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BabBab 44 PipePipe ManufacturingManufacturing && FabricationFabrication BAB 4 BAB 4 PIPE MANUFACTURING PIPE
BabBab 44 PipePipe ManufacturingManufacturing && FabricationFabrication
BAB 4
BAB 4
PIPE MANUFACTURING
PIPE MANUFACTURING
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Desain,Desain, Fabrikasi,Fabrikasi, dandan inspeksiinspeksi SistemSistem PerpipaanPerpipaan

ELECTRIC WELD PROCESSES:

A. ELECTRIC RESISTANCE WELD (ERW) B. ARC WELDING PROCESSES (SMAW/MMA; SAW; FCAW).

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B. SEAMLESS PROCESS

I. PIERCING PROCESSES: ROLL AND DISC PIERCING ARE USED TO MAKE PIPES AND TUBES UP TO 26 INCHES IN DIAMETER.

A. HOT FINISHED (TO 26” OD)

B. COLD DRAWN (ANY SIZE UP TO 10 ¾” OD)

C. COLD EXPANDING (SIZES 16” TO 26” OD)

II. VERTICAL PIERCING PROCESS TO MAKE TUBES AND CYLINDERS, 3 TO 20” OD HOT DRAWN (FINISH).

III. EXTRUSION PROCESS (SMALL SIZES ONLY)

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PENGENDALIAN KUALITAS YANG DILAKUKAN:

1. PEMERIKSAAN PELAT BAHAN PIPA DENGAN METODA ULTRASONIK

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2. PEMERIKSAAN LAS-LASAN PADA PIPA UOE DAN ERW.

METODA PEMERIKSAAN: UT DAN X-RAY

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3. PEMERIKSAAN KUALITAS PIPA SEAMLESS DENGAN METODA EDDY CURRENT, ELECTROMAGNETIC; MAGNETIC DAN UT

3. PEMERIKSAAN KUALITAS PIPA SEAMLESS DENGAN METODA EDDY CURRENT, ELECTROMAGNETIC; MAGNETIC DAN UT 14
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15 PENERAPAN COATING;   1. EXTERNAL COATING: BAHAN: POLYETHYLENE UNTUK PIPA DENGAN DIAMETER YANG KECIL
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PENERAPAN COATING;

 

1.

EXTERNAL COATING:

BAHAN: POLYETHYLENE UNTUK PIPA DENGAN DIAMETER YANG KECIL DAN MEDIUM

* GENERAL UNDERGROUND SERVICE

* HIGHLY CORROSIVE SOIL SERVICE

* UNDERWATER SERVICE

NOMINAL DIAMETER: ½ - 24 IN.

PIPE LENGTH: 20 – 40 FT

STANDARD COATING THICKNESS: 0.06 – 0.1 IN

 

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UNTUK DIAMETER PIPA YANG BESAR COATING DILAKUKAN DENGAN CARA: HELICALLY WRAPPED.

NOMINAL DIAMETER: 16 – 64 IN.

PIPE LENGTH: 20-62 FT

STANDARD COATING THICKNESS: 0.1 – 0.12 IN

BAHAN PELAPIS LAIN YANG DIGUNAKAN ADALAH:

FUSION BONDED EPOXY POWDER. LAZIM DITERAPKAN PADA PIPA DENGAN DIAMETER YANG BESAR.

STANDARD COATING THICKNESS: 14 MIL (350 MIKRON)

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UNTUK MEMELIHARA UJUNG PIPA (PIPE END); TERUTAMA UNTUK DIAMETER PIPA YANG BESAR, DILAKUKAN PEMASANGAN “BEVEL PROTECTOR”

DIAMETER PIPA YANG BESAR, DILAKUKAN PEMASANGAN “BEVEL PROTECTOR” UNTUK PIPA YANG KECIL DIPASANG VINYL SHEET COVER

UNTUK PIPA YANG KECIL DIPASANG VINYL SHEET COVER

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2. INTERNAL COATING:

LAZIMNYA DITUJUKAN UNTUK MENURUNKAN GESEKAN ANTARA FLUIDA DAN DINDING PIPA BAGIAN DALAM

BAHAN YANG DIGUNAKAN: EPOXY RESIN, PHENOLIC DAN ATAU BAKED URETHANE

DIAMETER NOMINAL YANG LAZIM ADALAH: ½ - 56 IN.

PANJANG PIPA: 20-45 FT.

EPOXY RESIN, PHENOLIC DAN ATAU BAKED URETHANE DIAMETER NOMINAL YANG LAZIM ADALAH: ½ - 56 IN.

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C. CENTRIFUGAL CASTING:

C. CENTRIFUGAL CASTING: 22

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D. PROSES PEMBUATAN PIPA YANG LAIN:

I. UOE PIPE (U-ING; O-ING AND EXPAND-ING) II. ERW PIPE III. SPIRAL WELD (SP) PIPE IV. ROLL AND PRESS BENDING (RP) PIPE

PIPE (U-ING; O-ING AND EXPAND-ING) II. ERW PIPE III. SPIRAL WELD (SP) PIPE IV. ROLL AND

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FABRICATION and INSPECTION

FABRICATION

and

INSPECTION

FABRICATION and INSPECTION

FABRICATION

Fabrication in pipeline system is design and assembly several components into a complete system by means of welding.

Fabrication can be carried in field and workshop

Fabrication requirement decision depends on size, configuration, operating pressure and temperature.

and workshop • Fabrication requirement decision depends on size, configuration, operating pressure and temperature.
Shop fabrication of pipework

Shop fabrication of pipework

ON SITE FABRICATION

Generally for pipe with nominal diameter<50 mm. For Screwed pipe Need several specific equipment.

- Oxy-acetylene gear

- Electric arc-welding plant - Transformer

- Rotary pipe cutter

- Manual /hydraulic bending equipment

- Screwing machines

- Power saw

Scaffolding - Ladder - Lifting equipment

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-

SEVERAL SPECIFIC PROCESS TO BE CONSIDERED IN FABRICATION

Hot and cold bending.

Induction bending.

Mitre/gusseted bends.

Branch connection.

Swaging.

• Hot and cold bending. • Induction bendin g. • Mitre/gusseted bends. • Branch connection. •
• Hot and cold bending. • Induction bendin g. • Mitre/gusseted bends. • Branch connection. •
Reinforcement of Welded Branch connection All welded branch connection shall meet the following requirements: •
Reinforcement of Welded Branch connection
All welded branch connection shall meet the following requirements:
For single connection, the design must be adequate to control the
stress levels in the pipe within safe limit
A
=
dt
Required cross sectional area, A
R
R :
where:
d
=
greater of the length of the finished opening in the header
wall measured parallel to the axis of the run or the ID of the
branch connection
t =
th
e nom na
i
l h
ea er wa
k
pressure and temperature
d
ll thi
c ness requ re
i
d f
or
th
e
d
es gn
i
• The area available for reinforcement shall be the sum of the cross
sectional area in the header thickness, branch wall thickness, and
reinforcement area.

Special Requirement for Branch Connection

Special Requirement for Branch Connection
Cold bending

Cold bending

Induction bending
Induction bending

Induction bending

Mitre bend Welded segments

Mitre bend

Mitre bend Welded segments

Welded segments

Branch connections

Branch connections

INSPECTION

GeneralGeneral

Inspection must be conducted by a person who has competency (inspector)

InspectionInspection responsibilityresponsibility

The responsibilities of the owner to give inspector so that inspection match the appropriate procedures

TheThe inspectorinspector authorityauthority

Inspectors shall have access to the pipeline installation,

including assembly, erection, certification and to the owner
including
assembly, erection,
certification and
to
the owner

manufacturing, fabrication, heat treatment, examination, and testing.

Inspectors have authority to audit, to review all the

records to complete the responsibilities

INSPECTORINSPECTOR QUALIFICATIONSQUALIFICATIONS

Inspector, which is chosen by the owner, is the employee of the owner or employee from engineering/scientific organization or employee from the insurance/inspection concern as the agent owner. Inspector not come from manufacturer employee, fabrication. Inspector must have experience more than 10 years in design, fabrication, and inspection to pipeline industries. Inspector has responsibility to determine qualified men (as the inspector’s delegates) to do the inspections.

Inspector has responsibility to determine qualified men (as the inspector’s delegates) to do the inspections .

EXAMINATIONSEXAMINATIONS

General The manufacturer, fabricator, or erector does the quality controls.

Examination responsibilities - Prepare all the materials, component, and the productions processes as requirements - Do the examination based on the code requirements - Prepare examinations account for the inspector needed

requirements - Do the examination based on the code requirements - Prepare examinations account for the
Fig. 2.1 Typical Weld Imperfections

Fig. 2.1 Typical Weld Imperfections

ExaminationExamination RequirementsRequirements

Normal examination requirements:

Visual examination

Adequate materials and components

At least 5% from fabrication

100% fabrications for longitudinal weld

from fabrication • 100% fabrications for longitudinal weld • Random examination for screw, bolt and other

Random examination for screw, bolt and other connection

Random examination during system installations

upright pipe examination for the broken data

Other examination

not less than 5% from butt circumferential weld and miter groove have to inspected randomly with radiography or ultrasonic

not less than 5% from all brazed joints have to inspected with in-process examination

CertificationsCertifications andand recordsrecords

Guarantee from the examiner that the materials and the components with the specified grade was already through heat treatment process, examination, and testing with certifications, records or the other data

Examiner have to prepare to the inspector that the quality control necessity has been organized

or the other data • Examiner have to prepare to the inspector that the quality control

Examination – Category D Fluid Service

More over, pipes and those elements for Category D Fluid Service should inspected visually to convince examiner that the components, materials, and production processing were fulfill the codes and engineering design

• • • In-process examination • Certification and records
In-process examination
Certification and records

Examination – Severe Cyclic Condition

Visual examination was done except for connection process and pipes installations that was inspected

Other examination, all the welding connections inspected by 100 % radiography or by 100% ultrasonic. Socket welds and branch connection welds inspected by magnetic particle or liquid penetrant

AdditionAddition ExaminationExamination

Spot Radiography Longitudinal welds Circumferential butt welds & other welds Advanced Sampling for examination Welding has to checking

Hardness Test

Examination to overcome the hesitation

welds Advanced Sampling for examination Welding has to checking Hardness Test Examination to overcome the hesitation
welds Advanced Sampling for examination Welding has to checking Hardness Test Examination to overcome the hesitation

ExaminationExamination PersonnelPersonnel

Qualifications and certifications

Has a training and experience equivalent with examinations

necessity Superior has to signed records from examiner, showed date, and qualifications personal result

Special criteria People which is doing the examinations should not production people

ExaminationExamination ProcedureProcedure

Based on BPV Code, Section V, Article 1, T-150.

Superior has to signed records from examiner, showed date,

and

qualifications personal result

ExaminationExamination TypesTypes

Regular Method, described on code, engineering design, or from inspector

Special Method, if not list on code

Definition

100% examination

Random examination

Spot examination

Random spot examination

Visual Examination

Definition

Observations for parts of the components, joints, and the others pipeline elements which can be examined visually before, during, or after manufacturing factors, fabrications, assembly, erection, examination, or (testing)

Includes verifications from code criteria and engineering design for materials, components, dimensions, joints, alignment, welding, bonding, brazing, or the others jointing process, support, assembly, and erection

Method, BPV Code, Section V, Article 9

MagneticMagnetic ParticleParticle ExaminationExamination

MagneticMagnetic ParticleParticle ExaminationExamination Method, BPV Code, Section V, Article 7 Liquid Liquid Penetrant

Method, BPV Code, Section V, Article 7

LiquidLiquid PenetrantPenetrant ExaminationExamination

Method, BPV Code, Section V, Article 6

RadiographicRadiographic ExaminationExamination

Method, BPV Code, Section V, Article 2 Radiography types 100% radiography Random radiography Spot radiography

100% radiography Random radiography Spot radiography Ultrasonic Examination Method, BPV Code, Section V, Article 2

Ultrasonic Examination

Method, BPV Code, Section V, Article 2

In-Process Examination

Definition Joint preparation, and cleanliness Preheating Fit-up, joint clearance, and internal alignment to joining Joining processing parameters, includes filter materials (for weld) root pass conditions after cleaning, and add liquid penetrant / magnetic particle examination (for weld) slag elimination in weld

Method, visual

Leak Test

In the owner option, for pipelines system in Category D fluid service, leak test is permitted.

The test can be changed by pneumatic test or combinations from hydrostatic-pneumatic test, when the owner assumed that hydrostatic leak test were not practical.

If it still not practical, then used others testing types. These category includes:

Hydrostatic test will destroy linings or internal insulation,

or contaminate process that can destroy the system, corrosion, or others damaged. Pneumatic test can cause failed (brittle) because the low temperature during the test

Leak Test Regular Criteria

 

Pressure limitation Strain over the crushed power Expansion from fluids Preliminary pneumatic test

 

Other criteria Leaking examination Heat treatment Low Temperature

Other criteria Leaking examination Heat treatment Low Temperature
 

Special criteria for testing

 

Piping subassemblies Flanged joints

External Pressure Pipe

Jacketed piping

 

Internal part shall passed leaking test based on critical design pressure, both internal and external pressure jacket shall passed leaking test based on design pressure on jacket

Repairing or addition after leak test

Test records

 

Date Identification pipelines system Fluid

 

Pressure Certificate from examiner

Leak Test Preparation

Joints exposed, all the joints should detected visually during the test

Temporary supports, needed to support fluids weight

Expansion joints, it shall be tested without temporary restraint when testing pressure under 150% from design pressure. If more, temporary restraint are needed

Limits of tested piping, equipment which hasn’t tested shall be isolated during the test

restraint are needed Limits of tested piping, equipment which hasn’t tested shall be isolated during the

HydrostaticHydrostatic LeakLeak TestTest

Fluids, water are recommended, but nontoxic liquid can be used. If the fluids (flammable), light point must under 490C

(1200F)

Pressure Not more than 1.5 times pressure plan For temperature plan upper testing temperature, testing temperature determined by:

1.5 PS T P = T S
1.5 PS
T
P
=
T
S

P T = Maximum (minimum) temperature

relative testing

P = temperature design internal relative

ST =t

empera ure es ng s ra n

t

t

ti

t

i

S = temperature design strain (table A-1)

If temperature testing will result strain exceed yield strain in the testing temperature, thus pressure testing is decreased

Hydrostatic test of pipes with container as one system

if pressure testing of pipes that adhere to container are equal or less than pressure testing for container, then system will be tested according to the pipe pressure test

if pipes pressure test more than container pressure test and assumed not practical to isolated pipes from container, thus the system will be tested according to the container pressure

not practical to isolated pipes from container, thus the system will be tested according to the
not practical to isolated pipes from container, thus the system will be tested according to the

Pneumatic Leak Test - reference

Preventive, this testing will involve energy release risk that being saved in compressive gas. Need further actions to minimalist the brittle failed probability. Release pressure equipments, to limit pressure. Gas Fluids, if not air, it must be nonflammable and nontoxic Pressure , 110% pressure plan Procedure Pressure will increase gradually until relative pressure less than 170 kPa (25 psi) Pressure is increased until reach test pressure Restrained a few minutes in every step to homogenizes strain to pipes Pressure will be decreased until pressure plan before leaking examinations

HydrostaticHydrostatic--PneumaticPneumatic LeakLeak TestTest

Procedures Pressure will be increased gradually to pressure operation Restrained a few minutes in every step to homogenizes strain to pipes Examination for leaks, are permitted to avoid examination leaking from joints before Sensitive leak test, testing sensitivity not less than 10-3 atm ml/s Lowest testing pressure are 105 kPa (15 psi) relatively, or 25% pressure plan Pressure will increased gradually to pressure relative 170 kPa (25 psi). Pressure is restrained a few minutes in every step to homogenizes strain to pipes

Alternative testing leaking Weld examination

• Circumferential, longitudinal, and spiral groove 100% radiographs

All weld (except a), checking with liquid penetrant Flexibility analysis Testing method, sensitive leak test