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TABEL PROTEKSI

TABEL PROTEKSI PADA SALURAN TRANSMISI Macam Proteksi Over current Protection Klas waktu dan Arus Directional atau tidak directional saluran untuk Uraian Merupakan pengaman utama untuk distribusi saluran dan back-up dimana utama,

pengaman utamanya adalah jarak atau tipe lain yang cepat Waktunya yang sempit Rele Instantaneous untuk arus minimum rele inverse

definite dipilih untuk sistem waktu

Proteksi gangguan ke tanah

Pengaman untuk

gangguan kebutuhan

ke

tanah

terpisah yang ditambahkan hanya pengaman gangguan phasa ke tanah Pengaman Jarak Lebih cepat dari pengaman over current. Kombinasinya tergantung pada panjang saluran yang on Pilot wiredifferential protection Untuk saluran transmisi yang

panjang (minimal 10 km) Carrier Current Protection Untuk saluran transmisi yang

panjang dan sering terbukanya CB

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TABEL PROTEKSI

TABEL PROTEKSI PADA GENERATOR No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Macam Proteksi Differential Restriced earth fault Stator turn to turn fault Time Over Current Temperature (thermo-detector) Negative sequence Current Loss of Load Loss of input-antiMotoring Loss of field * * 10. Loss of synchronism 11. Over speed 12. Over voltage 13. Rotor earth fault 14. Back-up overcurrent 15. Bearing temperature 16. Bearing insulation * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Kurang dari 1 MW Diatas 1 MW Diatas 1 MW * * Diatas 1 MW * * *

Hanya untuk hydrogenerator Hanya untuk hydrogenerator * * * * * * *

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TABEL PROTEKSI

TABEL BEBARAPA KONDISI TIDAK NORMAL DAN SISTEM PENGAMANNYA


No. Kondisi tak normal Pengaruh Pengaman

1.

Panas Kelebihan beban beban naik terus sistem pendingin rusak

Kumparan stator dan isolasi rusak karena terlalu panas

Thermocouples atau resistance thermometer imbedded in stator slots and cooling system. Stator overload protection with overcurrent relay

2.

Gangguan diluar generator

Beban tidak seimbang, tekanan pada kumparan dan poros, panas berlebihan yang memperpanjang hubung singkat.

Negative sequence protection untuk mesin yang besar. Overload protection untuk mesin yang kecil Blased differential protection, sensitive earth fault protection, inter turn fault protection

3.

Gangguan pada stator: antar phasa phasa ke tanah inter turn

Kumparan terbakar, pengelasan pada inti laminasi, mati

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TABEL PROTEKSI

No.

Kondisi tak normal

Pengaruh

Pengaman

4.

Rotor gangguan ke tanah

Satu gangguan tidak berbahaya, kedua gangguan menyebabkan ketidakseimbangan tekanan magnet yang menyebabkan kerusakan shaft dan bearing.

Rotor earth-fault Protection

5.

Kehilangan medan magnet CB medan magnet trip

Generator jalan sebagai generator induksi yang mendapat eksitasi arus dari bus-bar. Kecepatan bertambah

Loss of field atau field failure protection

6.

Generator berubah jadi Pengaruhnya motor. Saat inpit dari prime mover berhenti, generator mangambil daya dari bus-bar dan berubah menjadi motor sinkron pada keadaan yang sama tergantung pada prime mover yang on dan jumlah daya yang diambil dari bus-bar saat berubah jadi motor

Reverse power protection by directional power relays detect the reversal of power

7.

Over voltage

Isolasi terbakar

Ligthning arrester tersambung pada terminal generator.

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TABEL PROTEKSI

Table Types of protection for Generators and their setting


Generator Rating 1 Type of Drive 2 Type of protection used 3 1. Time graded earth fault relay 2. Time graded over current relay 3. Reverse power relay (only for back pressure turbines) 1. Time graded earth fault relay 2. Time graded over current relay 3. Reverse power 1. Balanced earth fault relay or Differential protection (Merz-Price) 2. Reverse power (only back pressure turbine) 1. Balanced earth fault relay or Differential protection (Merz-Price) 2. over voltage protection Suggested fault current setting 4 20 percent full load current 125 percent full load current 10 to 20 percent of its normal power rating 20 percent full load current 125 percent full load current 10 to 20 percent of its normal power rating 10 to 25 percent full load current 10 to 25 percent full load current 10 to 25 percent full load current Protection for exciter circuit and neutral 5 1. Neutral isolating switch 2. Field switch in the exciter field circuit

Steam Turbine Below 1000 KVA Steam Engine or Diesel Engine

1. Neutral isolating switch 2. Field switch in the exciter field circuit

1000 KVA to 5000 KVA

Steam Turbine

1. Neutral isolating switch or Automatic neutral breaker

1000 KVA to 5000 KVA

Water Turbine

10 to 25 percent full load current 10 to 25 percent full load current 10 percent of normal voltage

1.For unattended elations, protection against field failure Setting 20 to 30 percent of the normal excitation. 2.Neutral isolating switch or automatic neutral breaker

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TABEL PROTEKSI

Generator Rating 1

Type of Drive 2

Type of protection used 3 1. Differential protections (Merz-Price) or Time graded earth fault relay 2. Phase unbalance 3. Reverse power (only back pressure turbine) 1. Differential protections or Time graded earth fault relay 2.Over voltage

Suggested fault current setting 4 10 to 25 percent full load current 20 percent full load current 10 to 25 percent negative phase sequence only 10 to 25 percent full load current 10 to 25 percent full load current 20 percent full load current 10 percent of normal voltage

Above 5000 KVA

Steam Turbine

Protection for exciter circuit and neutral 5 1. Field earth fault for protecting 96% of the field winding (only for generator above 20.000 KVA) 2.Automatic field suppression switch 3.Automatic neutral breaker. 1.For unattended station protection against field failure, Sotting 20 to 30 percent normal excitation 2.Filed earth fault for protecting 96% of the field winding. 3. Automatic field suppression switch 3.Automatic neutral breaker.

Water Turbine

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TABEL PROTEKSI

Table Power Transformer Protection


Abnormal Condition Incipient faults below oil level resulting in decomposition of oil, faults between phases and between phase and ground 1. Buchholz relay trips the circuit breaker Large internal faults phase to phase, phase to ground, below oil level 2. Merz Price percentage differential protection 3. High speed high set overcurrent relay 1. Merz Price percentage differential protection Earth faults 2. Earth fault relay Buchholz relay too slow and less sensitive Merz Price percentage differential protection used for transformers of and above 5 MVA For transformer of and above 5 MVA a. Instantaneous Restricted E.F. Relay b. Time lag E.F Relay 1. Graded time lag over Through faults current relay 2. H.V Fuses Protection of distribution transformer Small distribution transformer up to 500 KVA 1. Thermal overload relay Overloads 2. Temperature relays sound alarm Generally temperature indicators are provided on the transformers. Temp. increase is indicated on control board also. Fans started at certain temp. Protection Buchholz relay sounds alarm (Gas actuated relay) Remarks Buchholz relay used for transformer of rating 500 KVA and above

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TABEL PROTEKSI

Abnormal Condition High Voltage Surges due lightning, switching

Protection 1. Horn gaps 2. Lightning arresters transformer

Remarks Not favoured for important In addition to L.A.s for incoming lines

Only fuses for earth fault protections and phase fault protection. Overload protection generally not Small distribution transformer provided For more important transformers of about 500 KVA Over current relays Instantaneous earth fault relays Transformers in important locations ratings 500 KVA and above Restricted earth fault protection Over urrent protection Buchholz relay

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TABEL PROTEKSI

Table Protection of Large Generator Transformer Unit


Protection of Generator Transformer together Generator-transformer overall differential protection*

Generator protection

Generator differential protection* Stator earth fault protection* Negative phase sequence protection againstunbalanced loading*** Inter-turn fault protection Reverse power protection Field failure protection** Rotor earth fault protection Temperature sensors in slots*** Overcurrent relays in stator and rolar circuits Lightning arrester for generator overvolatage protection

Protection of unit auxiliary transformer

Differential protection* Restricted earth fault protection* Buchholz relay Overcurrent protection Winding and oil temperature sensors

Protection of main transformer

HV overcurrent protection* HV Restricted earth fault protection* Buchholz relay Winding and oil temperature sensors Lightning arresters on HV side

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TABEL PROTEKSI

Protection of Generator Transformer together

Generator-transformer overall differential protection*

Preventive measures sound alarm on control panel

Continous monitoring of outlet temperature of gaseous or liquid coolants Flow monitors Low noiler pressure alarm/trip Lubrication oil failure Emergency trip Low vacuum

* ** ***

Trip generator c.b., close throttle valves, open field c.b.,open auxiliary c.b Close emergency throttle valves main c.b. opened only after operation of interlocking reverse power relay Trip main circuit breaker only

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TABEL PROTEKSI

Protection Chart for Induction Motors


Abnormal condition Alternate forms of protections from which choice is made Remarks

Overload

Overload release Thermal overload relays Inverse overcurrent relays Miniature circuit breaker with built in trip

- overload protection givem for


almost all motors

Phase fault and earth faults

HRC fuses High set instantaneous overcurrent relays Differential protection

Differential protection
becomes economical for motors above about 1200 HP. Below this high set instantaneous protection is preferred

Undervoltage

undervoltage release

undervoltage release incorporated every starter

undervoltage relays

undervoltage relays used in certain applications

Unbalanced Voltage Reverse phase sequence

Negative phase sequence relay

only in special applications

Phase reversal relays

- Generally at support point - Prevents reverse of running

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TABEL PROTEKSI

Abnormal condition

Alternate forms of protections from which choice is made

Remarks

Single Phasing

Usual thermal overload relays Special single phase preventer

Recently developed static single phasing devices becoming popular

Stalling

thermal relays Instantaneous O.C Relays Instantaneous overcurrent relays - only for motors

Rotor Faults

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