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1. What are the raw materials for steel production? 2.

What are the typical technologies for steel production? 3. What is a structural steel? What is the difference between a plain carbon and a low alloy structural steel? 4. What is the effect of an increase in carbon content from 0 % to 1 % on the (i) iron carbide (cementite, Fe3C) content, (ii) strength and (iii) toughness of an annealed, plain carbon steel? 5. Identify and describe the two microstructure constituents which make up a typical structural steel. How is each of these microconstituents formed? How does each affect the mechanical properties of the steel? 6. What is a "killed" steel and how is it produced? 7. What is the mechanism by which carbon and nitrogen strengthen low alloy steels? 8. Briefly describe the strengthening mechanism resulting from work-hardening (strain-hardening). Why is this method of strengthening not commonly used for structural steels? 9. What are cementite, ferrite, austenite, martensite? What are the differences in their properties? 10. How are bainite and martensite formed? What is the difference in the properties of these two phases? Why are these phases not shown on the iron-iron carbide phase diagram? 11. What differences in microstructure and mechanical properties are produced by quenching, normalizing, or fully annealing a sample of structural steel? 12. Explain the differences between (i) elastic and plastic deformation, (ii) proportional limit and yield strength, and (iii) discontinuous yielding and strain-hardening. 13. How can the brittle fracture of structural steel members be prevented? 14. What is "weldability" and how is it affected by increasing carbon and alloy contents in a structural steel? 15. What conditions may result in the formation of a galvanic microcell on the surface of a structural steel? 16. Identify and briefly describe the most common form of steel corrosion. 17. What factors influence the usefulness of zinc coatings as a form of corrosion protection for structural steels? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. Which of the following SMAW electrodes is not included in the F2 group? a. E6012 b. E6010 c. E6013 d. E6014 e. none of the above 2. a. b. c. d. e. 3. a. b. c. d. e. 4. a. b. c. d. e. For procedure qualification using a 3/8 inch thick test coupon, what test specimens are required for a complete penetration groove weld? 1 tensile, 2 face bend, 2 root bend 2 tensile, 1 face bend, 1 root bend 2 tensile, 4 side bend b and c above none of the above Which groove weld position has an axis of inclination of 10 and rotation of face of 90. flat horizontal vertical overhead none of the above For the radiographic testing of a 1-1/2 inch thick material, what designation of hole type IQI is required (source side)? 20 25 30 35 40

5. What is the thickness range qualified for a welding procedure using a complete penetration groove weld on 6 inch schedule 120 pipe coupons? a. no limit b. 0.187 inch minimum c. 0.063 to 0.674 d. 0 to 2t e. none of the above 6. a. b. c. d. e. 7. a. b. c. d. e. For GMAW, which is not considered to be an essential variable for procedure qualification? a change in the number of electrodes used. a change from a single shielding gas to a mixture. a change of 5% above the mean amperage for each diameter used. a change in the position of welding. a change in the type of groove. Individuals performing nondestructive testing shall be qualified in accordance with AWS D1.1 API 1104 ASME Section IX ASME Section V ASNT SNT-TC-1A

8. Which of the following is not considered to be an essential variable of SMAW qualification procedure? a. a decrease in included angle of the groove b. an increase in included angle of the groove c. a decrease in root opening of the groove

d. an increase in the root face of the groove e. the omission of backing material 9. When NDT is used on bridge welds, what is the maximum length of slag inclusion allowed in a 3/4 inch groove weld joint subjected to tensile forces? a. 1/8 inch b. 3/16 inch c. 1/4 inch d. 5/16 inch e. 1/2 inch 10. When strengthening and repairing an existing building, the portions of such surfaces that are to receive welds shall be a. cleaned of dirt and rust except adherent paint need not be removed. b. cleaned thoroughly of all foreign matter including paint for a distance of 1 inch from each side of welds. c. cleaned thoroughly of all foreign matter including paint for a distance of 2 inches from each side of the outside lines of welds. d. inspected by dye penetrant prior to welding. e. visually inspected for a distance of 1 inch from each side. 11. When the direction of undercut runs transverse to the direction of primary stress in dynamic loading, what is the maximum allowable undercut for material under 5/8 inch thickness? a. 0.01 inch b. 1/32 inch c. 0.0625 inch d. 1/8 inch e. not specified 12. In welding A514 and A517 steels, how long must the inspector wait before accepting or rejecting the welding by visual methods? a. when it is cool enough to inspect b. 4 hours c. 48 hours d. 10 hours e. not specified 13. When any weld is to examined by nondestructive methods, it shall be checked by a. magnetic particle inspection b. visual inspection c. liquid penetrant inspection d. ultrasonic inspection e. paint film thickness measurement 14. For bridge groove welds with 1/2 inch effective throat that are subject to tensile stress, the maximum size of internal porosity permitted by radiographic examination as indicated in section 9 is a. 1/16 inch b. 1/8 inch c. 5/32 inch d. 3/16 inch e. 7/32 inch 15. 16. 17. pipe? What are the minimum dimensions of a complete penetration groove weld procedure qualification plate 3/8" thick, using transverse bends? What plunger diameter is to be used to bend a 1-1/2" thick ASTM A514 plate? A welder has been qualified on a complete penetration groove welded plate in the horizontal position. What positions, if any, can he weld on

18. A procedure qualification test has been conducted on a 2" A514 plate, using an E111T-1 electrode in the vertical up position. What is the size of the side bend specimens? (3/8" x 6" x ?") 19. 20. You are using a prequalified SAW procedure with an alloy flux. You change electrode diameters. Must you requalify the procedure? You observe a guided bend test on A709 Grade 50W. The mandrel (plunger) diameter is 2". Was the correct radius used?

21. When longitudinal fillet welds are used alone in end connections of flat bar tension members in statically loaded structures the length of each fillet weld shall be: 22. 23. 24. area? 25. 26. 27. What is the maximum specified yield strength for steels used in dynamically loaded structures? What hole type IQI should appear on a radiograph of 1.250" plate when a source side IQI is used? What is the allowable stress in a statically loaded structure complete joint penetration groove weld, when the tension is normal to the effective

In dynamically loaded structures, temporary welds shall be subjected to what requirements? Is API 5L grade X52 and acceptable material for use in tubular structures? You are torque testing a 3/4-16 UNF stud. How many joules must the stud be torqued to?

28. 29.

Is ASTM A517 steel acceptable for use in buildings? In statically loaded structures, temporary welds shall be subjected to what requirements?

30. You are on a statically loaded structure, making a fillet weld. The stress on the weld is shear on the effective area. You are using an E71T-1 electrode. What is the allowable stress? _________________________________________________________________________________ 1. What two documents address welding inspection and nondestructive examination? 2. What is the AWS specification for welding symbols? 3. Give the AWS standard name and abbreviation for each process (from Figure 2.7): stick welding, gasless MIG, pulsed MIG, sub-arc, plasma cutting, Heliarc welding, spray transfer gas metal arc, short arc, oxyacetylene cutting TIG welding, resistance spot welding 5. What are the physical requirements of a welding inspector? 6. What are the technical requirements of a welding inspector? 7. What are the ethical requirements of a welding inspector? 8. What are the personal requirements of a welding inspector? 9. How are welding inspectors certified? 10. List the eight activities encountered in welding inspection: __________________________________________________________________________ 1. What is the difference between a welder and a welding operator? 2. A welding carriage is set up to weld a joint in a steel tank. A GMAW torch is mounted on the carriage, carefully aligned with the joint, and the trigger is locked on, starting the welding process, and the carriage is turned on, causing the torch to travel along the joint. Is this mechanized or automatic welding? How do you know? 3. Why are MA, SA, and ME all "closed loop" systems? What makes AD a closed loop system, while AU is an open loop system?

4. If the open circuit voltage of a CC welding machine is 80 volts, why is the arc voltage only 20 to 30 volts? How can the welder change the arc voltage, and what happens to the current when he does? 5. Explain why the arc length of a CV welding process remains relatively constant when the wire feed speed is increased and when it is decreased. 6. 7. 8. In what ways can the current output be adjusted for a transformer power source? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the transformer, the transformer-rectifier, and the three phase rectifier power supply? What are the advantages of the inverter power source?

9. Sketch an AC sine wave and an AC square wave, and explain why the current flow from the square wave is better for GTAW welding applications. 10. Multiple operator systems are popular in the construction and shipbuilding industry where many welders are working at the same time. Assume 10 welders are welding at approximately 120 amps each. The welders weld for 2 minutes, then take 2 minutes to chip slag and get a new rod. What size power source would be needed to feed all 10 welders from a single system? Compare this to the power requirements of individual welding machines for each welder. 11. An 800 amp 60% duty cycle welding machine is to be used for SAW welding (an application where 100% duty cycle is required). What is the maximum welding current available? 12. Hobby welding transformers are often rated at 20% duty cycle. How would you compare a 400 amp 20% duty cycle machine to an industrial machine? (calculate the 60% and 100% duty cycles) 13. Your welding machine is 100' away from your work and you are welding at 150 amps. What is the minimum cable size, and what is the total voltage drop? 14. You buy a new three phase welding machine (they never come with power cords). The shop electrician is sick today, and his apprentice asks you what size cable he needs to connect it up. You look on the machine and see that is draws 50 amps, and you tell him... _____________________________________________________________________________________ 1. Describe the two general types of steel. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. What is the normal microstructure of a slow cooled plain carbon steel? What hard, less ductile microstructure is produced by rapid cooling? What is done to weldments having higher CE's and thicknesses? What element causes delayed cracking? What four factors must be considered to prevent delayed cracking? What is the chemical composition of common austenitic stainless steel? What is sensitization? What is microfissuring?

10. 11. 12.

Where is a lamellar tear located with respect to a weld? What four elements are not good to have present during welding operations? What is the difference between preheat and interpass temperatures?

13. What is a PWHT? ___________________________________________________________________________________ 1. What factors make SMAW the most versatile and popular welding process? 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Why is a constant current power supply required for SMAW? Compare the applications, advantages, and disadvantages of DCEP, DCEN, and AC welding. Describe the fundamental difference between the steel electrode classification and the stainless steel electrode classification systems. Why are chemical composition listings always of deposited weld metal, and not of the electrode? Explain how current is controlled when welding with a CV power supply. What type of wire feed system(s) would be best for welding with aluminum electrode, and why? Why would the amperage rating of an air cooled torch vary depending on whether the shielding gas was argon or carbon dioxide? What are the four modes of transfer, and the applications for each? What do each of the figures in the classification ER80C-B2L stand for? List the stainless steel electrodes which may be used when sensitization is a problem. What are the advantages of FCAW (with gas shielding) over GMAW? What is the usual shielding gas for FCAW? What electrode designation suffixes indicate notch toughness? Why is SAW usually limited to mechanized or automatic flat position groove and horizontal fillet welding? What special equipment must be utilized to use CC for SAW welding? When multiple wire are to be used for SAW, why would the leading wire be run DCEP and the trailing wires be run AC? What type of flux can be recovered and reused without any consideration of adding new flux?

19. What do each of the figures in the classification F1015-EM13K stand for? _______________________________________________________________________ 1. What are the three general classifications of weld discontinuities? Give examples of each. 3. How much weld reinforcements should be on a groove weld? 4. What is incomplete fusion? 5. What is incomplete joint penetration? 6. What is undercut? 7. What is underfill? 8. What causes slag inclusions? 9. What can be done to prevent weld metal cracks? 10. What are the four (five?) types of porosity? 11. What is spatter? 12. Why should arc strikes be ground out? 13. What is the difference between a lamination, a delamination, and a lamellar tear? 14. What are laps and seams? 1. (equipment selection) When the slope is adjustable, what slope should be used for short circuit transfer and why? 2. What slope should be used with spray transfer and why? 3. What is the effect of increasing the inductance control? 4. List several features to look for in a wire feeder? 5. Why do air cooled welding guns, when used with argon gas, need higher amperage ratings than when used with carbon dioxide gas? 6. (GMAW-S) What is the range of voltage, current, and wire feed speed that will result in short circuit transfer for .035 electrode? 7. What are the recommended starting parameters for short circuit transfer? What is the effect of excessive voltage? 8. What is the recommended stickout for the wire? What should be done to the contact tip? 9. Which wire should be used for: 100% carbon dioxide gas?Galvanized steel?Argon gas? 10. What gas should be used for:Thin sheet metal, <.060?1/16" thick steel? greater than 1/8" steel?greater than 3/8" steel? 11. 12. (GMAW) What is the range of voltage, current, and wire feed speed that will result in spray transfer for .045 electrode? What is the recommended stickout for the wire? What should be done to the contact tip?

13. 14.

What is the effect of excessively high voltage? What is the effect of excessively low voltage?

15. What gas should be used for welding: heavy plate greater than 1/2" thick? 1/8" to 3/8" thick clean plate?any thickness with either spray or short circuit? _____________________________________________________________________ 4. Who is responsible for the content and approval of WPS's? 5. List the 19 areas which should be addressed in a WPS. 6. What are the two types of WPS's allowed by AWS D-1.1? 7. What are the 5 steps in preparing a WPS? 8. What is the purpose of a welder performance qualification? 9. What is an essential variable? 10. What mechanical tests are normally performed for welder qualification? What test may be used in lieu of mechanical testing? 11. Why do welders usually test on standardized weldments instead of production samples? _______________________________________________________________________________ 1. Describe the structure of a metal in the solid state. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. What is the microstructure of a low carbon steel? What is an allotropic transformation? How does this apply to iron? What is the effect of cold working on a metal? What is the effect of heat treatment on cold worked metal? What does a TTT diagram do? How is a CCT diagram different from a TTT? Describe the effects of the various alloying element on the shape and position of the TTT diagram. What is hardenability? What is the effect of tempering on martensite? Describe the composition and grain structure of deposited weld metal. Describe the heat affected zone. What factors affect the size and properties of the HAZ? What is segregation? What is the most common result of a gas-metal reaction? What causes cold-cracks, and how can they be prevented? What are the ways in which weld metal may be strengthened?

17. Re-draw the weld example shown in figure 4.26, and label each zone with what caused the particular grain pattern. Identify approximate temperatures for a low carbon steel (hint: cold worked ferrite recrystallizes at 1000F). 18. Re-draw the weld example shown in figure 4.27, and label each zone with what caused the particular grain pattern. Identify the approximate temperatures for aluminum containing 3% copper. (find a phase diagram for Al-Cu).

19. Based on all this welding metallurgy, how does E14018 electrode develop such high strength in the as-welded condition, when the matching base metal is a quenched and tempered structural steel? _______________________________________________________________________________ 1. What are the three reasons for conducting destructive tests? 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. What is the AWS standard for destructive testing of welds? What are the three general types of destructive testing techniques? For what particular weld defect is a complete chemical analysis of weld metal and base metal warranted? What is the difference in magnification between macroscopy and microscopy? Describe the three most widely used hardness tests. Define Tensile Strength, Yield Point, Yield Strength, and Ductility A rectangular steel bar has a cross section of 1" by 2" and is loaded to 48,000 lbs. Calculate the stress in the bar. What are the 4 types of guided bend specimens? What types of tensile tests are performed on weldments? What test is done to evaluate fillet welds? What is the most common toughness test? What are proof tests used for?

14. How are structural beams proof tested? 15. How are rotating machinery parts proof tested? __________________________________________________________________________________ 1. Describe the three major groups of steels. 2. How does aluminums thermal conductivity compare to steel, and how does this affect welding? 3. What filler metals are used for cast iron? 4. What types of cast iron can be welded? 5. Briefly describe cast iron welding procedures? 6. Why is cast iron welded? 7. What are the alternatives to welding cast iron? 8. What is more important for design: tensile strength or yield strength? Why? 9. What is the AWS specification for carbon steel filler metal for SAW? 10. What processes are recommended for welding Mg? 11. What does preheating do? 12. What preheat would be recommended for the following steels: 1020, 1040, 1095, 4330? 13. What is annealing and what does it do? 14. What is normalizing and what does it do? 15. What is stress relieving and what does it do? 16. What filler metal should be used with API 5LS grade X56? 17. According to ASTM, differentiate between Shapes, Bars, Plates, and Sheets. 18. What SMAW electrode should be used for welding ASTM A514 plate? 19. What aluminum filler metal(s) should be used to weld 6061 aluminum? 20. What filler metal is recommended for welding 3003 to 2024 aluminum? ________________________________________________________________________________ 1. What are the 5 essential elements of a nondestructive test? 2. What are the advantages of VT? 3. What should an inspector check prior to welding? 4. What should an inspector check during welding? 5. What weld pass is the most important? 6. What is a workmanship standard? 7. What should be done to the finished weld before inspecting for defects? 8. If a weld has good surface appearance, it is a good weld? 9. What is the most important tool to have in your visual inspection tool kit? The following applies to questions 11 through 14: Two 1" thick plates are joined using a double V-groove weld. The application is a statically loaded structure, and the weld is not transverse to the primary tensile stress. The weld joint is 10 feet long. Evaluate the following observations in accordance with AWS D1.1-88. 11. 12. 13. 14. 3" of undercut having a depth of 1/32" (0.03). SAT/UNSAT Two 1" lengths of undercut having a depth of 1/16" and spaced 6 inches apart. SAT/UNSAT 1/2" of undercut having a depth of 3/32". SAT/UNSAT 1" of reinforcement exceeding 1/16" by 1/32" SAT/UNSAT

The following applies to questions 15 through 17: Two 6" wide H-beams are welded together at a 90 angle using 1/2" fillet welds. The application is a dynamically loaded structure. The weld inspected is transverse to the tensile stress direction. Evaluate the following observations in accordance with AWS D1.1-88. 15. 1" of undercut having a depth of 1/64". SAT/UNSAT 16. 1-1/2" of weld has a 5/8" leg size. SAT/UNSAT 17. 1/2" of weld has a 7/16" leg size. SAT/UNSAT

The following applies to questions 18 through 21: Two square tubes are spliced with complete penetration groove welds on butt joints. The tubes will be loaded in compression along the axis. Evaluate the following observations in accordance with AWS D1.1-88. 18. 3" of undercut having a depth of 1/32". SAT/UNSAT 19. A transverse crack not exceeding 1/32" long. SAT/UNSAT 20. 1/2" of undercut having a depth of 3/32". SAT/UNSAT 21. Steel is type ASTM A570 and inspection was made 24 hours after welding. _________________________________________________________________________________ 1. What kind of welds may be produced with E6022 electrode? 2. After depositing a weld with E7024 to check conformance, chemical analysis of the weld deposit reveals: Mn=.90% Si=.40% Ni=.25% Cr=.10% Mo=.25% and V=.05%. Does the electrode meet the chemical requirements? 3. After depositing a weld with E7018 to check conformance, all weld metal tensile testing shows 70ksi tensile strength, 61ksi yield strength, and 24% elongation. Does the electrode meet the mechanical requirements? 4. What is the affect of hydrogen in the weld metal on the results of the tension test? How does the specification address this issue in non-low hydrogen electrodes? 5. How does the stress relief heat treatment generally affect tensile and yield strength results?

6. In the soundness test (radiography), what electrodes usually produce the most sound welds under most conditions. How about in thin materials? Which electrodes tend to be the least sound? 7. In an application requiring notch toughness, what impact requirements can be specified for E7018, and how would the electrode be classes? (Hint: see Table 2) 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. What is the typical moisture content of low hydrogen electrode coating, and of E6010 electrode covering? Which electrode was originally designed for light sheet metal work? What electrode would you use for SMAW welding 2" thick plain carbon steel deck plates in the flat position? What heat treatment is required for ASTM A514 steel? What is the elongation requirement for 1/4" thick ASTM A514 plate? Why is Brinell hardness specified only for thin plates?

14. What can the manufacturer do with a plate which does not meet the required mechanical properties? ______________________________________________________________________________ 1. What are the 6 "essential elements" for radiographic inspection? 2. What are the two types of radiography sources? 3. What factors determine how much radiation will be absorbed by the test object? 4. What types of discontinuities will not be revealed by radiography? 5. If X-rays are invisible, why does the film have to be protected from visible light? 6. What are the 5 general rules to make a sharp radiograph? 7. What is an artifact on the radiograph film? 8. Why does a film reader get paid a lot. 9. What tool is used to assure that proper radiographic technique was used to make a radiograph? 10. What are the major advantages and disadvantages of radiography? 11. What is the most common type of UT equipment? 12. What is the usual frequency of the pulses in pulse-echo equipment? 13. What does horizontal measurement on the CRT indicate? 14. What does the vertical height of a pip indicate? 15. In what ways does high-frequency sound resemble visible light? 16. What are the three modes that ultrasound may propagate through a material, and what are their applications with respect to weld inspection? 17. What are the advantages of shear waves over longitudinal waves for weld inspection? 18. What is couplant? 19. What types of defects can be detected with UT? 20. How is ultrasonic test data reported? _________________________________________________________________________________ 1. What are the major effects which residual stresses may have? 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. What are the most common techniques used to control distortion in a weldment due to residual stress? How does thermal stress relief work? Under what circumstances are the effects of residual stress significant? What is the effect of compressive residual stress, as opposed to tensile residual stress, on brittle fracture at low stress levels? What structures are subject to buckling, and what is the effect of residual stress on those structures? What are the most effective ways of improving the fatigue strength of a weldment? Why would 304 stainless steel be used for handling sulfuric acid, but not hydrochloric acid? What are the three ways a weld may distort?

10. Using equation 7.11, determine the final width of the following weldment: plates: 24" by 12" by 1" thick, welded along the 24" edge. bevel: 90 included angle root opening: 1/8 inch 11. 12. 13. amps. 14. 15. 16. 17. Based on Table 7.4, what should be done to minimize transverse shrinkage? Using equation 7.15, determine the overall height of a T section welded from two 8" by 1" plates using 1/2" fillet welds. Using equation 7.17, determine the longitudinal shrinkage from a 100 foot butt joint welded in 2" thick plate welded using 30 volts and 400

Based on figure 7.39, sketch a double V-groove design for 2 inch thick plate to minimize angular distortion. Comparing distortion in aluminum and steel weldments, what physical characteristics create a difference between steel and aluminum? What is the transverse shrinkage in aluminum compared to steel? What is the angular change in aluminum fillet welds compared to steel.

18. 19.

What is the effect of the amount of weld metal on distortion? What are the two methods of controlling distortion during assembly?

20. What are two methods for correcting distortion after welding? _________________________________________________________________________ 1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of MT? 2. What kinds of defects can be detected with MT? 3. What kinds of materials can and can't be inspected with MT? 4. What are the three ways of producing a magnetic field in a part? 5. For each of the magnetizing conditions on sketches A-D, which flaw will be detected? 6. What are the advantages of wet powder over dry powder? 7. What methods may be used to record MT indications? 8. What indications are most pronounced with MT inspections? 9. What's the difference between an irrelevant indication and a false indication? 10. What are the two methods (types) of penetrant inspection? 11. Which has greater sensitivity? Why? 12. What are the seven steps to penetrant examination? 13. What is the required surface contour of welds to be inspected by PT? 14. What defects can be easily found with PT? 15. What types of defects are better detected by a different NDT methods? 16. What is a Liquid Penetrant Comparator used for? 17. How are indications evaluated? _______________________________________________________________________________ 1. What are the three objectives of weldment design? 2. Define the Modulus of Elasticity, Elastic Limit, Yield Strength, Tensile Strength, Fatigue Strength, Ductility, and Fracture Toughness. 3. Compare the low temperature properties of steel and aluminum. What is the root cause of the difference in properties? 4. What is the coefficient of thermal expansion? 5. What structural steel shape is ideal for resisting torsional loading? 6. What types of weld joints are most economical to produce? 7. What factors should be considered when specifying continuous or intermittent fillet welding? 8. What causes residual stress and distortion? 9. What causes lamellar tearing? 10. Given a 12' long I-beam, having a moment of inertia of 22.1 in4 (designation S 6 x 12.5, which means the depth is 6" and the weight is 12.5 lbs per foot), calculate the deflection at the end of the beam due to a 2000 lb. load. 11. What is the primary consideration, besides strength, when designing members for compressive loading? 12. What loading and environmental conditions must be considered when specifying a particular joint design? 13. What weld groove design should be specified for 3/16" plate, for 1" plate, and for 6" plate? 14. Joints welded from 1 side should not be used in what situations? 15. For a T joint, when should a groove weld be used instead of a fillet weld? 16. Based on figure 5.29, a double bevel groove weld is more economical on thick plate, and a double fillet weld more economical on thin plate. Explain why. 17. Of the corner joints shown in figure 5.32, which are not acceptable if the horizontal member is rotated counterclockwise?

18. For a partial joint penetration groove weld, loaded in tension normal to the effective area, what is the allowable stress if the joint is welded with E6010 and the base metal is ASTM A 36 (36 ksi yield strength, 60 ksi tensile strength)? 19. Based on Table 5.8, how many inches of 1/4" fillet weld made with E6010 would be required to support a load of 20,000 lbs?

20. (Correction in book: Figure 5.35A is for redundant structures.). For the spliced beam, as shown in figure 5.34 example 9, what is the stress category for the weld (from Table 5.10) if the reinforcement is not removed, and for when it is ground smooth? What is the allowable stress range in the beam when the beam is redundant and the desired cycle life 106 cycles? 21. A beam is made by welding flat plates together into an H shape. Are the welds primary or secondary? If the material is ASTM A 514, what filler metal should be used for the welds? What filler metal should be used to join the ends of this beam to a structure? (consult figure 5.36) 22. 23. 24. 25. What are the advantages of tubular members? What types of joints are avoided in aluminum construction? What is one method of avoiding these joints (see figure 5.47)? For a longitudinal fillet weld made with 4043 filler metal, what weld size is required to support 12,000 lbs if the weld length is 4 inches? If a 6061-T6 weldment is loaded in a fatigue situation to 20,000 psi, how many cycles can be applied before the part fails?

7. What is leak testing used for? 8. What is a soap bubble test? 9. How does gas detection work? 10. What kind of material requires ferrite content examination? 11. What happens if there is too much delta ferrite? 12. What three methods can be used to measure delta ferrite? 13. What is a ferrite number? 14. Why is the DeLong Diagram preferred over the Schaeffler diagram? ______________________________________________________________________________

1. a. b. c. d. e. 2. a. b. c. d. e. 3. a. b. c. d. e. 4. a. b. c. d. e. 5. a. b. c. d. e. 6. a. b. c. d. e. 7. a. b. c. d. e. 8. a. b. c. d. e. 9. a. b. c. d. e.

Which of the following processes is not considered prequalified?(D1.1) SMAW FCAW GMAW-S SAW GMAW (non-short circuiting) For a partial penetration joint, the effective throat is considered to be the full depth of chamfer for a 60 groove angle using SMAW a 45 groove angle using SMAW a 45 groove angle using SAW a 45 groove angle using GMAW in the vertical position a 45 groove angle using FCAW in the vertical position What is the maximum convexity permitted on a 3/8 inch fillet weld having an actual face width of 9/16 inch. 1/16 inch 3/32 inch 1/8 inch 3/16 inch none of the above What plate repair is required when a 3/4 inch long discontinuity is discovered in an oxygen-cut edge? air arc and reweld grind to determine depth and reweld if deeper than 1/8 inch grind to determine depth and reweld inspect with ultrasonic testing and remove and reweld if deeper than 1/8 inch none, need not be explored What is the maximum gap permitted between the back side of a butt joint and its backing bar? 1/32 inch 1/16 inch 3/32 inch 1/8 inch 3/16 inch What is the minimum thickness plate a welder may weld after testing on a 1 inch thick coupon? unlimited 1 inch 1/2 inch 1/8 inch none of the above For prequalified joint B-L2c-S, what is the range of root face dimensions permitted for base metal thicknesses of 1-1/4 inches? 0 to 1/8 inch 1/4 inch maximum 1/2 inch maximum 5/8 inch maximum 3/4 inch maximum What is the minimum fillet weld size for joining 1/4 inch thick plates using prequalified joints for bridge applications? 1/4 inch 3/16 inch 1/8 inch 1/16 inch none of the above For a 40 foot long horizontally curved welded girder, what is the permissible variation in specified sweep? 1/4 inch 3/8 inch 1/2 inch 5/8 inch 3/4 inch

10. Tack welds shall be subjected to the same quality requirements as the final weld except a. cracks are acceptable b. undercut is permissible c. preheat is required d. undercut is permissible prior to final SAW e. porosity is permissible 11. The drawing specifies that a 3/8 inch fillet weld is required for a particular weld joint. What size of fillet weld is necessary if a 1/8 inch gap exists between the two pieces prior to welding? a. 3/4 inch b. 3/8 inch c. 1/2 inch d. 1/4 inch e. none of the above

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

You are going to attach a 1" stud to 1" plate by fillet welding rather than stud welding. What is the minimum size fillet weld you can use? What is the specified root opening for joint B-U4a-GF using gas shielded flux cored wire in the overhead position? What is the minimum suggested thickness of a backing bar on a 1" plate, using the gas shielded FCAW process? Welding symbols used in D1.1 shall be as those shown in? You are using joint BTC-P5. T=1" Assuming you apply the weld size equally to both sides, what are S1 and S2? For welded beams and girders, the maximum allowable variation from specified depths for depth of 60" measured at the web centerline is? You are using prequalified joint B-U3a, welding in the 2G position. The joint is 12" long. What is the size of the spacer ( ? x ? x ? ) The required weld size is 3/8". What is the depth of bevel required using the SMAW process, on a 50 degree bevel, in the horizontal position? You are using prequalified joint design B-U3c-S on 6.250" plate. What are S1 and S2? What is the surface roughness acceptability for a cut edge on 5" thick material?

22. What is the minimum preheat and interpass temperature for welding 1/2 inch thick ASTM A500 grade A when the base metal temperature is less than 32F? a. none b. 150F c. 70F d. 225F e. 300F 23. Welding shall not be done when the ambient temperature is a. less than -18F b. less than 32F c. less than 0C d. less than 0F e. none of the above 24. What is the specification of a suitable FCAW filler material for joining ASTM A516 grade 55? a. AWS A5.17 b. AWS A5.23 c. AWS A5.18 d. AWS A5.20 e. none of the above 25. What is the maximum diameter of E7018 electrode that can be used for a vertical weld? a. 3/32 inch b. 1/8 inch c. 5/32 inch d. 3/16 inch e. 7/32 inch 26. For GMAW and FCAW, the shielding gasses used must exhibit a dew point of a. -40F or lower b. -40C or lower c. -20F or lower d. a and b above e. b and c above 27. What is the required minimum preheat for welding 2-1/2 inch thick A572 grade 42 using the GMAW process? a. 50F b. 150F c. 225F d. 300F e. none of the above 28. Using a single electrode for SAW, what is the maximum size a single pass fillet weld can be deposited in a horizontal position? a. 5/32 inch b. 3/8 inch c. 5/16 inch d. 1/4 inch e. 1/2 inch 29. What is the maximum diameter FCAW electrode that can be used in a prequalified procedure in the vertical position?

30. You are using an API 5L Grade X42, 8" schedule 80 (0.500 wall) in the 6G position for welder qualification, using an 0.045" E71T-1 electrode. Ambient temperature is 30 degrees F. What is the required preheat?

1.

What is the NDE standard most widely used for qualification of NDE personnel?