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ALCOHOL In chemistry, an alcohol is an organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (-O H) is bound to a carbon atom.

In particular, this carbon center should be saturated, having single bonds to three other atoms.[1]An important class of alcohols are the simple acyclic alcohols, the general formula for which is CnH2n+1OH. Of those, ethanol (C2H5OH) is the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, and in common speech the word alcohol refers specifically to ethanol.Other alcohols are usually described with a clarifying adjective, as in isopropyl alcohol (propan-2-ol) or wood alcohol (methyl alcohol, or methanol). The suffix -ol appears in the IUPAC chemical name of all substances where the hydroxyl group is the functional group with the highest priority; in substances where a higher priority group is present the prefix hydroxy- will appear in the IUPAC name. The suffix -ol in non-systematic names (such as paracetamol or cholesterol) also typically indicates that the substance includes a hydroxyl functional group and, so, can be termed an alcohol. But many substances, particularly sugars (examples glucose and sucrose) contain hydroxyl functional groups without using the suffix. In everyday life "alcohol" without qualification usually refers to ethanol, or a beverage based on ethanol

Naming Of Compound Alcohols are named according to the same system as other organic compounds, with the suffix -ol used to designate the presence in the molecule of a hydroxyl group. The first step is to consider the number of carbon atoms forming a chain. If they are attached together in a linear (i.e. unbranched) configuration then the number of carbon atoms is indicated according to the same system as used for naming alkanes (see the examples listed in the table below). However, if the carbon atoms do not form a linear chain but include branches, the longest linear chain of carbon atoms within the molecule determines the base of the name of the compound, onto which is added information about the branches incl. their lengths in terms of the number of carbon atoms in each branch (i.e. methyl- indicates a branch consisting of just one carbon atom attached to the main chain, ethyl- indicates a branch of two carbon atoms in length, etc.) and their positions along the longest linear carbon chain (e.g. attached to the 2nd carbon, 3rd carbon, etc.).The simplest linear alcohols are named and their structures drawn in the following table. More complex alcohol molecules follow afterwards.

Physical properties and Chemical Properties Alcohols have an odor that is often described as biting and as hanging in the nasal passages. Ethanol has a slightly sweeter (or more fruit-like) odor than the other alcohols.In general, the hydroxyl group makes the alcohol molecule polar. Those groups can form hydrogen bonds to one another and to other compounds (except in certain large molecules where the hydroxyl is protected by steric hindrance of adjacent groups[31]). This hydrogen bonding means that alcohols can be used as protic solvents. Two opposing solubility trends in alcohols are: the tendency of the polar OH to promote solubility in water, and the tendency of the carbon chain to resist it. Thus, methanol, ethanol, and propanol are miscible in water because the hydroxyl group wins out over the short carbon chain. Butanol, with a four-carbon chain, is moderately soluble because of a balance between the two trends. Alcohols of five or more carbons (pentanol and higher) are effectively insoluble in water because of the hydrocarbon chain's dominance. All simple alcohols are miscible in organic solvents.Because of hydrogen bonding, alcohols tend to have higher boiling points than comparable hydrocarbons and ethers. The boiling point of the alcohol ethanol is 78.29 C, compared to 69 C for the hydrocarbon hexane (a common constituent of gasoline), and 34.6 C for diethyl ether. Alcohols, like water, can show either acidic or basic properties at the -OH group. With a pKa of around 16-19, they are, in general, slightly weaker acids than water, but they are still able to react with strong bases such as sodium hydride or reactive metals such as sodium. The salts that result are called alkoxides, with the general formula RO- M+.Meanwhile, the oxygen atom has lone pairs of nonbonded electrons that render it weakly basic in the presence of strong acids such as sulfuric acid. For example, with methanol:

Alcohols can also undergo oxidation to give aldehydes, ketones, or carboxylic acids, or they can be dehydrated to alkenes. They can react to form ester compounds, and they can (if activated first) undergo nucleophilic substitution reactions. The lone pairs of electrons on the oxygen of the hydroxyl group also makes alcohols nucleophiles. For more details, see the reactions of alcohols section below. As one moves from primary to secondary to tertiary alcohols with the same State at r.t.p.* Name Molecular formula Solubility In Water (solid/liquid/gas)

Methanol

CH3OH

Very Soluble

Liquid

Ethananol

C2H5OH

Soluble

Liquid

Propananol

C3H7OH

Soluble

Liquid

Butananol

C4H9OH

Slightly soluble

Liquid

backbone, the hydrogen bond strength, the boiling point, and the acidity typically decrease.

Chemical properties of alcohol Alcohols can take part in these reactions: Combustion and Oxidation Combustion : An alcohol burns in air to produce carbon dioxide and water vapour.

ethanol + oxygen carbon dioxide + water vapour C2H5OH + 3O2 2CO2 + 3H2O

C2H5OH + 3O2 2CO2 + 3H2O

Flame produced is clean Combustion of alcohols are useful because: 1. Methanol is less likely than conventional fuel to explode in an accident. It is a clean fuel. 2. When alcohol beverage is burnt with food, it gives a distinct flavouOxidation We can oxidise an alcohol (for example, ethanol) by warming it with acidified potassium dichromate(VI). Experimental setup:

(ETHANOL ) C2 H2 OH + ACIDIFIED K2 CR2 O7

HEAT COOL WATER

CH3 COOH (ETHANOL ACID)

Chemical test Jones Oxidation for Primary and Secondary Alcohols Alcohol

Standards 1-Butanol, 2-Butanol, t-Butyl alcohol Procedure Dissolve 10 mg or 2 drops of the unknown in 1 mL of pure acetone in a test tube and add to the solution 1 small drop of Jones reagent (chronic acid in sulfuric acid). A positive test is marked by the formation of a green color within 15 seconds upon addition of the orange-yellow reagent to a primary or secondary alcohol. Aldehydes also give a positive test, but tertiary alcohols do not. The Jones reagent will already be prepared for you. Positive Test A positive test for aldehydes and primary or secondary alcohols consists in the production of an opaque suspension with a green to blue color. Tertiary alcohols give no visible reaction within 2 seconds, the solution remaining orange in color. Disregard any changes after 15 seconds. Complications

Enols may give a positive test. Phenols give a dark colored solution which is not blue-green like a positive test.

Cleaning up Place all solutions in the appropriate waste container.

Lucas Test for Secondary and Tertiary Alcohols Alcohols

Standards 1-Butanol, 2-Butanol, t-Butyl alcohol. Procedures To 0.2 mL or 0.2 g of the unknown in a test tube add 2 mL of the Lucas reagent at room temperature. Stopper the tube and shake vigorously, then allow the mixture to stand. Note the time required for the formation of the alkyl chloride, which appears as an insoluble layer or emulsion. The Lucas reagent is already prepared for you. Positive test Appearance of a cloudy second layer or emulsion

3o alcohols: immediate to 2-3 minutes 2o alcohols: 5 -10 minutes 1o alcohols: no reaction

Complications The test applies only to those alcohols soluble in the reagent (monofunctional alcohols lower than hexyl and some polyfunctional alcohols.) This often means that alcohols with more than six carbon atoms cannot be tested. Cleaning Up Place all solutions in the appropriate waste container.