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ARTICLE REVIEW: The Association between Leisure- Time Physical Activity and Dietry Fat in American Adults Author

: Eduardo J. Simoes, MD, Tim Byers, MD, Ralph J. Coates, PhD, MaryK Serdula, MD, Ali H. Mokdad, MPH, and Gregory W. Heath, DHSc

A study had been carried out to find the association between leisure time physical activity and dietry fat in American Adult. The study sample consisted of 29 672 people who granted a Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System interview. However, the sample excluded Hispanic or neither Black nor White because there is no question about ethnic food were asked in the questionnaire. In addition, respondents who had missing information on one or more of the study factors also excluded from the study. The data collected from the interview were analysed by conducting sampling using a multistage cluster design and random digit telephone dialing. The 13- item questionnaire listed the top conributors to dietry fat in US adult, like fried chicken, french fries, doughnuts, salty snacks, cheese and cheese spread, cookies, cakes and pastries. The nutrient values, portion sizes, and representatives food item were population based values developed by Block et al. using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II data and other sources. According to the respondents, the leisure-time physical activity included running, gardening, golf, calisthenics and walking. The respondents were asked to identify the type of activity in which they spent most of the time. They were given coded answer to open-ended questions for the 56 activities. Duration, frequency and distance were ascertained.The score were described as inactive, irregular activity,regular (not intense) and regular (intense). A few factors like age, marital status, education, body mass index, race, alchohol intake and cholesterol screening were examined as potential confounders 1

because of their possible relationship to both leisure time physical activity and dietry fat. Linear model analysis of variance were used to compute the sexspecific daily geometric mean fat score for respondents in different categories where the demographic and health-related risk factors were defined. All analyses were adjusted for the potential confounders and the goodness of fit of both models was assessed. The result showed that physical inactivity increased with age and smoking, while on the other hand, decreased with education and alcohol consumption. This were common among Blacks, as they never screened for cholesterol and did not have normal weight. The large numbers of White female includes in the study population. They were not sedentary, non smokers and had been screened for cholesterol. cholesterol screening and smoking. According to the findings, lower fat consumption was associated with increased leisure- time physical activity. The connection is strong and independent of the effects of other demographic and behavioural risk factors. Higher ingestion of carbohydrates with higher physical activity had been observed. Those who are sedentary need less calories compared to people who exercise. Therefore the percentages of colories from fat intake are likely to be substantially lower among people who are more physically active. However, there are also some limitations to the study. Respondents may overreport or underreport their fat intake. In addition, the fat score, and the occupational physical activity would also contribute because the highestenergy job category fell by late 1970s. Study also did not include portion size because such questions may not contribute to the dietary assessment. However, the relationship observed between dietary fat and physical activity may underestimate the true association with both dietary fat and physical activity. In my opinion, we cannot totally rely on the answers given by the respondents because they might give uncertain answers to the questions given. As stated before, they might overreport or underreport their physical activity or fat intake. Furthermore, the portion size is not asked, therefore the food intake might be differ from one another. These days, people tend to eat 2 It also showed that fat intake was associated with being younger, less well educated, not having

whatever food they like without having to read the ingredients or calory consumption. When they gather among friends, they used to just eat what they like and ignore all the rules they have specified before. There are also other types of physical activities that is not specific in the study. People also has different type of jobs where some need to climb up to 5 stairs and it should also be considered as physical activity. This kind of people might have no time for gardening or other physical activity specified. The dietary fat among American adult also might be different as thousands of food can be bought nowadays, and those can top up their calories intake by taking supplements and vitamins. In conclusion, the association of leisure-time physical activity and fat intake might be the result of healthy behaviours. Therefore, etiologic studies should assess both physical activity and diet to examine individual and joint health effects and creators of public health messages that target one of these behaviours should considers the benefit of targeting both. This is because, people who take up one health behaviour may be inclined to take up others as well, effects of one factor on health may be confounded by the related health behaviours. The study can give many impact to American adult out there, where they are struggling to find some time for physical activity during their leisure time, yet they wont be able to suit to their daily life.

REFERENCES 1. Eduardo J. Simoes, MD, Tim Byers, MD, Ralph J. Coates, PhD, MaryK Serdula, MD, Ali H. Mokdad, MPH, and Gregory W. Heath, DHSc. American Journal of Public Health. February 1995, Vol. 85, No. 2 2. Stephen AM, Wald NJ. Trends in individual consumption of dietary fat in theUnited States, 1920-1984. Am J Clin Nuir.1990;52:457-469 . 3. Powell KE, Thompson PD, Caspersen CJ, Kendricks JS. Physical activity and the incidence of coronary heart disease. Annu Rev Public Health. 1987;8:253-287.