motor are hermetically sealed with a high dielectric oil to exclude water from the motor. Wet motors are open to well water with rotor and bearings actually operating in the water

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Fig 2.1.1.Detail drawing of submersible pump.

2.2MAIN COMPONENTS OF SUBMERSIBLE PUMP 1. Frame 2. Pump bowl 3. Stator 4. Non return valve 5. Vertical shaft 6. Bearing 7. Bearing bush 8. Impeller 9. Winding

Most submersible pumps are design for use in wells with a minimum 8 inch inside diameter. There are some available for use in wells with as small as 6 inch inside
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diameter but these are more expensive than comparable with 8 inch pumps. Use caution in selecting the submersible pump most suitable For a given well and application. Pump selection should be based on desired pump capacity and self priming capacity of the pump. Do not allow the pump to over pump a well. For example, if well is only capable of 5 gallons per minute, do not install a pump that is capable of pumping 10gallons per minute.

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Fig.2.2.2 Parts of the pump

2.3Definition and brief view

1. Impeller:
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Impeller is the heart of the centrifugal pump. It rotates the liquid mass with a peripheral speed of its vane tips. The whirling movement of impeller imparts centrifugal force to the liquid and increases its velocity head. Impeller does not increase liquid pressure. But high velocity head is converted in to pressure head in the volute. Increase in velocity is directly proportional to the impeller diameter and pump speed. The impeller is mounted on the shaft which is supported by bearings and driven through a flexible or

coupling by an electric motor or some times by a turbine This impeller is made by foundry process by using mold. The material used for impeller is cast iron. Plastic impeller is also available. Impeller may be classified on the basis of its construction as a) Closed or Shrouded Impeller b) Semi open ( Semi closed) Impeller c) Open type Impeller. 2.Bowl: Bowl is also made by foundry process by using mold. It is also available in plastic and cast iron material. It is
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a study part with pipe casing. Vane is also produced inside of the bowl. 3.Shaft: Shaft is one of the rods with light machining with key groove throughout. S.S. material is used for shaft. The basic purpose of a shaft is to transmit the torques encountered when starting and during operation while supporting the impeller and other rotating parts. It must do this job with a deflection less than the minimum clearance between the rotating and stationary parts. 4.Pump Casing: A casing is provided for housing the impeller and supporting the bearings provided with the shaft. Also, the casing has provision for connecting with the suction and delivery pipe lines. As it handles liquids with higher pressure, a stuffing box is provided to prevent leakage from the gap between the pump casing and the shaft. Also, closely fitted rings, called Wearing Rings, are mounted on the impeller and fitted in the casing to restrict leakage of high pressure liquid back to the pump Suction.The efficiency of a pump depends on the type of casing used. As such, a casing should
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not waste more energy due to eddy formation. To minimize the energy loss in pump casing, three common types of designs of casing are in use. These are: a) Volute type Casing, b) Vortex or whirlpool Casing, c) Diffuser (-ring) type Casing or turbine Casing. 5. Suction Suction is used to supply water to pump. It is made by foundry process in three stage mold box. Cast iron is used to made suction. Suction plate is provided between suction and first impeller. 6. Sleeve: Pump shafts are usually protected from erosion, corrosion, and wear at the seal chambers, leakage joints, internal bearings, and in the waterways by renewable sleeves. Unless otherwise specified, a shaft sleeve of wear, corrosion, and erosion-resistant material shall be provided to protect the shaft. The sleeve shall be sealed at one end. The shaft sleeve assembly shall extend beyond the outer
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face of the seal gland plate. (Leakage between the shaft and the sleeve should not be confused with leakage through the mechanical seal).

7. Coupling: Couplings can compensate for axial growth of the shaft and transmit torque to the impeller.

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2.4TYPES OF SUBMERSIBLE PUMP AND THEIR SPECIFICATION 1. DSP3RF Performance range -Flow rate up to 80 l/m -Head range up to 106m Operating limits -maximum fluid temperature 30c -maximum sand content 50g/m Pump application This pumps are suitable for pumping clean water or fluids with a sand content of not more than 50g/m.Their high performance and dependency make them suitable for use in domestic, civil and agriculture, irrigation, ponds, pressure boosting etc.

2. DSP4OF (oil filled) Performance range


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- Flow rate up to 145 l/m - Head range up to 216 3. DSP6RF(radial flow) Performance range - flow rate up to 360 l/m - head range up to 336m

4. V-3 special submersible pump H.P. range:.5-1.0 Max discharge: 35-50 LPM

- Diameter: 73mm OD Salient Features of V3 Submersible Pumps


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All components are precisely machined to give you trouble free operation. Motors are designed to withstand high voltage fluctuations. All rotating components are dynamically balanced for smooth and noise free operations. Requires less space. Easily rewind able. Simple assembly for servicing.

Fig.2.4.1 V-3 special submersible pump Application Fountains. Cooling water Circulations. Gardening and Nurseries. Domestic water supply. Housing, Complexes and General Industries. Hospitals and Bungalows.

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Table -1:V-3 special submersible pump PARTICULARS MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION Motor Casing Stainless steel Bearing Bush Leaded bronze Motor Shaft Stainless Steel Thrust Bearing Stainless steel & Graphite carbon/Teflon Housing / Base Cast Iron / Brass Stamping CRNGO Screws / Studs Stainless steel Impeller / Noryl GNF2 Techno polymer Diffuser Stage Casing Noryl GNF2 Techno polymer Pump Casing Stainless steel Pump Shaft Stainless steel Suction / Delivery Cast Iron / Brass

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5.V-4 submersible pump - H.P. range:.5-1.25 - Head range:20-122m


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- Max.discharge:20-55 LPM - Diameter: 96mm OD Salient Features of V4 Submersible Pumps Corrosion resistant stainless steel body. Specially designed for low voltage working. High electrical and mechanical efficiency. Higher heat dissipation. Dynamically balanced rotor and other rotating parts for uniform clearance. Specially designed bearing to withstand axial thrust loads. Designed for high voltage fluctuations. High efficiency, Low power consumption.

Fig.2.4.2V-4 submersible pump Application


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Drinking water supply, Domestic and community water supply Drip irrigation. Sprinkler irrigation and gardening. Housing-Complexes, Hospitals, High-rise buildings. Fire fighting, landscaping, Fountains, Service stations.

Table-2:V-4 special submersible pump PARTICULARS Motor Casing Bearing Bush Motor Shaft Thrust Bearing Housing / Base Stamping Screws / Studs Impeller / Diffuser Stage Casing Pump Casing Pump Shaft Suction / Delivery MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION Stainless steel Leaded bronze Stainless Steel Stainless steel & Graphite carbon/Teflon Cast Iron / Brass CRNGO Stainless steel Noryl GNF2 Techno polymer Noryl GNF2 Techno polymer Stainless steel Stainless steel Cast Iron / Brass

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V6 Submersible Pumps Salient Features of V6 Submersible Pumps

Rotating parts dynamically balanced for uniform clearance.

Core with low watt loss laminations. Low power consumption. High efficiency. Designed for high voltage fluctuations

Fig.2.4.3 V6 Submersible Pumps

Application

Landscaping, Service Stations Booster Applications. Domestic and Village Water Supply.
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Commercial complexes and High-rise Buildings Water Supply.

Small Farms, Big Agriculture Lands and Hotels.

Table-3:V-6 special submersible pump PARTICULARS Motor Casing Bearing Bush Motor Shaft Thrust Bearing Housing / Base Stamping Screws / Studs Impeller / Diffuser Stage Casing Pump Casing Pump Shaft Suction / Delivery MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION Stainless steel Leaded bronze Stainless Steel Stainless steel & Graphite carbon/Teflon Cast Iron / Stainless steel CRNGO Stainless steel Noryl /Cast iron / Stainless steel / Brass Cast iron / Stainless steel Cast iron / Stainless steel Stainless steel Cast Iron / Stainless steel

6.V-8 submersible pump - H.P. range:7.5-60


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- Head range :12-325m - Max.discharge:850-1750 LPM - Diameter: 128mm OD

7. DSP5MF Performance Range Flow rate up to 640 l/min (38.4 m/h) Head range up to 130 m Operating Limits
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Maximum fluid temperature + 30 C Maximum sand content 50 g/m Starts: max. 4/h Pump Installation And Applications This pumps are suitable for pumping clean water or fluids with a sand content of not more than 50 g/m.their high performance and dependability make them suitable for use in domestic, civil,& agricultural irrigation ,ponds, pressure boosting etc. Structural Characteristics IMPELLER: AISI 410 BOWL: cast iron FG 200 SLEEVE: AISI 410 PUMP SHAFT: AISI 410 SUCTOIN CASING : cast iron FG 200 COUPLING: AISI 410 BEARING BUSH: nitrile rubber NON RETURN VALVE : cast iron FG 200 BOLTS& SCREW: stainless steel Special Features On Request: other voltage
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60 Hz frequency Sized for the connection to the motor according to NEMA standard

Fig2.4.4 DSP5MF

Other commonly used submersible pumps are listed below - DSP4R/M (water filled) - DSP4R/H (mix filled) - DSP5M/F (mix filled) - DSP6M/F (mix filled) - DSP6R/H (radial flow high head) - DSP7M/F (mix flow)
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- DSP8J/F (mix flow) High performance submersible pump - DSP8RF - DSP8MF

2.5 How to remove submersible pump?

Replacing a submersible pump is not a complicated task if we understand the basics about a well system such as the placement of the pump, how the submersible pump operates and how it is installed in a wheel casing. An advanced do it our self with knowledge of electrical wiring
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and some basic plumbing skills is capable of replacing a submersible well pump. This is not a step by step installation guide but rather a general overview to help us decide whether to do it our self or to hire contractor. The saving on the cost of labor, If we do it our self will be about 50-60% of the total price of a contractor doing the job.

Items needed Socket wrench and socket set Regular screwdriver Tee handle pump removal tool Assistant inch nylon rope Winch and derrick Non slip gloves and protective clothing Various hand and power tools

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Installation of submersible pump Mount control on a vertical wall free vibration ensure that cable entry is made completely dust proof by using cable glands. Connect the supply to leads, motor leads and electrode exactly according to connection diagram given inside of box. Tighten all screw. Connect the earthing wire to the terminal so marked. It is recommended that earthing connection should also be given to delivery pipe of pump in coming switch fuse unit should be near the control panel so as to enable to the operator to operate with both switch fuse unit and control panel from one place. Operation Put the incoming switch fuse to ON position. Now phase indicating the lamps will glow observe that will use glowing with about the same intensity otherwise do not
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start the panel. Voltmeter indicates supply voltage. If the voltage indicated is below the rated do not start the panel. Start the pump by processing the green button. Observe steady ammeater reading. It should not exceed rated current. In case of star delta stator it is necessary to set the timer use for change over from star to delta, first set timer to maximum value. Start timer maximum value. Start the motor and measure the time taken for motor to reach nearly rated speed. Stop motor and set timer.

Do not start the pump in case of single phasing.

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Fig 2.5.1 installation of submersible pump

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Table:4 MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION

NAME OF PARTS 1 2 3 4 5 Impeller/Diffuser

MATERIAL USED

Stainless steel 304/316 and Graded cast iron

Pump Shell Bearing bush Pump shaft Hardware

Stainless steel Rubber/Bronze Stainless steel 410 Stainless steel 304


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6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Bearing housing Rotor Stator Breather diaphragm Thrust bearing Cable guard Stator casing

gray cast iron electric sheet steel electro sheet steel Nitrile rubber

Vulcanized rubber Nitrile rubber Gray cast iron

The pump has started at the same time after priming. The discharge valve is opened slowly after the pump has started.

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Table-5 Performance characteristics of two pole three phase submersible motors as per I.S. for bore

Rate

Minimu

If in am p

Minimu m starting

Normal efficiency of motor suitable for bore size and maximum o/p 100m 150m OR 96m m OR 142m m (6) 62.3 70.4 71.3 72.3 200m OR 192m m (7) 73

d o/p m full load

(1) 1.1 1.5 2.2 3

(2) 2740 2760 2760 2780

(3)

(4)

(5) 60 65.2 67.8 68.7

3.25 125 4.5 6.5 8.5 125 125 125

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3.7 4.8 5.5 7.5 9.3 11 13

2780 2800 2820 2820 2840 2840 2840

10 12

125 125

73.9 76.5 77 76.4 79 80 80.9

75.7 78.3 79.1 80 80.9 81.7 82.2

14.5 160 19.5 160 25 29 34 160 170 170

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3.1Impellers are used in submersible pump Radial Flow Solids Handling Impellers Open type Close type Semi open type The various members of the radial flow impeller family include the closed, open,and semi open designs. Depending upon capacity, each design may incorporate rom one to four vanes. The vanes are not straight, but describe a smooth curvethat begins at the impellers eye and extends to its periphery. They may also becurved upward at their entry as in the Francis vane design shown in figure Theclosedimpeller, shown on the following page, looks very much like anexaggerated version of the clear water impeller seen earlier.

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Fig.3.1.1 closed impeller

This particular example consists of two vanes with front and back shrouds. Theshrouds of the closed impeller enclose the impellers vane passages from the eyeto the periphery and are designed to accommodate the largest possible diameter solids. The vanes themselves have large, rounded leading edges to preventclogging by rags and stringy material that could become entangled at the vaneentry. On pumps with suctions up to 12, a two vane (often referred to as a twoport) design is typical while larger pumps may utilize a three or four vane design. Most closed impellers also incorporate pump out vanes on the back side of theback shroud. These small, straight vanes keep the sealing area free of debris andalso reduce the unbalanced axial forces that can occur due to back shroudslarger surface area.
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The major wearing surface of the closed impeller is the area where the eyeprotrudes into the volute suction. Replaceable volute wear rings are used tomaintain proper clearance and hydraulic efficiency. A typical rule of thumb callsfor wear ring replacement when the factory set tolerance has doubled.Very large sewage pumps often use a mixed flow impeller for low head, highflow conditions. The mixed flow design utilizes a double curvature vane thatprovides both radial (centrifugal) and axial (lifting) flow characteristics. Alsobecause of their extremely large through lets (4 and greater) these larger pumpscan utilize sharpened vane leading edges for greater efficiency.Another characteristic of the closed solids impeller is that its diameter seldomexceeds 80% of the volute cut water diameter as compared with about 92% for astandard impeller. This diameter is illustrated on the following page and isrestricted, at the expense of slippage, in order to reduce vibration and noiseespecially at lowerflows. This larger than normal clearance also reduces cloggingin the area where the impeller periphery is closest to the volute case.

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Another closed design is the single vane impeller. On the positive side, it allows for the largest possible through let and since there is only one vane, thereis only one leading edge and thus potential clogging at the vane entry isreduced.Unfortunately, due to its lack of symmetry, it is inherently out of balance. Unlike the multilane impeller, most cannot be trimmed and must be replaced if hydraulic conditions change. The single vane impeller also tends to produce rather steep head capacity curve. Although this can be useful in some applications, the flatter multilane curve generally has greater utility. The figure below is that of a semi open, single vane impeller. In the closed version, the vane is enclosed by a front shroud.

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Fig.3.1.2 semi open type impeller By definition, the true open impeller consists of nothing more than vanes mounted to a hub that is attached to the pump shaft. They are usually seen in smaller pumps and are best suited for applications involving stringy materials. Because they are shroud less, it is less likely for material to become entrapped between the impeller and the front and rear portions of the pump case. A disadvantage is their structural weakness and, because of this, they are often Strengthened by a partial shroud on the back side. If the back shroud covers the entire vane structure, the impeller is designated as semi open. Since one or both shrouds are missing from each design, both are prone to wear at the vane edges and

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must be adjusted periodically in order to maintain hydraulic efficiency.

Fig.3.1.3open type impeller Typical volute / vane clearances range from 0.020 to 0.030 and increases due towear affect pump efficiency to a greater degree than does the eye / volute wear ofthe closed impeller. The semi open impeller, due to its lack of a front shroud, also tends to creategreater unbalanced axial forces than does the closed impeller. Both pump outvanes and balance holes are often utilized to minimize these forces and preventpotential bearing damage.Although the radial flow impeller is the work horse of the sewage pumpindustry, there are applications for which it is not well suited. One example islow flow applications. By virtue of its large through let, flow rates will always before greater than impellers of the same diameter designed for clear fluids. Forexample, even a small impeller designed to pass 2
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solids will create BEP (BestEfficiency Point) flows of 80 to 120 GPM. Increase solids size to 3 and the flowrange increases to 400 to 700 GPM. With conventional pumps flow can bereduced by throttling the discharge; however, such a tactic is not acceptablewhen solids are involved. This problem is exacerbated when a low flowapplication is complicated by a high head requirement.

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(4) DESIGN OF SUBMERSIBLE PUMP


CHAPTER-4

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4.0 DESIGN OF SUBMERSIBLE PUMP

4.1DESIGN PARAMETERS

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NAME OF PARTS SUBMERSIBLE

BOREHOLE

PUMP

1. H.P. Range version)

0.5To3.0 H.P (Single phase

2.o To 10 H.P.(Three phase version)

2. Head Range

up to 140 meters

3. Discharge at duty point

40-250 LPM

4. Max. Discharge

320LPM

5. Max. head / Stage

8 meters

6. Operating voltage

160-240 volt (Single phase)

300-440 volt (Three phase)


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7. Max voltage fluctuation

+15%-20%

8. Max. Start / Hour

20

9. Max. Temp. Of Liquid

40celcious

10. Max permissible amount of

30Gram/cubic

4.2 Properties of water for which submersible pump is to be used

Diluted water (terbidity) : Max. 50 ppm Chloride : Max. 500 ppm Total solid parts :3000 ppm PH value :6.5 to 8.5 Temperature :33celcious Specific gravity :1.004 (max)

In the water which is pumped, if it contain PH in the range of 6.5 to 7.4 and amount Of chloride is more than 100 ppm than pump should be of bronze material otherwise PH In the range of 6.5 to 8.5 and amount of chloride is more than
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100 ppm than pump should be of zinc with bronze or stainless steel material.

Motor selection

Wet type motor This type of motor is filled with clean water or mixture of oil and water.

Resin filled motor In this motor stator is enclosed with nonconductor and rest of space is filled with Oil or water.

Sealed motor In this motor where winding and rest of space is filled with air and oil.

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4.3 Voltage and frequency selection

Voltage selection Three phase motor: 415 V (standard voltage) Single phase motor: 240 V (standard voltage)

Frequency Standard frequency :50 HZ

Voltage and frequency variation Motor is designed to give rated output Voltage that is differ from rated value should not be more than +/- 6% . Frequency that is differ from rated value should not exceed +/- 3%. Output rating for motor in KW For three phase motor: .75, 1.1, 1.5, 2.2, 3.3, 3.7, 4.5, 5.5, 9.3, 11.3. For single phase motor: .37, .55, .75, 1.1, 1.5, 2.2, 3, 15.
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Speed 2 pole motor proper speed is : 3000 RPM/MIN.

4.4 Cavitation phenomenon of pump

Cavitation is defined as the phenomenon of formation of vapour bubbles of flowing liquid in a region where the pressure of the liquid falls below its vapour pressure and the sudden collapsing of this vapour bubbles in a region
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higher pressure.

Cavitation in pump:

In pump the cavitation may occur at the inlet of the impeller the pump, or at the suction of the pump, the pressure is considerably reduced. Hence if where the

presssure at suction of thepump drops bellow the vapour pressure of the liquid than the cavitation may occur. The cavitation in a pump can be noted by a sudden drop in efficincy and head. In order to determine wheather cavitation will occur in any portion of the suction side of the pump, the critical value is given by, following equation.

Where, Hatm=Atmospheric pressure head in meter of water Hv=Vapour pressure head in meter of water. Hs= Suction pressure head in meter of water/
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Hls= Head lost due to friction in suction pipe. H=Head developed by the pump.

4.5Net positive suction head (NPSH)

The term net positive suction head is defined as the absolute pressure head at the inlet to the pump, minus the vapour pressure head , plus the velocity head. NPSH Ha-hs-hfs)-Hv

For any pump installation distinction is made between the required NPSH and the available NPSH. The value of required NPSH is given by the pump manufacture. This value can also be determined experimentally. For determining its value the pump is tested and the minimum value of hs is obtained at which the pump gives maximum efficiency whithout any objectional noise (cavitation free). The required NPSH varies with the pump design, speed of
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the pump and the capacity of the pump. When the pump is installed the available NPSH is calculated from above equation.

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4.6 Work done by impeller on water

The expression for the work done by the impeller on water is obtained by drawing velocity triangles at inlet and out of the impeller.The water enters the impeller radially at the inlet for best efficiency of the pump. Which means the absolute velocity of water at inlet makes an angle of 90 with the direction if the motion of the impeller at inlet.

Submersible pump is the reverse of a radially inward flow reaction turbines. But in case of radially inward flow reaction turbine, the work done by the water on the runner per second per unit weight of the water striking per second is given by this equation.

So work done by the impeller on the water per second per unit weight of water striking per second =-work done by the turbine
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Weight of water =gQ Mechanical efficiency The power at the shaft of the submersible pump more than the power available at the impeller of the pump. The ratio of the power available at the impeller to the power at the shaft of the pump is known as mechanical efficiency.

5.7 Pump shaft design

A shaft is for rotating machine element which is used to transmit to power from one place to another.

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Material used for shaft 1.It should have high strength. 2.It should have good machine ability. 3.It should have low notch sensitivity factor. 4.It should have good heat treatment properties. 5.It should have high wear resistant properties.

The shaft may be designed on the basis of

1.strength,and 2.rigidity and stiffness.

In designing shaft on the basis of strength, the following cases may considered (a)Shafts subjected to twisting moment or torque only. (b)shaft subjected to bending moment only. (c)shaft subjected to combined twisting and bending moment, and (d)shaft subjected to axial load in addition to combined torsionl and bending load.

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5.8 Shaft subjected to twisting moment When the shaft is subjected to a twisting moment then the diameter of the shaft may be obtained by using the equation

= T= Twisting moment acting upon the shaft J= Polar moment of inertia of the shaft = Torsional shear stress r = Radious of shaft For solid shaft, polar moment of inertia,

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The above equation can be written as

The hollow shaft are usually used in marine work these shaft are stronger per kg of material and they may be forged on mandrel, this making the material more homogeneous than would be possible for a solid shaft. Twisting may be obtained by using following relation

4.9 Shaft subjected to bending moment When the shaft subjected to a bending moment then the maximum stress given as
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M= Bending moment I = Moment of inertia of cross sectional area of the shaft about the axis of rotation b= Bending stress y = Distance from neutral axis to the outer most fibre For solid shaft moment of inertia,

Therefore bending moment is given by

From this diameter of shaft is determined.

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4.10 To achieve diameter of the shaft

For obtaining power of 10HP shaft diameter can be derived as follows N=200 r.p.m Shear stress = 42 Mpa 1HP=746W Shaft is designed against shear stress

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T=356.36*1000 N-mm

But

D=120mm

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4.11Pressure head development by pump impeller Impeller is working part of the pump It increases the velocity to kinetic energy The liquid flows into impeller and leaves impeller at the same pressure. Pressure of vane tip is same suction pressure. As high velocity liquid escapes from the impeller and flows into volute, its velocity is converted into feet of liquid and pressure the best part of the pump. Number of stages One impeller could theoretically deliver an enormous head. The tips speed would, however become very high. This would cause excessive wear at the tip of the impeller, so effectively the impeller diameter is limited by the speed and the allowable tips speed. The simple solution is to put another impeller in series. The software calculates the number of stages that will deliver the required total pressure without exceeding the tips speed. Complete impeller design The program in fact calculates all the important impeller dimensions such as angles, suction and tip diameter, the
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width so on to conclude the characteristics. The dimensionless parameter that is used for the shape of the impeller is the specific speed.

Where Ns=specific speed N=impeller speed in r.p.m Q=volumetric flow rate in gpm H=head in meter These are used to calculate performance of pump.

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The figure below is that of a typical, clear water, Francis vane (radial flow) Impeller. Its major parts the eye, vane leading edges, and shrouds are labeled. The vane exits can be seen between the shrouds.

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4.11.1 Impeller Although the mathematics that define the operation of an impeller can be complex (it is the stuff of Bernoulli and Euler), its purpose is straight forward. An impeller is designed to impart energy to a fluid so that it will flow or, if it is already flowing, undergo some increase in its elevation or pressure. It accomplishes this by increasing the fluids velocity as it travels through its vanes from the their leading edges, located at the eye to their exits at the periphery. The ever increasing radius of the vanes results in an increasing rotational velocity that reaches some maximum at the periphery. The resulting linear velocity of the fluid, at the vane exit, is then converted to pressure in the volute.

If one were to set out to design a typical radial vane impeller, several guidelines would be followed quite closely. For instance, the overall diameter of the impeller would closely match the volute and cut water diameters in order to reduce slippage of the pumped fluid in these areas. Also, depending upon the desired hydraulic characteristics, four or more vanes would be incorporated to smooth flow
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at the vane exit. And, their leading edges would be sharpened to reduce losses due to friction and turbulence. Unfortunately, if one followed these same guidelines when designing a solids handling impeller, the outcome would be doomed to failure. Unlike the typical radial vane impeller, those designed to accommodate solids violate many of the standard design rules. Small to medium sized sewage pumps are often referred to as non clogs and their impellers are designed to try to live up to that name. Although many factors contribute to an impellers ability to pass solids without clogging, one of the more important is its through let size.

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(5) TESTING OF SUBMERSIBLE PUMP

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Testing in submersible pump:-

5.1Various types of test for submersible pump Various Motor Testing Given Below:

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

High voltage test Stator resistance measurement Low voltage test Temperature rising test Vibration test Rated voltage current test Various Performance test (1) Power and Head Calculation

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5.1 MOTOR TESTING OF SUBMERSIBLE PUMP

The first thing you need to check when you are having problems with your submersible water well pump, is the motor condition. We will need to use an ohm meter to test resistance in the windings. The first test we will do is whether the motor is grounded. Set your ohm meter to Rx100k or the highest reading available to you. Place the leads together and zero the meter reading. The wires from your pump control box going to the well, should be disconnected. You will have a Red, Yellow, Black, and a Green ground wire. Connect one of your meter leads to the green ground wire. Using the other meter lead, connect to each of the other 3 wires, one at a time, looking for any reading. If you get any reading, you have a ground in the windings of the motor. If you do this test and no reading appears, you do not have a ground condition to correct. Testing the windings of your motor will tell us if the motor has a problem in the main or start windings. Set your meter to Rx1 and zero out the reading on the meter. For this test,
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we will assume you have a 3/4 hp 230V single phase 3 wire with ground submersible motor in the well. According to the manual the MAIN winding should have a reading of between 3.0 and 3.6 ohms between the YELLOW and BLACK wires, which are the main winding readings. The START windings are the reading between the YELLOW and RED wires. The range should be between 10.7 and 13.1 ohms. Check below for the Single Phase Motorabout other motors.

Table :6 HP Voltage 2 or 3 Wire Plus Ground Main Winding Yellow & Black Resistance in Ohms Start Winding Yellow & Red Resistance in Ohms F&W Part #

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4" 2 Wire + Ground Submersible Pump Motors (No Control Box Needed since controls are in the motor) 1/2 115V 2 Wire 1.0 - 1.3 137412 HP Ohms 1/2 230V 2 Wire 4.2 - 5.2 137414 HP Ohms 3/4 230V 2 Wire 3.0 - 3.6 137416 HP Ohms 1 230V 2 Wire 2.2 - 2.7 137418 HP Ohms 4" 3 Wire + Ground Submersible Pump Motors (Must Use Control Box to run these 3 wire motors) 1/2 115V 3 Wire 1.0 - 1.3 4.1 - 5.1 137426 HP Ohms Ohms 1/2 230V 3 Wire 4.2 - 5.2 16.7 - 20.5 137428 HP Ohms Ohms 3/4 230V 3 Wire 3.0 - 3.6 10.7 - 13.1 137430 HP Ohms Ohms 1 230V 3 Wire 2.2 - 2.7 9.9 - 12.1 137432 HP Ohms Ohms 1- 230V 3 Wire 1.7 - 2.2 8.0 - 9.7 137434 1/2 Ohms Ohms HP 2 230V 3 Wire 1.8 - 2.3 5.8 - 7.2 137435 HP Ohms Ohms 3 230V 3 Wire 1.0 - 1.5 4.0 - 4.9 139422 HP Ohms Ohms 5 230V 3 Wire .68 - 1.0 1.8 - 2.2 137456 HP Ohms Ohms 6" 3 Wire + Ground Single Phase Submersible Pump Motors 5 230V 3 Wire .55 - .68 1.3 - 1.6 126551 HP Ohms Ohms
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71/2 HP 10 HP 15 HP

230V

3 Wire

.36 - .50 Ohms .27 - .33 Ohms .17 - .22 Ohms

.88 - 1.1 Ohms .80 - .99 Ohms .68 - .93 Ohms

126553

230V 230V

3 Wire 3 Wire

134134 136361

Table:7 5.1.1Full Load Test

Full Load Test A full load test Can be carried out as per IEC Standerd

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5.1.2Temperature rise test at rated Voltage Table :8 Temperature rise test at rated Voltage Full Load Test CL.no. 19 of IS:9283-1995 Current CL.no. 16.1(g) of IS:9283Cooling Medium temp 1995 rise of stator wdg by Temp. resistance method Voltage (V) Current (I) Input Power (KW) Speed at 50HZ (RPM) Slip (%) Efficiency (%) Power factor Requirement Obtain Value as per Requirement specification Obtain Value as per specification 12.48 <45 30 <35 15 <15.00 >2900 <3.33 >42.0 240 13.4 3.110 2909 3.03 48.98 0.967

5.1.3High voltage Test Table :9 High voltage Test Requirement as Obtain Value per specification CL.no. 20 of Motor should be WITHSTOOD IS:9283-1995 able to with stand
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1.5KV for 30sec

A High voltage test shall be applied between the Winding and frame with the core and connected to the frame.

5.2 Performance test

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Head and power calculation of submersible pump A pipe have 12cm diameter and 20m length. Pump discharge is1500lpm at 18m height overall efficiency of pump is 70%. power And head calculation can be derived as below. Length of pipe:20m Diameter of pipe:0.12m Discharge:1500lpm Efficiency:0.70 From the design formula power is

velocity of water in pipe V=Q/A =4Q/d2 =(0.025)(4) ()(0.12)2 =2.21m/s

Head =height (suction+delivery head)+friction losses +K.E of liquid


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=18 +hf+V2/2g =18 + 4flV2/2gd +V2/2g = 18+ (4)(0.015)(20)(2.21)2 +(2.21)2 (2)(9.81)(.12) (2)(9.81)

Head =20.74m

= (9.81)(1000)(0.025)(20.74) 0.70

=7266.40 W= 9.74 H.P.

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5.2.1 characteristics curve of pump

Understanding of pump system characteristics curve A system head curve or system curve for a piping shows variation of pressure required with flow rate. As flow rate increases head required increases .Pump operating point is the point where pump head curve need system head curve. Pump curve are generated while testing pump using cold water as liquid the curve is fixed for particular speed, impeller diameter and water. When any of this charges the
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pump flow and head generated will differ. The curves can be corrected to obtain performance map without retesting pump with modified condition.

Minimum flow of pump. There are at least four main factor possibly determining pump flow. They are (1) fluid (2)temperature rise (3)internal circulation(4)thrust capacity.

(6) RESULT ANALYSIS

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6.1Result analysis Many other parameter are important for pump design such as 1.impeller angles and velocity triangles 2.slip(difference between real and ideally guided fluid velocity) With this design of pump meets following requirement. In case of overheated control or stator this design allows easily ventilate or shade the box or remove from source of heat. In case of defective components it can be measured using ohmmeter and determine resistance across disconnected starting capacitor when contact is made and replace
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defective components.

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(7) CONCLUSION

7.1 Conclusion This pumps are suitable for pumping clean water or fluids with a sand content of not more than 30g/c.m their high performance and dependability make them suitable for uses in domestics, civil and agricultural irrigation, ponds,
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pressure boosting etc. It is easily installed and no need for foundation. There is no problem in suction because it is arranged in water. There is less maintenance needed in it. The unit work with less noise.The power consumption are less. Its operation cost are less. Fast self priming can be possible with this design of pump. Both cast iron and aluminum motor body. Shielded body bearing for long life lubrication. This type of submersible pump is also suitable for transferring water from one tank to another tank for multistoried building. The motor, pump, well and fluids operates as an intricately balanced system in actual operation, an equilibrium point will be reached which reflects this relationship. We have to work on design of submersible pump . A design carried out of shaft which has been use in submersible pump. We have also to design carried of impeller with respect to required head and discharge. A testing is carried out of submersible pump .In testing same size of five or six mode are tested . This report covered detailed design of submersible pump as different required capacity. Work sampaling is utilized in testing.
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References

Company website (www.dukeplasto.com) IS-8034-2002 Mechanical handbook by S. C. Sharma A text book of Fluid mechanics and hydraulic machines by Dr. R.K.Bansal

A text book of machine design by R.S.Khurmi www.mechanicalpro.com www.sciencedirect.com

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