Anda di halaman 1dari 29

Mario R.

4th International Conference on Arabica Naturals Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, 11-12 Sept. 2013

Outline of presentation
1. A summary of what we know about naturals flavour. 2. A study about the effect of fermentation in naturals

flavour. 3. What needs to be addressed about naturals flavour.

The big picture

Genetics Environmental factors Farming practices Harvest practices
Raw material (coffee cherry) Physiological changes Chemical changes Fermentative and other changes Flavour

Primary process

Secondary process

Final product

Quality-Geography interactions in MG
(Barbosa, J. N. et al., 2012).

Best varieties using cloth strip-picking in BR
(Pereira, M. C. et al., 2010).

Raw material (coffee cherry)

Fingerprinting of different ripeness stages

(Amorim, A. C. L. et al., 2009).

Amino acid profiles of unripe coffee, dry cherry

(Dias, E. et al., 2012).

Quality indicators,
(Borem et al., 2008; Coradi et al., 2008; Coradi et al., 2007).

Microscopic cell structure,

(Saath et al., 2010).

Rest periods,
(Isquierdo et al., 2012).

Location, sun drying methods, variety and cherry drying layer thickness,
(Berhanu et al., 2012).

Cherry physiological changes in naturals

Oxidative stress
(Rendn, M. et al., 2013).

Seed germination processes,

(Bytof, G. et al., 2007; Selmar, D. et al., 2006; Bytof, G. et al., 2005; Selmar, D. et al., 2001).

Physiological changes

Fermentation in naturals and other changes

Endophytic bacteria in coffee,
(Vega, F. E. et al., 2005).

Fermentation in natural coffees,

(Silva, C. F. et al., 2000; Silva, C. F. et al., 2008).

Fermentation and naturals flavour,

(Diaz Pineda, H. M. and M. R. Fernandez Alduenda, 2007).

Fermentative and other changes

Enzymatic and nonenzymatic browning during drying???

How the process changes express chemically

Maillard precursors different to washed coffees,
(Arruda, N. P. et al., 2012; Knopp, S. et al., 2006; Bytof, G., et al., 2005).

What happens during roasting?

Polysaccharides profile,
(Tarzia, A. et al., 2010).

Chemical changes

Specific odorants relevant in naturals?

(Czerny, M. and W. Grosch, 2000).

Raspberry ketone?
(Akiyama, M. et al., 2008).

What is the expression of natural coffees in the cup?

Full body,
(Vincent, 1987).

(Fernandez Alduenda, M. R., 1995; Fernandez Alduenda, M. R. et al., 2010).

What else?! What is the market viewing as New Naturals?


Exotic and complex; spicy, fruity , aromatic and maybe slightly fermented?
(Madsen, M. P., 2011).

Present research.

Fernandez Alduenda, M.R., Birch, J., Silcock, P. and Lusk, K.

Department of Food Science, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

A work in progress
Two sets of samples:
International set Natural coffee samples from different origins. Includes washed coffee from the same farms. 2. Field work set Different natural process treatments from same raw material. Includes washed as witness.

Analyses completed:
Descriptive cupping (three different panels). Volatiles in green bean headspace (PTR-MS).

Analyses to be completed:
Volatiles in roasted bean headspace (GC-O/MS). Descriptive sensory analysis,

International set
34 samples from 8 countries
Brazil (5) Colombia (4) Dominican Republic (2) Ethiopia (1) Guatemala (1) Mexico (9) Nicaragua (11) Panama (1)

25 naturals

9 washed from same farms

Qualitative data: Free comments analysis from cupping

Black currant, spicy pepper, malt fresh lively taste with nicer fruity acidity, good body, complex flavours.
Descriptor Section Generic Flavour Taste Acidity Body Taste Generic Generic Generic Category Red fruity General bouquet Unclassified Sweet-acid Hedonic Unclassified Pyrolytic Spicy Spicy Subgroup BNI BNO

Blackcurrant Complex Fresh Fruity Good Lively Malt Pepper Spicy

Dry-acid 20% 33% Medium-acid 0% 33% Sweet-acid 0% 0% Astringent 40% 0% Citrus-like 0% 0% Hedonic 0% 0% Length related 0% 0% Phenolic 20% 33%

Correspondence Analysis Descriptive cupping panel International natural samples

Symmetric column plot (axes F1 and F2: 38.91 %)
0.03 0.02

Pyrolytic Smooth_body Medium-acid Chocolaty


Sweet-acid Tropicalfruity



Spicy Caramelly Stonefruity Long Toasty Rough_body Phenolic Complex Fermented Sweet_taste Acid Fruity Bitter_taste Resinous Astringent Citrus-like Pungent Nutty Dry-acid Driedfruity Wood Floral Past-croppish Earthy

F2 (9.08 %)


-0.03 -0.05 -0.04 -0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04

F1 (29.83 %)

MFA of descriptive and significant PTR-MS mass ions

52 Earthy Spicy 35 3351 34 30 36 31 29 42 65 49 47 4139 48 4093 27 153113 147 Nutty 54 151 117 Rough_body 57 Driedfruity 28 84 72 58 115 114 Bitter_taste 26 99 69 Stonefruity Caramelly 85 105 101 68 125 m/z 124.0 71 103 111 37 157 Pungent Chocolaty 95 67 88 79 107 138 104 87 Long Astringent 131m/z 45.0 Intensity 89 m/z 75.0 Fermented Acidity 53 Fungal 81 55 76 97 Wood Tropicalfruity 110 90 98 Dry-acid Pyrolytic 82 Break 73 Redfruity 74 Past-croppish 137 56 43 440 Medium-acid Floral Phenolic Dry Body Level 61 62 80 Resinous Vegetable Fruity Toasty ComplexSmooth_body Sweet-acid Sweet_taste Citrus-like




F2 (10.02 %)




-1 -1 -0.75 -0.5 -0.25 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1

F1 (33.29 %)

A close-up to an MFA section

0.2 m/z 67.0 m/z 88.0 3-Methyl-2-buten-1-ol, 2E-butenoic acid, 3methyl butanal, 2,3-butanedione 0.1

m/z 75.0 m/z 81.0

m/z 74.0 0.7 m/z 90.0

m/z 131.0 m/z 89.0 m/z 53.0

1 0.9

0 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 m/z 82.0

m/z 55.0 m/z 76.0 m/z 110.0 0.6

m/z 97.0Acidity m/z 98.0 0.8

m/z 73.0

Tropicalfruity Redfruity


-0.1 m/z 56.0 Floral -0.2 m/z 61.0 m/z 62.0

m/z43.0 44.0 m/z

Dry Body Level





x Descr Inte Ion

Acetaldehyde, highly significant for process, correlated with fermentation degree in coffee: Rodriguez, D. B., et al. (1969).

A field experiment about fermentation in naturals

Weight of a 10kg batch of cherries
@ 25C

Effect of different drying curves on the fermentation of the coffee cherries, flavour precursors and ultimately on the cup. Carried out in Mexico in February, 2013.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7


8.000 Weight (kg.)

Region A Bacteria
Region B Yeasts

Region C Moulds


Region A
0 ++ + +

Region B
0 + + -

Region C
0 + -



4.000 1.00 0.95 0.90 0.85 0.80 aW 0.75 0.70 0.65 0.60

Bacteria growth along drying

Bacteria count
1.0E+09 1.0E+08

1.0E+07 21 Bact 1.0E+06 22 Bact 23 Bact

Code 21 Bact 22 Bact 23 Bact


Treatment Outdoors. Mesh raised table. Thin layer. Frequent turn-up. Outdoors. Mesh raised table. Thick layer. Little turn-up. Honeyed in a bucket outdoors for two days. From the third day, mesh raised table, thin layer with frequent turn-up.

CFU/Cherry (Log)

1.0E+04 0 2 4 Drying Day 6 8

Sampled from cherry surface. Count on WL Differential medium @25C.

PTR-MS analysis of green coffee headspace

Observations (axes F1 and F2: 84.73 %)
10 1 m/z 35.0 m/z 33.0 0.75 m/z 34.0 m/z 51.0

Variables (axes F1 and F2: 84.73 %)

0.5 5B 1B 7A 7B 5A 0.25

m/z 31.0

F2 (7.34 %)


m/z 97.0 m/z 107.0 m/z 88.0 69.0 m/z 81.0 m/z 119.0 m/z 87.0 42.0 m/z m/z 41.0 85.0 m/z 39.0 70.0 m/z 40.0 m/z 153.0 m/z 105.0 m/z 27.0 45.0 m/z 103.0 m/z 46.0 m/z 86.0 m/z 104.0 m/z 56.0 m/z 57.0 m/z 101.0 m/z 58.0 m/z 129.0 m/z 98.0 m/z 131.0 m/z 71.0 117.0 38.0 m/z m/z 72.0 55.0 29.0 m/z 47.0 49.0 37.0 48.0 53.0 m/z 91.0 74.0 73.0 m/z 65.0 m/z m/z 147.0 90.0 75.0 m/z 89.0 m/z 93.0 76.0

F2 (7.34 %)

0 2B 1A 6A 4B 2A -5 3B 4A

-0.25 3A -0.5

m/z 80.0


-1 -1 -10 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 -0.75 -0.5 -0.25 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1

F1 (77.39 %)

F1 (77.39 %)

Active variables

The mass ions correlated with fruitiness in the international sample study are here correlated to the fermentation intensity in the field study.

What happens when we look at individual cupping score results

Variables (axes F1 and F2: 84.73 %)
1 m/z 33.0 m/z 35.0 m/z 34.0 0.75 m/z 51.0 m/z 31.0 0.5 m/z 97.0 m/z 107.0 m/z 88.0 69.0 m/z 81.0 m/z 119.0 m/z m/z 42.0 87.0 m/z 70.0 85.0 41.0 39.0 m/z m/z 40.0 m/z 153.0 m/z 105.0 m/z 27.0 45.0 m/z 103.0 m/z 46.0 m/z 86.0 104.0 m/z 56.0 m/z 57.0 m/z 101.0 m/z 58.0 m/z 129.0 m/z 98.0 m/z 131.0 m/z 71.0 117.0 38.0 m/z 72.0 m/z 29.0 55.0 m/z 47.0 49.0 37.0 48.0 53.0 m/z 91.0 74.0 73.0 m/z 90.0 65.0 m/z 147.0 m/z 75.0 m/z 89.0 m/z 93.0 76.0

Different cupping schools have different attitudes toward naturals.

Cuppers unfamiliar with naturals or unaware of the New Naturals trend tend to prefer the cup that most resembles the washed. Cuppers familiar with naturals apparently do not score based just on how winey they taste. Some cuppers even reward the wineyness.


F2 (7.34 %)


m/z 80.0



-1 -1 -0.75 -0.5 -0.25 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1

F1 (77.39 %)

It is risky to make conclusions based on quality perception. That is why the descriptive flavour profile must be studied.

Panel 1

Panel 2

Mass ions

In brief
Flavour formation in naturals is highly complex and at least three independent mechanisms can be happening:
Fruit and seed metabolism. Fermentation. Enzymatic and non enzymatic browning (as in raisins).

Limited research on the effect of these mechanisms on the final cup profile has been completed. Cuppers results are always subjective, but become more polarised and controversial for naturals. However, even the cuppers that dislike naturals can be used for descriptive cupping.

Insights and research agenda proposal about high-quality naturals flavour.

Coffee is about flavour

Arabica naturals have often been misunderstood by the industry and researchers.
Confusion between flavour and quality. Generalisation:
A and B are natural. A has a characteristic (bad quality, wineyness, good body) Ergo B has it too!

Cup flavour is and must be the main way to interpret coffee :

The chemical and biochemical mechanisms behind it. The market and consumer behaviour around it.

Absence of links of different studies to cup flavour.

There can be a sensory space for everyone

Experience shows us there are many natural coffee styles. Some examples:
Caramelly Chocolaty Red fruity Tropical fruity Dried fruity Winey Cognac/whiskey -like

Why dont we acknowledge them and try to excel in each of them, instead of quarrelling about which one is better quality?
Beer styles chart

Ultimately, it is about connecting the dots

Genetics Environmental factors Farming practices Harvest practices
Raw material (coffee cherry) Physiological changes Chemical changes Fermentative and other changes Winey style Fruity style Chocolaty style

Primary process
Drying Fermentation

Secondary process

Final product
Consumer Market

Directions for future research

Effect of varieties on natural coffee flavour. Characterisation of different varieties pulp and mucilage. Effect of overripe cherries or dried-on-tree cherries on flavour. Role of enzymatic browning on flavour. Role of non-enzymatic browning along drying. Effect of selected wild microbial populations on flavour. Effect of specific inoculates on flavour. Fate of the main precursors found in naturals during roasting. Characterisation of natural coffee styles. Perfection of different styles. Characterisation of different market preferences and trend about naturals. Characterisation of the consumers of high-quality naturals.


Akiyama, M., Murakami, K., Hirano, Y., Ikeda, M., Iwatsuki, K., Wada, A., . . . Iwabuchi, H. (2008). Characterization of Headspace Aroma Compounds of Freshly Brewed Arabica Coffees and Studies on a Characteristic Aroma Compound of Ethiopian Coffee. J Food Sci, 73(5), C335-C346. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.00752.x Amorim, A. C. L., Hovell, A. M. C., Pinto, A. C., Eberlin, M. N., Arruda, N. P., Pereira, E. J., . . . Rezende, C. M. (2009). Green and Roasted Arabica Coffees Differentiated by Ripeness, Process and Cup Quality via Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Fingerprinting. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, 20(2), 313-321. Arruda, N. P., Hovell, A. M. C., Rezende, C. M., Freitas, S. P., Couri, S., & Bizzo, H. R. (2012). Correlation between precursurs and volatiles in Brazilian Arabica coffee processed by dry, semidry and wet methods and discrimination by principal component analysis. Quimica Nova, 35(10), 2044-U2207. Barbosa, J. N., Borm, F. M., Cirillo, M. ., Malta, M. R., Alvarenga, A. A., & Alves, H. M. R. (2012). Coffee Quality and Its Interactions with Environmental Factors in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Journal of Agricultural Science, 4(5), 181-190. Berhanu, T., Ali, M., & Tesfaye, S. (2012). Effect of sun drying methods and layer thickness on quality of selected unwashed Arabica coffee varieties in Jimma zone. Paper presented at the International Conference on Arabica naturals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Borem, F. M., Coradi, P. C., Saath, R., & Oliveira, J. A. (2008). Quality of natural and washed coffee after drying on ground and with high temperature. Ciencia E Agrotecnologia, 32(5), 1609-1615. Bytof, G., Knopp, S.-E., Kramer, D., Breitenstein, B., Bergervoet, J. H. W., Groot, S. P. C., & Selmar, D. (2007). Transient Occurrence of Seed Germination Processes during Coffee Post-harvest Treatment. Annals of Botany, 100(1), 61-66. doi: 10.1093/aob/mcm068 Bytof, G., Knopp, S.-E., Schieberle, P., Teutsch, I., & Selmar, D. (2005). Influence of processing on the generation of<i> -aminobutyric acid in green coffee beans. European Food Research and Technology, 220(3), 245-250. doi: 10.1007/s00217-004-1033-z Coradi, P. C., Borem, F. M., & Oliveira, J. A. (2008). Qualidade do caf natural e despolpado aps diferentes tipos de secagem e armazenamento. Revista brasileira de engenharia agrcola e ambiental, 12(2), 181-188. Coradi, P. C., Borm, F. M., Saath, R., & Marques, E. R. (2007). Effect of drying and storage conditions on the quality of natural and washed coffee. Coffee Science, 2(1), 38 - 47. Czerny, M., & Grosch, W. (2000). Potent Odorants of Raw Arabica Coffee. Their Changes during Roasting. J Agric Food Chem, 48(3), 868-872. doi: 10.1021/jf990609n Dias, E., Borm, F., Pereira, R., & Guerreiro, M. (2012). Amino acid profiles in unripe Arabica coffee fruits processed using wet and dry methods. European Food Research and Technology, 234(1), 2532. doi: 10.1007/s00217-011-1607-5 Diaz Pineda, H. M., & Fernandez Alduenda, M. R. (2007). Proyecto OPN-1: Optimizacion de la fermentacin en naturales. Atoyac de Alvarez, Guerrero, Mexico: Consejo Estatal del Caf Guerrero. Fernandez Alduenda, M. R. (1995). Perfil descriptivo de cinco tipos de cafe mexicano. (Licenciatura en Tecnologia de Alimentos), Universidad de las Americas-Puebla, Santa Catarina Martir, Puebla, Mexico. Fernandez Alduenda, M. R., Diaz Pineda, H. M., Sierra Martinez, P., & Hernandez Martinez, G. (2010). Effect of processing method and geography on the cup profile of arabica coffees from the state of Guerrero, Mexico. Paper presented at the Second International Conference on Arabica Naturals, Sana'a, Yemen. Isquierdo, E. P., Borm, F. M., Oliveira, P. D. d., Siqueira, V. C., & Alves, G. E. (2012). Quality of natural coffee subjected to different rest periods during the drying process. Ciencia E Agrotecnologia, 36(4), 439 - 445. Knopp, S., Bytof, G., & Selmar, D. (2006). Influence of processing on the content of sugars in green Arabica coffee beans. European Food Research and Technology, 223(2), 195-201. doi: 10.1007/s00217-005-0172-1 Madsen, M. P. (2011, 8 October, 2009). Natural?... Naturally! Retrieved from Pereira, M. C., Chalfoun, S. M., de Carvalho, G. R., & Savian, T. V. (2010). Multivariate analysis of sensory characteristics of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) in the region of upper Paranaba. Anlise multivariada de caractersticas sensoriais de gros de caf de cultivares (Coffea arabica L.) na regio do alto Paranaba., 32(4), 635-641. doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v32i4.4283 Rendn, M., Grato, P., Salva, T. G., Azevedo, R., & Bragagnolo, N. (2013). Antioxidant enzyme activity and hydrogen peroxide content during the drying of Arabica coffee beans. European Food Research and Technology, 236(5), 753-758. doi: 10.1007/s00217-013-1933-x Rodriguez, D. B., Frank, H. A., & Yamamoto, H. Y. (1969). Acetaldehyde as a possible indicator of spoilage in green kona (Hawaiian) coffee. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 20(1), 1517. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.2740200105 Saath, R., Borem, F. M., Alves, E., Taveira, J. H. D., Medice, R., & Coradi, P. C. (2010). Scanning electron microscopy of the endosperm of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) during the drying process. Ciencia E Agrotecnologia, 34(1), 196-203. doi: 10.1590/s1413-70542010000100025 Selmar, D., Bytof, G., & Knopp, S. E. (2001, 14-18 May, 2001). New aspects of coffee processing: the relation between seed germination and coffee quality. Paper presented at the 19th International Scientific Colloquium on Coffee, Trieste. Selmar, D., Bytof, G., Knopp, S. E., & Breitenstein, B. (2006). Germination of Coffee Seeds and its Significance for Coffee Quality. Plant Biology, 8(2), 260-264. doi: 10.1055/s-2006-923845 Silva, C. F., Batista, L. R., Abreu, L. M., Dias, E. S., & Schwan, R. F. (2008). Succession of bacterial and fungal communities during natural coffee (Coffea arabica) fermentation. Food Microbiology, 25(8), 951-957. doi: 10.1016/ Silva, C. F., Schwan, R. F., Sousa Dias, ., & Wheals, A. E. (2000). Microbial diversity during maturation and natural processing of coffee cherries of Coffea arabica in Brazil. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 60(23), 251-260. doi: 10.1016/s0168-1605(00)00315-9 Tarzia, A., Scholz, M. B. D., & Petkowicz, C. L. D. (2010). Influence of the postharvest processing method on polysaccharides and coffee beverages. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 45(10), 2167-2175. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2010.02388.x Vega, F. E., Pava-Ripoll, M., Posada, F., & Buyer, J. S. (2005). Endophytic bacteria in Coffea arabica L. Journal of Basic Microbiology, 45(5), 371-380. doi: 10.1002/jobm.200410551 Vincent, J.-C. (1987). Green coffee processing. In R. J. Clarke & R. Macrae (Eds.), Coffee - Volume 2: Technology (Vol. 2, pp. 321). London: Elsevier Applied Science. Yeretzian, C., Jordan, A., Badoud, R., & Lindinger, W. (2002). From the green bean to the cup of coffee: investigating coffee roasting by on-line monitoring of volatiles. European Food Research and Technology, 214(2), 92-104. doi: 10.1007/s00217-001-0424-7