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Surface Water Collection and Transportation

Surface Water Source Rivers Lakes Reservoirs Canals Ponds Major Component of Surface Water Supply System Intake Suction pipes Delivery pipes Pumping station

Intake Intake is a device placed in a surface water source to permit the withdrawal of water from source and then discharge it into intake pipe through which it will flow into the water-works system. Types of Intake River Intake Lake/Reservoir Intake River Intake Following criteria must be considered before selecting suitable location: Location must be selected well upstream from point of discharge of sewage and industrial waste Stable bottom, deep water, and favorable water quality Protected against flood, debris, and river traffic River bed shifting Variation in depth of flow Reservoir Intake Pollution is occurred due to wind and surface current Located closer to the bank in the deepest part of the reservoir Often incorporated into the impounding structure itself Intake Design Consideration Selection of source Total lift from the source to the treatment plant selection of pumping unit Determination of total length of suction and delivery main and head loss due to friction and bend Selection of a suitable screen Installation of intake valves at 2 or 3 different levels Transportation of Water Two types of pipes are used: o Pressure Pipe o Gravity Pipe Pipe Material o Steel o Cast iron o PVC o GI Pipe o RCC Pressure Pipe Pipe are flowing full Less Costly Water pollution might be reduced Water loss can be avoided

Water Distribution System

Definition of Distribution System The distribution system is that part of the water works which receives water from pumping station or from conduits by the gravity flow and delivers it throughout the area to be served.

Gravity Pipe Open Channel (canal or flume) Water loss occurs due to seepage or evaporation possibilities of water pollution prevails




a) b)

Components of Distribution System Reservoirs Pipe networks Valves House Connections Hydrants Standpipes Water meters Components of Distribution System Transmission Main: It is the part of the pipeline which conveys bulk amount of water through a single pipe. Distribution System: This part of the pipeline are arranged to distribute the Classification of Distribution System Gravity System This system is used when the water source is at sufficient elevation with respect to the area to be served Safest and most reliable Gravity Flow Water Supply Classification of Distribution System System With Direct Pumping Water is directly pumped into the main Continuous power supply required Pressure in the main varies with consumption several pumps required under varying consumption cost increases Water Supply with Direct Pumping Classification of Distribution System System With Pumping and Storage Also called Dual System When demand rate exceeds the pumping rate water flows into the distribution system from both the pumping station as well as from reservoir In reverse situation, excess water is stored in the reservoir Most economical and reliable Pump can operate at their rated capacity resulting in higher efficiency and economy Stored water can be used for firefighting or during pump breakdown Supply with Pumping and Storage Method of Supply Continuous Supply Intermittent Supply Pressure Requirement in Distribution System Consideration required for both ordinary use and for fire fighting Pressure requirement for firefighting: 80~120psi Faucet pressure of 5psi is satisfactory for most domestic purposes 35psi in the main pipe is sufficient for residential area with one or two storied building Additional 5psi is required for each additional floor Distribution/Storage Reservoir Used to provide storage to meet fluctuation in use Storage for fire fighting stabilization of pressure in the distribution system Should be located as close to the centre of use Water depth in the reservoir must be adequate Types: RCC tank on RCC staging

Steel tank on brick tower Steel tank on steel staging Capacity of Reservoir Reservoir should be large enough to accommodate the cumulative difference between water supply and demand Reservoir volume can be determined by plotting cumulative water demand and supply at different hours of a peak day as a % of total demand for a day the algebraic sum of the highest differences in demand and supply is the capacity of the storage reservoir Capacity of storage reservoir should be 20~40% of the peak water demand Capacity of Reservoir

Most Economic Dimension of Distribution Reservoir For a given volume (V), the most economical tank would be the one with minimum surface area (A). Here we assume that the floor thickness is equal to that of the wall. Most Economic Dimension of Distribution Reservoir

Surface area of tank is given by A = A1 + A2 ------- (1) Where A1 = Area of the base A2 = Area of the shell-surface 2 Therefore, A = r + 2rh ------- (2) 2 Volume of tank, V = r h -------- (3) Which gives, Most Economic Dimension of Distribution Reservoir From equation (2), we obtain A = r + 2r

A = r + ------- (4) Differentiating equation (4) with respect to r, we obtain


-------- (5)