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Module 10B:
Line Distance Protection
Power Automation 2
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Situation: Meshed network and two infeeds
Directional overcurrent time relays
0,6s
0,6s
0,3s
0,3s
0,6s
0,6s
0,3s
0,3s
non-selective trip
Why impedance protection?
Power Automation 3
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Localization of short-circuits by means of an impedance measurement:
- fault on the protected line
- fault outside the protected line
Z1
relay A
selectivity
relay A
Z2
Basic principle of impedance protection
Power Automation 4
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
6 loops: 3 phase- phase loops and
3 phase- ground loops
phase- phase -loop:
The same applies to the remaining loops
U
L1-L2
= Z
L
( I
L1
- I
L2
)
Measured current
measured voltage
06.08.97
dtgerdis3
Z
L
= R
L
+ j X
L
Z
E
= R
E
+j X
E
I
L1
I
L2
I
L3
I
E
Z
L
Z
E
U
L1
U
L2
U
L3
Distance measurement (principle)
Power Automation 5
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
phase-ground-loop:
U
L1
=
L1
( R
L
+ j X
L
)-
E
( R
E
+j X
E
)

L1
,
E
measured current
U
L1
measured voltage
06.08.97
dtgerdis3
The same applies to the remaining loops
I
L1
I
L2
I
L3
I
E
Z
L
Z
E
U
L1
U
L2
U
L3
Z
L
= R
L
+ j X
L
Z
E
= R
E
+j X
E
Distance measurement (principle)
Power Automation 6
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Z
L
Z
LF1
Z
LF2
R
F
R
F
Z
Load
D
F1 F2
X
R
Z
L
Z
LF2

SC1

SC2

L
R
R
Z
F1
Z
F2
R
R
Z
Load
Z
LF1
Fault area
distance relay
operating
characteristic
In
c
re
a
s
in
g
lo
a
d
Fault in
reverse
direction
Load area
Maximum Load:
Minimum voltage 0,9 Un
Maximum current 1,1 In
Nominal angle 30
Phase - Phase Fault
R
R
~ R
F
/ 2
Phase - Earth Fault
R
R
~ R
F
/(1 + R
E
/R
L
)
Load and short-circuit impedances
Power Automation 7
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
time
D1 D2 D3
t
1
t
2
t
3
Z
1
Z
2
Z
3
distance
A
t = grading time
A
C
B
D
Z
1
= 0,85 Z
AB
Z
2
= 0,85 (Z
AB
+ 0,85 Z
BC
)
Z
3
= 0,85 (Z
AB
+ 0,85 (Z
BC
+ 0,85 Z
CD
))
Safety margin is 15 %:
- line error
- CT, VT error
- measuring error
Grading rules:
Graded distance zones
Power Automation 8
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
2nd Zone: It must initially allow the 1st zone on the neighbouring feeder(s) to clear the fault.
The grading time therefore results from the addition of the following times:
operating time of the neighbouring feeder mechanical 25 - 80 ms
static: 15 - 40
digital: 15 - 30
+ circuit breaker operating time HV / EHV: 60 ms (3 cycles) / 40 ms (2 cycles)
MV up to about 80 ms (4 cycles)
+ distance relay reset time mechanical: approx. 60-100 ms
static: approx. 30 ms
digital: approx. 20 ms.
+ errors of the distance relay internal timers mechanical: 5% of the set time, minimum 60-100 ms
static: 3% of the set time, minimum 10 ms
digital: 1% of the set time, minimum 10 ms
+ distance protection starting time *) mechanical: O/C starter: 10 ms, impedance starter: 25 ms
static: O/C stater: 5 ms, impedance starter: 25 ms
digital: generally 15 ms
+ safety margin (ca.) grading; mechanical-mechanical: 100 ms
static/digital-mechanical or vice versa: 75 ms
digital-digital or static-static 50 ms
*) only relevant if the set relay times relate to the instant of fault detection / zone pick-up. This is the case with all
Siemens relays. There are other relays where the time is adapted by software to relate to the instant of fault
inception. In the latter case the starting time has to be dropped.
Determination of grading times
(With numerical relays 250 ms is possible)
Power Automation 9
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral

SC
Current area for
forward faults

SC
Current area for
reverse faults

SC
U
SC
R
Z
SC
Z'
SC
Impedance area for
forward faults
Impedance area for
reverse faults
X

SC
current / voltage diagram impedance diagram
Fault location Where is the fault ?
The impedance also shows the direction, but ....
Determination of fault direction
Power Automation 10
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
faulty phase voltage
V
f
I
f
V
L2
V
L3
voltage memory
(pre-fault voltage)
I
f
V
L2
V
L3
V
L1
healthy-phase voltage
(phase to phase voltage)
I
f
V
f
V
L2-L3
V
L2
V
L3
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
Z
line
Z
grid
relay
fault L1-E
Method 1
Method 2
V
L1
V
L1
V
f
Alternatives for the directional measurement
Power Automation 11
Power Transmission and Distribution
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
I
I>> I>
U
I>>
U
I>
U
N
U
digital
electro-mechanical
Power
system
Relay
line
E
E
Z
S
U
SC
Z
SC I
SC
U
SC

SC
U
SC
G
G
Voltage controlled overcurrent fault detection
Power Automation 12
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
50 %
100 %
U/ U
N
I /I
N
1 2 3
I>
I

>
I > >
U( I

> )
U( I > > )
X X
R R

2
This method is used in Germany
Voltage and angle controlled overcurrent fault
detection (U-I--starting)
Power Automation 13
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
X
R
fo
rw
a
rd
s
f
o
r
w
a
r
d
s
r
e
v
e
r
s
e
re
v
e
rs
e

Load
Load
Z1
Z2
Z4
Z3
Z1B
Z5
Line

Distance zones
Inclined with line angle
Angle o prevents overreach of Z1
on faults with fault resistance
that are fed from both line ends
Fault detection
no fault detection polygon: the
largest zone determines the
fault detection characteristic
simple setting of load
encroachment area with
R
min
and
Load
Impedance zones of digital relays (7SA6 and 7SA52)
Power Automation 14
Power Transmission and Distribution
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Z
L2-E
Z
L3-E
Z
L1-L2
Z
L3-L1
Z
L1-E
X
R
quadrilateral
MHO
U
L1
- U
L2
U
L3
- U
L1
U
L3
I
E
U
L2
I
L1
U
L1

K
I
L1
I
L2
I
L3
I
E
L1
L2
L3
E
U
L1
U
L2
U
L3
distance relay
im pedanc e of
healt hy l oops :
Z
L2 - E =
U
L2
I
L2
- K
E
I
E
Z
L3 - E =
U
L3
I
L3
- K
E
I
E
U
L1
- U
L2
Z
L1 - L2 =
I
L1
- I
L2
Z
L2 - L3 =
U
L2
- U
L3
I
L2
- I
L3
Z
L3 - L1 =
U
L3
- U
L1
I
L3
- I
L1
im p e d a n c e o f
f a u lte d lo o p :
Z
L1 - E =
U
L1
I
L1
- K
E
I
E
Conventional relays: limiting of the starting
characteristic area for phase-selective fault detection
Power Automation 15
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Intelligent phase selection:
Impedance comparison
Symmetrical component analysis
Load compensation
Pattern recognition
I
1
I
2
I
0
G
G G
G
I
F
/3
Z
L3-E
Z
L1-L2
Z
L3 - L1
Z
L1-E
X
R
quadrilateral
MHO
L
2
L
1
L
3
I
2
I
0
Z
L2-E
Distance protection Modern methods of phase
selection
Power Automation 16
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
fault
Impedance comparison
of fault loop impedances
Comparison of
I
2
and I
0
components
comparison of Load
compensated currents
n=1
n=1
n=1
n=1
Trip three-phase Trip single-phase
n = number of detected fault loops
N
Y
N Y
N
Y
N
Y
Distance protection Stepped process of phase selection
Power Automation 17
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Sector A
Sector C Sector B
m
a
r
g
i
n
I
2
a I
2
a
2
I
2
1-Ph-E fault:
After load compensation: Currents in the healthy phases are zero or have opposite
phase position
Ph-Ph-E fault:
After load compensation: Currents in faulted phases have same amplitude and show a
phase difference of 120 to 180 degree dependent on earthing conditions
, ,
2
0
2
2
0
L3 L2
2
L1
L3 L2 L1
a
a
a a
3
1
3
1
I I
I I
I I
I I I I
I I I I
~
~
~
+ + =
+ + =
(
'
`
,
\
|
2 0
2
0
: L
1
-E or L
2
-L
3
-E fault
: L
2
-E or L
3
-L
1
-E fault
: L
3
-E or L
1
-L
2
-E fault
Phase selection Differenciating between single and
double Ph-E fault
Power Automation 18
Power Transmission and Distribution
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Method used in 7SA52 and 7SA6 to measure I and V
Using a signal model (Kalman-Filter)
R
V
I L
Z = R + j L
Phasors
V = I Z
Estimate the phasors V and I using the least squares method (minimised errors)
, , , , , ,
A
t
A A k
T k C e T k B T k A y +
(
(
'
`
,
,
\
|
+ =

0 0 0
cos cos sin

y
k
is the sampled value (v or i) - by assuming
= 60 ms the following simplification results
, , , ,
A A k
T k b T k a y + =
0 0
cos sin
Im
Re b b
a
a
current
voltage
Power Automation 19
Power Transmission and Distribution
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Fast adaptive impedance measurement
Filters with different lengths
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
ms
Estimate 1 (n=5)
Estimate 2 (n=6)
Estimate 3 (n=8)
Estimate 4 (n=10)
Normal 1 (n = 21)
Normal 2 (n = 26)
Normal 3
Jump detected
Estimate 5 (n=13)
Estimate 6 (n=15)
Least Square Estimate with quality control
Adaptive Zone restriction
E. g. Zone Z1
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
1. Fast operation Use short data window
2. High accuracy High selectivity
3. Signal distortion do not cause delay or maloperation
X
R
Conclusion
Power Automation 21
Power Transmission and Distribution
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
G VF
Z
L
E
If
distance relay
SIR (Source Impedance Ratio) describes the ratio
between the source impedance and the line impedance!
L
S
Z
Z
SIR =
High SIR = Small loop voltage V
F
in case of a fault at the end of the line
SIR
E
V
f
+
=
1
SIR - Definition
Note: SIR trip time curves are mostly related to zone 1, i.e. ZL = Z1
Power Automation 22
Power Transmission and Distribution
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
The SIR gives some information about the power of infeed and
the line length!
SIR > 4 short line*
SIR < 4 and >0.5 medium line*
SIR < 0.5 long line*
For a distance relay it is more hard to operate on a short line
(large SIR)
than on a long line (small SIR)!
*Classification according IEEE-Guide
SIR - Considerations about line length and infeed
Power Automation 23
Power Transmission and Distribution
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
S I R= 1 (A-G )
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100
% o f z o n e s e t t in g
t
r
i
p
p
i
n
g

t
i
m
e

(
m
s
)
Trip time curves at SIR = 1
7SA522
Other relays
SIR = 1 (A G)
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
SI R=3 0 ( A- G)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100
% o f z o n e s e t t in g
t
r
i
p
p
i
n
g

t
i
m
e

(
m
s
)
Trip time curves at SIR = 30
7SA522
Other relays
SIR = 30 (A G)
High SIR (low voltage) doesnt effect the tripping time in numerical relays
Power Automation 25
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
D
A
D
B
D
C

>>
D

>t
A
Z
T
Z
1
Z
2
Z
3
Z
1
= 0.85 Z
A-B
Z
3
= 0.85 [ Z
A-B
+ 0.85 (Z
B-C
+ 0.85 Z
C-D
) ]
Z
2
= 0.85 (Z
A-B
+ 0.85 Z
B-C
)
Grading according
the recommendation
with the safety margin
of 15%.
Zone grading chart, radial feeder
Power Automation 26
Power Transmission and Distribution
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
0.6
0.3
grading time
(s)
The same grading from both sides
Ring feeder: with grading against opposite end
Power Automation 27
Power Transmission and Distribution
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
L2
L3
L4
L1
Z2
Z1
Z3
The impedances of the Z2 and Z3 must be grading with the shortest impedance
Grading in a branched radial system
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Distance protection: Earth fault in system with solid, isolated or
compensated system neutral earthing
G
B
A C
D
Z
1
Z
2...
D
Z
T
Neutral Earthing with
Peterson Coil or Isolated or Solid
During single phase earth fault:
The short circuit current magnitude depends on the
neutral earthing method.
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Earth Fault Current - Pick-Up Characteristic
Measuring errors and non-symmetry may not cause
incorrect pick-up by earth fault current threshold
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Earth Fault Detection Logic
Normal pick-up: 3I0
Heavy load on long line: 3I2
For very small earth current: 3U0 (isolated or
compensated system)
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Earth fault detection during one pole open condition
During the 1 pole open condition, load current flows
in the earth path.
Magnitude comparison of the remaining 2 phases
prevents incorrect pick-up
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Phase-to-Earth loop:
Phase-to-Phase loop:
Distance measurement
Fault loop formulas
, , , ,
2 1 2 1 L L L L L L
I I jX R V + =

R
L
+ j X
L
I
L1
R
E
+ j X
E
V
L1
V
L2
V
L3
I
L2
I
L3
I
E
Relay
location
Line and earth impedance are measured
Only the Line impedance is measured
, , , ,
(
(
'
`
,
,
\
|
+
(
(
'
`
,
,
\
|
=
+ + =
E
L
E
L L E
L
E
L L L
E E E L L L L
I
X
X
I jX I
R
R
I R V
jX R I jX R I V
1 1 1
1 1
Power Automation 33
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Numeric impedance calculation, ph-ph-loop
Infeed
L1
L2
L3
E
R
fwd
X
fwd
(L
fwd
)
R
ret
X
ret
(L
ret
)
to remote
line end

fwd

ret
U
fwd
U
ret
relay
location
fault
location
U U
= X
)
`

L3 L2
L3 L2
m L3 - L2
-
-
I I
I
)
`

L3 L2
L3 L2
L3 - L2
-
-
e =
I I
U U
R R
L3 L2
L3 L2
L3 - L2
-
I I -
U U
= Z
With the measurement of phase to phase voltages and currents the
fault impedance (impedance to fault location) is correct calculated
Power Automation 34
Power Transmission and Distribution
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Estimation of arc resistance
X Variable
R/X-setting
R
Worrington formula:
j |
j | Ohm m l
A I
28700
R
1,4
ARC
=
Rough
estimation:
U
ARC
= 2500 V/m
j | j |
j |
Ohm
A I
m d V/m 2500
ARC
R
F

=
Phase-to-phase distances
d = 3,5 m (110 kV)
d = 7 m (220 kV)
d = 11 m (380 kV)
Insulator lengths (long-rod insulator)
l= 1x1,3 = 1,3 m (110 kV
l= 2x1,3 = 2,6 m (220 kV)
l= 3x1,3 = 3,9 m (380 kV)
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Earth Fault Protection
in Systems with Earthed Neutral
Power Automation 36
Power Transmission and Distribution
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
3 definite-time stages
Earth (zero sequence) current protection, 4 stages
1 inverse-time stage: IEC, logarithmic inverse or ANSI characteristic
this stage can also be used as a 4th definite-time stage
Directional determination with 3V0 and/or Ipol of an earthed power trafo
Directional determination with V2 and I2 (negative sequence)
Sensitive 3I0-measurement with a dynamic from 0.005 A to 100 x In
Elimination of higher harmonics with special digital filters
Inrush-stabilisation with I0/100Hz
Teleprotection: Directional comparison, Blocking or Unblocking
Operation with weak infeed trip and echo
Instantaneous trip after switch-onto-fault
7SA522
High Resistance Earth Fault Protection: Features
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Example: Single phase fault with infeed from2 sides
IL1
IL2
IL3
IE
Zf
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Symmetrical Component representation: L1-E Fault
B
Pos.
Seq.
I
1A
Neg.
Seq.
Zero
Seq.
I
1B A
I
2A
I
2B
I
0A
I
0B
3 x
R
Fault
U
0A
U
2A
U
2B
U
0B
Power Automation 39
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
*)
I
0P
U
0P
U
2P
I
0L,
I
2L
*) not needed for numerical relays,
U
0P
may also be internally calculated
Polarizing Options for Directional Earth Fault Relays
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Directional Characteristic (U0 and I
Y
)
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Earth fault
direction
=
EF IE> Echo
3I0>>>
EF>>> Trip
P
EFp Trip
Inrush-
stabilisation
T(3I0/IN)
T
Tele-
protection
T
SOTF
=
&
&
3I0>>> Def. Time Stage
Inverse Time Stage
&
&
P
>EF>>> block
Direc. 3I0>>>
P
Direc. 3I0p
>EFp block
P
3I0p
EF Fault Det.
>EF Trip rel.
3I0>> Def. Time Stage
3I0> Def. Time Stage
= Input signal
(binary input)
P
= Parameter = Output Signal
(alarm, command)
P3146 AddTdelay
7SA522 High Resistance Earth Fault Protection:
functional diagram
Power Automation 42
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
7SA522 - Directional earth fault protection: Settings
Settings of the stages:
Settings for direction:
General settings:
Power Automation 43
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Principle of phase selection logic with U and I -
Example L1-E
U
L1E
< 0.6 U
NOM
U
L2E
> 0.7 U
NOM
U
L3E
> 0.7 U
NOM
I
L1E
> 2 I
NOM
I
L2E
< 1.2 I
NOM
I
L3E
< 1.2 I
NOM
&
&
OR
Select
L1-E
with U / I
If selection with U / I is not successful (U too large or I too small) then
symmetrical component method is used
Power Automation 44
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Phase Selection Logic - Sequence Components
L2-E
L3-E
L1-E
I2 = I0
I2 = a
2*
I0
I2 = a*I0
Angledifference
I2/I0
Faulty Phase
-60 .. 60 L1-E
60 .. 180 L3-E
180 .. 300 L2-E
Power Automation 45
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
U
0P
or U
2P
may fall below critical value (approx. 1 V secondary) and limit relay high
resistance earth fault sensitivity
Zero or negative sequence sources to be available behind relay location
Minimum settings at least > 3 times VT and CT inaccuracies
Current setting above line unsymmetry (M
0
= Z
01
/Z
0
or M
2
= Z
21
/Z
1
) (series
compensated lines require higher current setting due to possibility of
unsymmetrical gap flashover)
Separate current threshold setting for tele-protection : 3I0<Min Teleprot
Inhibits echo send / releases block signal send
Must be set to consider capacitive charging currents
Teed load on line may reduce I
2
at relay location
Teed earthed transformer may reduce I
0
at relay location
DEF should be blocked during 1-pole ARC dead time
Pick-up threshold biasing by I
ph
> to avoid false operation with CT saturation
DEF protection, Critical application issues
Power Automation 46
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
7SA522 - Earth fault protection
Directional comparison teleprotection scheme
rec.
transm.
A B
E/F.
frwd. T
S
& trip
rec.
&

1
E/F.
frwd. T
S
& trip
transm
&

1
*Three-terminal schemes are supported as well
T
S
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Tele Protection
Power Automation 48
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Faults in this area are
tripped from side 2 in
t
2
Faults in this area are tripped
from both sides in first-zone
time
Faults in this area are
tripped from side 2 in
t
2
Normal setting: X
1
= 0.85 X
L
1
2
Selectivity in distance protection,
Teleprotection is the solution
15% 70% 15%
Faults on approximately 70% of the line length are cleared
without delay at both line ends
Faults in the remaining 30% of the line length
are cleared with a time delay.
Remedy: Exchange of information between the two line ends
Required: Communication channel (PLC, microwave radio, fibre optic, etc.)
Teleprotection logic (dedicated device or internal
function in numerical protection devices)
Power Automation 49
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Teleprotection Schemes
Permissive Underreach PUTT
Permissive Overreach POTT
Blocking
Unblocking
Power Automation 50
Power Transmission and Distribution
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
PUTT POTT Blocking Unblocking
Middle + long lines
with FS-Carrier
or FO
If second zone
tripping for near end
faults not allowed.
Not applicable to
lines with weak in
feed.
Simple logic!
Pref. short lines
with FS-Carrier
(2-Ph coupling)
FO or MW
Only forward
overreaching zone
necessary
Complex logic!
Current reversal
guide
ECHO-logic
(WI-logic)
All lines with
AM-Carrier
(less reliable
channel)
Reverse looking
blocking zone (fast)
additionally
necessary
No monitoring of the
AM-channel!
EHV-lines with
FS-Carrier.
Continuous signal
sending necessary
(must be admissible)
No reverse looking
blocking zone
necessary
Application of Teleprotection Schemes
PUTT - Permissive Under-reach Transfer Trip
POTT - Permissive Overreach Transfer Trip
Power Automation 51
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Power Automation
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
7SA522 - Permissive underreach transfer trip (PUTT)
Z1(A)
Z1
A B
Z1(B)
Z1B(A)
Z1B(B)
& &
(A)
Z1
(B)
OR
T
S
Trip
Trip
Further
zones
T1
Z1B
T1B
(A)
trans-
mit
re-
ceive
Further
zones
trans-
mit
re-
ceive
T
S
OR
Z1B
T1B
(A)
T1
T
S
Power Automation 52
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Z1(A)
T1B
Z1B
A B
Z1(B)
Z1B(A)
Z1B(B)
&
&
&
&
(A)
T1B
Z1B
(B)
OR
OR
OR
OR
T
S
Z1 or
further
zones
trans-
mit
re-
ceive
Trip Trip
re-
ceive
trans-
mit
Z1 or
further
zones
T
S
7SA522 - Permissive overreach transfer trip (POTT)
T
S
Power Automation 53
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
7SA522 - Blocking
A B
Z1(A)
Z1(B)
Z1B(A)
Z1B(B)
Z1B
T1B
1
trip
rec.
&
d
dt
40 ms
Forw.
(A)
T
S
&

1
(u,i)
FD
(A)
(A)
T
V

1
trip
rec.
further
zones
&
Z1 or
d
dt
40 ms
Forw.
(B)
T
S
&

1
(u,i)
FD
(B)
(B)
T
V
FD(A)
FD(B)
FD (A)
FD (B)
(A)
Z1B
T1B
(B)
transm. transm.
further
zones
Z1 or
T
S
T
V
Power Automation 54
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Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
7SA522 - Unblocking
A B
Z1(A)
Z1(B)
Z1B(A)
Z1B(B)
Z1B
T1B
T
S
&

1 trip
transm.
rec.
further
zones
&
Z1or

1 T
S
&

1
trip
transm.
rec.
&

1
f
U
f
U
f
0
f
0
Unblock-
logic
Unblock-
logic
U U
B B
f
0
Off frequency (monitoring frequency)
f
U
Unblock frequency (send frequency)
U Unblocking signal
B Blocking signal
(A)
Z1B
T1B
(B)
further
zones
Z1or
T
S
Power Automation 55
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Z1 Z1B
L1-E
L2-E A B
1
1
2
2
Z1
Z1B
A1 trips single-phase in L1 with a phase-segregated L1-receive-signal
Maximum of Selectivity
Note: 3 binary channels for both directions are required or one serial link
7SA522 - Phase segregated Teleprotection
Power Automation 56
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
7SA522 - Teleprotection with three-terminal lines
Software provides
teleprotection of three-
terminal lines without
additional logic
Power Automation 57
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
7SA522 and 7SA6
Teleprotection via serial remote relay interface
PUTT and POTT schemes available: plug and protect
Echo, weak infeed trip and direct trip
Phase segregated
Communication prepared for 2 or 3 terminal lines
Transmission of operational measured values from the remote end(s)
28 remote signals can be configured in addition to the
teleprotection scheme
Number of remote relay interfaces: 7SA522 -> 2 7SA6 -> 1
>
Power Automation 58
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Power Automation
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
SIPROTEC 4
Communication topology: Ring and Chain
2 terminal line
side 1
side 2 side 2
3 terminals: Chain
side 1
side 3
Automatic change from
closed ring to chain, if
one connection is lost
or not available
3 terminals: Closed ring
side 1
side 2
side 3
Power Automation 59
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Synchronous data transmission by HDLC- protocol
Permanent supervision of the data transmission
Measurement and display of signal transmission time
Relay counts number of invalid telegrams:
If transmission failure rate is too high the teleprotection scheme will be blocked ->
switching to normal zone grading
Settings for the data transmission:
64 kBit/s, 128 kBit/s or 512 kBit/s
Communication device addresses
-> Protection devices are clearly assigned to a defined protection section
Detection of unwanted reflected data in the loops in communication network
Data reflection for test purposes settable
SIPROTEC 4: Familiar with digital communication networks
Features of the relay to relay communication
Power Automation 60
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
FO5: distance 1.5 km (with clock feed FO5: distance 1.5 km (with clock feed- -back) back)
FO6 : distance 3.5 km FO6 : distance 3.5 km
O
O 1300 nm 1300 nm
10 km 10 km
O 1300 nm 1300 nm
35 km 35 km
O
E
X21 X21
G703 G703
internal
internal
internal
external
820 nm 820 nm
1,5 km / 3 km 1,5 km / 3 km
FO7 : distance 10 km FO7 : distance 10 km
FO8: distance 35 km FO8: distance 35 km
KU : hook KU : hook- -up to communication network up to communication network
Note: km data are valid for worst Note: km data are valid for worst- -case conditions case conditions
Communication Options
Power Automation 61
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Transient Blocking for Permissive Schemes
Power Automation 62
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Weak Infeed Echo Logic
No Distance Pick-
up
Receive
Signal
Power Automation 63
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
17.10.97
en513ase2
7SA522 - Echo and Tripping in case of no-infeed or
weak-infeed
Configuration
Settings
Note: The echo signal must be routed in
addition to the send signal on the transmission
signal contact
Matrix
The receive signal is derived from :
and
Phase segregated weak-infeed tripping
*Three-terminal schemes are supported as well
!
Power Automation 64
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Overreach zone setting for POTT and Unblocking
Reverse
looking
zone (B)
A
B
Z1B(A)
Z1B(B)
correct
incorrect!
Reverse
looking
zone (A)
The year of Profitable Growth
Global network of innovation
Power Swing
Power Automation 66
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral

L

Z
S1

L

Z
L

L

Z
S2
E
2
= E'
2
E
1
U
A
U
B
U'
B
U'
A

'
L

L
0
'
0
E'
1
E1 E2
ZS1
ZS2
ZL
U
A
U
B
Two Machine Problem
If the angle becomes too large, the system stability can be lost
Power swing: Voltage diagram
Power Automation 67
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
E
1
= E
2
E
1
> E
2
E
1
< E
2
X
R
Z
S2
B
Z
L
A
Z
S1
Z
Load
0
0
'
load point
Power swing locus and relay characteristic in the
impedance diagram
Power Automation 68
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Z
S1
U
1
E
1
U
2
E
2
Z
S2
Z
L
Z
L
D
P
TP
= sin

E
1
E
2
X
T
1
D
2
D
3
D
A
C
1
3
2
1
2
3
0
4
5
6
0
0
0
1
0
2
0 90 180
0
P
T
P
B
Dynamic system stability, equal area criterion
Power Automation 69
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
5
6
1
3
4
X
R
Z
load
Z
S1
Z
S1
ZL
2
2
0
0
0
Power swing locus in the impedance plane
Power Automation 70
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Power swing detection: Classic Method
(Not used in 7SA52 and 7SA6)
Classic power swing detection
is restricted to slow swings
The setting of AZ may not be too large
to avoid load encroachment (typ. 5 O)
During fast swings the time available
(At) for detection of impedance vector
in the power swing zone is too short.
Z
At = time for transition of Z from outer to inner zone
Power Automation 71
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
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Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Novel space vector based principle
Self-setting
Small AZ (1 Ohm at In=5 A)
Blocking up to high slip frequencies (7 Hz)
Recognition of all fault types during swing
Remains effective during single pole ARC
open time (3-phase set-up)
dZ/dt measurement
Calculation of swing centre
and plausibility check
(+90
O
< <-90
O)
Stable swing
Unstable swing
Z
X
R
Advanced Power swing blocking techniques
(7SA513, 7SA522, 7SA6)
Power Automation 72
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Power Swing detection: New method
dR
dX
(k-n)
(k-n)
dR
(k)
dX
(k)
Power swing
X
R
Fault entry
Fault
impedance
Load
impedance
Transition from load to fault is fast
Power swing transition is slow
Continuos monitoring of the impedance trajectory
Monitoring of trajectory continuity
Monitoring of trajectory velocity
Evaluation of trajectory ellipse
Power Automation 73
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Example:
i/kA
t/ms
500
u/kV
t/ms
500
200
-3
6
3
R
Power swing
locus(E
A
>E
B
)
-90
O
180
O
0
O
90
O
X
m
Slip
frequency
E
B
A Z
A
a Z
l
b Z
B
B
~
~ ~ ~
~ E
A
Relay
Relay
Evaluation of the power swing process
Power Automation 74
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
t/s
0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,6
iL1/A
-4
-2
0
t/s
0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,6
iL2/A
-2
0
t/s
0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,6
iL3/A
-2
0
2
t/s
0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,6
uL1/V
-50
0
t/s
0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,6
uL2/V
-50
0
50
t/s
0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,6
uL3/V
-50
0
50
t/s
0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,6
DisTRIP3p Z1Bmf
Relay TRIP
Relay PICKUP
Dis. reverse
Dis. forward
Dis.T.SEND
>DisTel Rec.Ch1
Power Swing
Example:
400 kV
400 km
f
PS
~ 2 Hz
3-pole fault
Novel power swing detection provides secure
operation with swing frequencies of up to 7 Hz
Power Automation 75
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Fault detection during power swing
I1
I2
V1
Trip
The Power swing passes through
the trip characteristic several times.
Single phase fault is detected and
cleared.
Power Automation 76
Power Transmission and Distribution
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
Earth
FaultEarth
Fault Protection
in Systems with
Earthed Neutral
Three phase fault during Power Swing
Three phase fault during power swing
is detected and cleared
Fault inception while swing is inside
trip characteristic
I1
V1
V2
V3
Trip