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Project P j t Management M t Methodology M th d l with ith PMP Exam Preparation Day 1

Aamir Thanawala PMP, Prince2 Practitioner, ITIL, CGEIT July 07, 2012

Tell us about you

Your Name Why or what do you want to learn about Project Management?

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

A walk through the course outline

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Agenda
Registration & Introduction Introduction - Project j Management g Introduction to PMP Exam Framework PMI, PMBOK and PMP Exam Key Concepts of Project Management TEA BREAK Project Life Cycle and Organization Project Management Processes & Process Groups Knowledge Areas LUNCH BREAK

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Agenda
Develop Project Charter Identify y Stakeholders Develop Project Management Plan TEA BREAK Collect Requirements Define Scope Create WBS PMP Exam Tips and Tricks

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

1 INTRODUCTION

The Standish Group Project Management St ti ti (Ch Statistics (Chaos 2010)


Successfully completed Challenged Failed

16%

53%

31%

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project Management Myths


MS-Project plans (and Gantt charts in general) are project plans Project life cycle is the same as the product management Lifecycle Project managers are the same as functional managers Project management is common sense The Project Manager creates the Project Plan and the team simply carries out the plan

The above statements are partially true from Project Management perspective

PMI, PMBOK, PMP are registered marks of Project Management Institute, Inc. Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

2 INTRODUCTION TO PMP EXAM FRAMEWORK

Project Management Institute (PMI)

The worlds world s leading notnot-for for-profit global professional organization for project management knowledge, information and professionalism with over 500,000 members. Established in 1969 and located in US.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project Management Professional (PMP)


Project Management Professional (PMP) credential recognizes demonstrated knowledge and d skill kill in i leading l di and d directing di ti project j tt teams and in delivering project results within the constraints of schedule, budget and resources.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project Management Professional (PMP)

PMI, PMBOK, PMP are registered marks of Project Management Institute, Inc. Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Growth in PMP Certification 1993 to 2006

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Why Become PMP Certified?


The following benefits are associated with becoming PMP certified: It demonstrates proof of professional achievement. It increases your marketability. It provides greater opportunity for advancement in your field. It raises customer confidence in you and in your companys services.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

PMBOK , PMI and PMP - Special Jargon and d New N Concepts C t


Preparation for PMP certification means,
Learning L i a new set t of ft terms as well ll as new d definition fi iti f for words d Understanding new concepts and approaching problems from a strictly PMI point-of-view Mapping these new terms and concepts to your existing PM experience i Analyze a scenario and explain what is happening

PMBOK 4th Edition is the bible; Your Experience is a good supplement

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

PMBOK is a PMI Standard


PMI Standard is a document that defines what to measure against a document created by an appropriate diverse group through an open consensus-building process. It covers commonly accepted knowledge and/or practices and dealing with core concepts for the practice of the profession. It is consistent with PMIs Standards Setting Process and published as a project p j management g standard.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

PMBOK and also a Guide


PMBOK

The primary purpose of the PMBOK Guide is to identify that subset of the Project Management Body of Knowledge that is generally recognized as good practice. Generally recognized means the knowledge and practices described are applicable to most projects most of the time, and there is consensus about their value and usefulness. Good practice means there is general agreement that the application of th these skills, kill t tools l and dt techniques h i can enhance h the th chances h of f success over a wide range of Projects.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

PMBOK and also a Guide


The PMBOK Guide provides Knowledge, Processes, Skills, T l and Tool d Techniques T h i th t are generally that ll recognized i d good d practice. ti But, , all the processes p may y not apply pp y uniformly y to all projects p j . Hence, , it is the RESPONSIBILITY of your organization and/or the project management team to determine what is appropriate for any given project. This is called TAILORING!

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Who is Wh i eligible to take the PMP Exam?


Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

You need

Experience

Bachelor Degree/Diploma

Training
Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

PMP Certification Eligibility

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Financial Benefits of PMI membership


Is PMI membership mandatory? The Answer is NO But there are benefits..!

Discount on application fees

Free PDF copy of the PMBOK Guide

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Filling out the Application


Step 1 : Filling online Application

Contact Project Management experience hours

Ed Education i

Industry y

Contact hours Training or Education Programs

Finalizing and Submitting the Application


Step 3 : Pay the Fee

Step 2 : Application Completeness Review

Step 4 : Prepare for a Random Audit

Schedule PMP Exam


Step 5 : Schedule your PMP Exam

PMP Exam

200 multiple-choice questions PMBOK Guide concepts

PMP Exam Preparation Guides

Study Plan 4 Step Systemic approach


1 - Survey 2 - Motivation 3 Effective Study

Get familiar with the topic

Identify your motivation

Transform yourself from a passive reader to an active researcher

4 Disengage Break up your study sessions into smaller chunks

Exam Readiness

Apply 85% rule. rule Correctly answer at least 85% of sample questions in first attempt!

What to expect from Exam questions?

PMP Exam is not a p memoryy simple recall, multiplechoice test

Types of Questions
1 Situational Questions 2 Formula based questions 3 Knowledge g based questions

Test your ability to identify relevant content 4 Interpretational questions

Test your knowledge of formula and calculations

Test your knowledge about facts

5 Specific technique questions Test your ability to deduce a situation Identify techniques from diagram or inherent in situation

3 KEY CONCEPTS OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT

What is Project? (PMI Definition)


Project j

A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

What is Project?
Project Characteristics
Temporary means : Definite beginning & end Does not mean short in duration creates a unique product, service or result i.e. has a unique purpose developed using progressive elaboration Requires resources, often from various areas Should have a primary customer/sponsor (usually provides direction & funding) Involves uncertainty

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project Key Characteristics

Temporary

Unique

Progressively elaborated

Defined start and finish dates

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Can you name a few projects?


Planning a wedding Designing and implementing a computer system Hosting a holiday party Designing and producing prod cing a brochure broch re Executing an environmental clean-up of a contaminated site Holding a high school reunion Performing a series of surgeries on an accident victim

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

What is Project? (PMI Definition)


Project Characteristics
Project can create: A Product that can be either a component p of another item or an end item in itself A capability to perform a service or business function A result such as an outcome or document End of Project is reached when: Projects objectives have been achieved or Its objectives will not or can not be met or Need for the project no longer exists

Project Management (PM)


The application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

What is Project? (PMI Definition)


Progressive Elaboration Rolling Wave Planning
Developing in steps, and continuing by increments to work out details. Early in the project, project scope will be more broadly defined i.e. Project scope is High Level in the beginning. beginning It becomes more detailed as project team progresses and develops better and more complete understanding of the project objectives and deliverables.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

What is Project? (PMI Definition)


Progressive Elaboration Rolling Wave Planning
Both project specifications and product specifications may be progressively p g y elaborated.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project and Strategic Planning


P j t and Project d Strategic St t gi Plans Pl

Projects are means to achieving organizations strategic plans and organizing activities that cannot be addressed within organizations g normal operational p limits Projects are typically authorized as a result of one or more of the following Strategic g considerations, Market Demand Strategic opportunity / Business need Customer request Technological advance Legal requirements

Hence, Projects (within programs or portfolios) are a means by which we achieve organizational goals and objectives within the context of strategic plan.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project Management
Project j Management g

The application Th li ti of f KNOWLEDGE, KNOWLEDGE SKILLS SKILLS, TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES to project activities to meet the Project Requirements Project Management typically includes Identifying requirements Addressing the various needs, concerns and expectations of the stakeholders as the project is carried out Balancing the competing project constraints such as, S Scope Schedule g Budget Quality Resources, and Risk
Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project Management
Project Management is accomplished through the application and integration of the processes which are grouped in the 5 process groups: 1. Initiating g 2. Planning 3. Executing 4 Monitoring and Controlling 4. 5. Closing

Due to the nature of change, g managing g g project j is iterative and g goes through progressive elaboration throughout the projects lifecycle

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project vs. Operations


Project - has a beginning and end; creates a unique product or service Operation - is ongoing and repetitive Common Characteristics Performed by individuals
Limited by constraints including resource constraints Planned, executed, monitored and controlled Performed to achieve organizational objectives or strategic plans

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project vs. Operations


Differences Project and Operations

Project

Temporar Temporary and unique niq e Purpose is to attain its objectives and then terminate Concludes when its specified objectives have been achieved

Operations

Ongoing and repetitive Purpose is to sustain the business Assumes new set of objectives and the work contin es continues

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project vs. Operations


Operations Examples: Manufacturing operations
Production operations Accounting operations Usage of the product of a project such as a software application or using network infrastructure

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project vs. Operations


Projects Examples: Developing a new product or service Installing a new facility/ infrastructure Increasing productivity productivity, market share share, profitability Starting a new business, or expansion of the existing one Cost reduction (operation and maintenance) R & D projects Pharmaceutical projects Technology T h l up-gradation/ d ti / new technology t h l projects j t
Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project or Operation?
Running the year-end W-2 form processing for a companys Employees? W-2: operation p Upgrading the database containing the employee payroll data from Oracle 9i to Oracle 10i O Oracle l Upgrade: U d project j Political Campaign: project Rebuild refineries: project Running a campaign for political office An oil company rebuilds refineries destroyed by a hurricane The operations team of the I.T. department installs a software patch sent by the vendor Install software patch: can be project or operation

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project Success
There are different ways to define project success: The project met scope, time, and cost goals. The project satisfied the customer/sponsor customer/sponsor. The project produced the desired results.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project / Program / Portfolio Management


Program
A group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually. A program manager provides leadership and di direction ti for f the th project j t managers heading h di th the projects within the program. Advantages d a ages Decreased risk Economies of Scale

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project / Program / Portfolio Management


Building a new shopping mall - Program Example
Many projects exist underneath this program, such as excavation construction excavation, construction, interior design design, store placement, marketing, facilities management, and so on. All the projects are related and are managed together so that collective b benefits fit are realized li d and d controls t l are implemented i l t d and d managed d in i a coordinated fashion. So Sometimes e es programs p og a s involve o e aspec aspects so of o ongoing go g ope operations a o s as well. e After e the shopping mall in our example is built, the management of the facility becomes the ongoing operations part of this program. The management of this collection of projects is called program management.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project / Program / Portfolio Management


P Program Management M t
The centralized coordinated management of a program to achieve the programs strategic objectives and benefits. benefits

Hierarchy - Portfolio, Program and Project Management

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project / Program / Portfolio Management


Portfolio
A portfolio refers to a collection of Projects or programs and other work that are grouped together to facilitate effective management of that work to meet strategic business objectives

Portfolio Management
It refers to the centralized management of one or more portfolios, which includes identifying, identifying prioritizing, prioritizing authorizing, authorizing managing and controlling projects programs, and other related work, to achieve specific business objectives Portfolio managers help their organizations make wise investment decisions by helping to select and analyze projects from a strategic perspective

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project Management Compared to Project Portfolio Management

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project / Program / Portfolio Management


Construction Business - Portfolio Example
Lets say our company is in the construction business. Our organization has several business units: retail, single-family residential, and multifamily residential. All projects j t and d programs associated i t d with ith th the retail t il business b i unit it belong to the retail portfolio. The ep program og a with the e bu building d g of o the t e new e mall a (see p program og a example) is one of the programs that belongs to the retail portfolio. Other programs and projects could be within this portfolio as well. For example, example implementing a waste management system for the retail facilities.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project / Program / Portfolio Management


Project Portfolio Approach - Example

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project / Program / Portfolio Management


Hierarchy - Portfolio, Program and Project Management - Example

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Subprojects
Projects are frequently divided into more manageable components or subprojects. Subproject are often contracted to an external enterprise or to another functional unit in the performing organization. Subprojects can be referred to as projects and managed as such.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project Management Office (PMO)


It is an organizational body or entity assigned various responsibilities related to the centralized and d coordinated di t d management t of f those th projects j t under its domain. A primary function of a PMO is to support project managers in a variety of ways. The responsibilities of a PMO can range from providing project management support functions to actually being responsible for the direct management of the project. j t

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project Management Office (PMO)


It usually takes one of three roles depending upon organization need,
Project Support: Provide project management guidance to project managers in business units. Project Management Process/Methodology: Develop and implement a consistent and standardized process. Training: Conduct training programs or collect requirements for an outside company company.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project Management Office (PMO)


A Newspaper PMO- Example Problem A regional newspaper chain identified a business need to decrease editorial costs on special issues and features in all its editions. Every project manager at the chain was operating independently, developing individual solutions l ti to t problems, bl and d hiring hi i writers it and d photographers to produce local articles that would be published only once.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project Management Office (PMO)


A Newspaper PMO- Example Solution The project managers came out with new processes and economies of scale, such as buying inexpensive, generic articles from a wire service and publishing them in all editions simultaneously. The PMO in this case introduced standardized processes for calculating, leveling, loading, and developing project budgets and also l h helped l d th the project j t managers with ith updating d ti the th project j t schedules h d l . The PMO also planned for developing project data references and organized a best practices sharing session every month.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Role of a Project Manager


The Project Manager is the person responsible for accomplishing the project objectives.

Project managers strive to meet the project constraints by balancing project scope, time, and cost goals and other project objectives.

Depending p g on the organization g structure , a p project j manager g may y report p to functional manager.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project Expediter and Coordinator


Project managers role can very limited Project Expediter acts primarily as a staff assistant as communications coordinator. cannot personally make or enforce decisions. Project Coordinator has some power to make decisions Has some authority reports to a higher-level manager

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Stakeholders
Stakeholders are people involved or in affected by project activities.

S Stakeholders include : The project sponsor The project manager The project team Support staff Customers Users Suppliers Opponents to the project

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Stakeholders
Stakeholders have varying levels of responsibility and authority and can change over the project life cycle cycle. Project management team must continuously identify both external and internal stakeholders. Project manager must manage the influence of various stakeholders in relation to the requirements and balance stakeholders stakeholders interest.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Stakeholders
Project Stakeholders - Example

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Enterprise Environmental Factors


Refer to both internal & external environmental factors that surround or influence a projects project s success Comes from any or all the enterprises involved in the project May enhance or constrain project management options May have positive or negative influence on the outcome As an Input in almost All project management process

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Enterprise Environmental Factors


Examples: Organizational culture structure culture, structure, and processes Government or industry standards t d d Infrastructure Existing human resources Personnel administration Company work authorization systems Marketplace conditions
Recognizing Excellence in Project Management
Enterprise Environmental factors

Stakeholder risk tolerances Political climate Organizations established communications channels Commercial databases j management g Project information

4 PROJECT LIFE CYCLE AND ORGANIZATION

The Project Life Cycle


Every project has its own Life Cycle

Design & Approvals Financing Foundation Works Structure St uctu e Plumbing / Electrical Painting Internal Works Landscaping / Retaining Walls
Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

The Project Life Cycle


P j t Life Project Lif Cycle Cy l

A project life cycle is a collection of generally sequential and sometimes overleaping project phases E.g. Peacekeeping Operations
Cease Fire Verification Combatant Demobilization Humanitarian Assistance Area Recon. Refugee Resettlement Elections
Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

The Project Life Cycle


The project life cycles generally define The phases that connect the beginning of a project to its end. What Wh t technical t h i l work k to t d do in i each h phase h When the deliverable are to be generated Who is involved in each phase How to control and approval for each phase

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

The Project Life Cycle


All projects are divided into phases, and all projects, large or small, have a similar life cycle structure: Starting St ti the th project j t Organizing and preparing Carrying out the project work Closing the project

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Characteristics of Project Life Cycle


Cost and staffing levels are low at the start, peak as the work is carried out and drop rapidly as the project out, draws to a close.

Stakeholder influences, risk, and uncertainty t i t , are greatest t t at t the th start t t of f the project. These factors decrease over the life of the project.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Characteristics of Project Life Cycle


The cost of changes and correcting errors typically increases substantially as the project approaches completion.

The completion and approval of one or more deliverables characterizes a project phase.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Phase-to-Phase Relationships
There are three basic types of phase phasetophase to phase relationships : A Sequential relationship : where a phase can only start once the previous i phase h i is complete l t

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Phase-to-Phase Relationships
An Overlapping relationship: where the phase starts prior to completion of the previous one (Fast tracking). Overlapping phase may increase risk and can result in rework .

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Phase-to-Phase Relationships
An Iterative relationship : where only one phase is planned at any given time and the planning for the next is carried out as work progresses on the current phase and deliverables. Useful in undefined, uncertain or rapidly changing environments. Example : Research projects

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project life cycle and project phases Software Development Example

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project life cycle and project phases Software Development p Example p

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project life cycle and project phases - Construction Project j Example p

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Product vs. Project Life Cycle


Project life cycle defines start and finish of a project p j with intermediate phases.

Product life cycle is a broader concept. p It begins with business plan, through idea, to product ongoing product, operations and ends with product di divestment. t t
Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Organization Influence on Project Management


Organizational cultures and styles Organizational structure

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Organizational Structure
Functional Manager
In charge of a functional area e e.g. g Finance, Finance HR, IT Operations, Training, Marketing etc Someone with management authority over an organizational unit within a functional f organization The manager of any group that actually makes a product or performs a service. Sometimes called a line manager. manager.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Organizational Structure
Project Manager
The person assigned by the performing organization to achieve the project objectives. Performing Organization: The enterprise whose personnel are most t directly di tl i involved l di in d doing i th the work k of f th the project j t Project Objectives: The result to be obtained, the product produced or the p purpose p to be achieved by y the p project. j to be p

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Functional Organization
Organization is grouped by areas of specialization e.g. Marketing, Marketing Engineering, Manufacturing, Finance, HR.

Project generally occur within a single department

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Weak Matrix Organization


Organization in which the balance of power rests with the functional manager and project manager is merely an expeditor or coordinator.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Balanced Matrix Organization


The power is shared between project manager and functional manager. manager

Most organizations are Balanced Matrix these days. days

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Strong Matrix Organization


Strong matrix is more like projectized. Here, the balance of power rests with the project manager and not the functional manager.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Projectized Organization
Entire company is organized by projects. Personnel are assigned and report to a project j manager. g Team members are collocated ll t d and d most t organizations resources are assigned to project work.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Organizational Process Assets


Asset that can be used to influence the success of a project. It may be grouped into two categories, Processes P &P Procedures d Organizational standard processes such as standards, policies (e.g. PM policy, security policy etc) Standardized guidelines, work instruction, proposal evaluation criteria, and performance measurement criteria Templates (e.g. WBS, RBS, contract , network diagram etc) Financial control proced procedures res (e.g. (e g acco accounting nting codes etc) Procedures for prioritizing, approving, and issuing work authorization

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Organizational Process Assets


Corporate Knowledge Base Process measurement databases Project files (e.g. performance baselines, schedules, budgets etc) Historical Hi t i l i information f ti & l lesson l learned dk knowledge l d b bases Issue and defect management databases Configuration management knowledge bases Fi Financial i ld databases t b ( (e.g. incurred i d costs, t project j t cost t overruns etc)

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

5 PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND PROCESS GROUPS

Project Management Processes


Process The means by which people, procedures, data, methods, equipment and
g to p produce a desired end result, i.e. p product or service tools are integrated

Procedures, Methods Tools, Equipment

PROCESS
People, Skills, Expertise

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Process: Inputs-Tools & Techniques-Outputs


Inputs Input [Process Input]: Any item, whether internal or external to the project that is required by a process before that process proceeds. May be an output from a predecessor process Tools & Techniques Technique: A defined systematic procedure employed by a human resource to perform an activity to produce a product or result or deliver a service, and that may employ one or more tools. Tool: Something t tangible, ibl such h as a software program, used in performing p g an activity to produce a product. Outputs Output [Process Output]: A product, result, or service generated by a process. May be an input to a successor process. Process outputs are usually tangible, such as a report or an update or a list, for example. To get to the output, you have to p start with the inputs.

Project Management Process


Two categories of project process: Product-oriented process should h ld b be considered id d i in project j tb but t not t explained l i di in PMBOK Project management process

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project Management Processes


Project management processes organize and describe the work of the project. The PMBOK Guide (chapters 4 12) describes five process groups used to accomplish this end. These processes are performed by people and, much like project phases phases, are interrelated and dependent on one another another. These are the five project management process groups that the PMBOK Guide documents: Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring and Controlling Closing

Project Management Processes


All these process groups have individual processes that collectively make up the group. Collectively, these process groupsincluding all their individual processes make up the project management process. Projects start with the Initiating process and progress through all the project j t management t processes (Planning, (Pl i Executing, E ti Monitoring M it i and d Controlling, and Closing process groups) until the project is successfully completed or its canceled.

Process Interaction
Project management processes are represented as discrete elements with well-defined i t f interface

P E

M&C

In practice, they overlap and interact

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Process Groups - Interactions

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Process Groups - Interactions

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project Management Process Groups: High Level Overview


Initiating [Process Group]
Those processes performed to define a new project or a new phase of an existing project by obtaining authorization to start the project or phase phase. Initiating acknowledges that a project, or the next project phase, should begin. This process group grants the approval to commit the organizations resources to working on the project or phase and authorizes the project manager to begin working on the project The outputs of the Initiating process group, including the project charter become inputs into the Planning process group.

Project Management Process Groups: High Level Overview


Planning [Process Group]:
Those processes performed to establish the total scope of the effort, define and refine the objectives, j , and develop p the course of action required q to attain those objectives. Creating the project management plan that will be used to achieve the goals the project was undertaken to address. The Planning process group also involves determining alternative courses of action and selecting from among the best of those to produce the projects goals. goals This process group is where the project requirements are fleshed out.

Project Management Process Groups: High Level Overview


Executing [Process Group]
Those processes performed to complete the work defined in the project management plan to satisfy the project objectives. Its here that the project manager will coordinate and direct project resources to meet the objectives of the project management plan.

Project Management Process Groups: High Level Overview


Monitoring and Controlling [Process Group]
Those processes required to track, review, and regulate the progress and performance of the project, identify any areas in which changes to the plan are required, i d and d initiate i iti t the th corresponding di changes. h y problems p as soon as p possible and apply pp y corrective The idea is to identify action to control the work of the project and assure successful outcomes. For example, p , if you y discover that variances exist, , youll y apply pp y corrective action to get the project activities realigned with the project plan. This might require additional passes through the Planning processes to adjust project activities, resources, schedules, budgets, and so on.

Project Management Process Groups: High Level Overview


Closing Processes [Process Group]
Those processes performed to finalize all activities across all Project Management Process Gro Groups ps to formall formally close the project Closing g brings g a formal, orderly y end to the activities of a p project j p phase or to the project itself. The documentation collected during the Closing C process group can be reviewed and utilized to avert potential problems on future projects. Contract closeout occurs here, and formal acceptance and approval are obtained from project stakeholders.

Project Management Process Groups: Process Interactions


Before going any further, heres a brief refresher: Project phases describe how the work required to produce the product of the project will be completed. Project j management g process p groups g p organize and describe how the project activities will be completed in order to meet the goals of the project. The Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle is an underlying concept that shows the integrative nature of the process groups.

6 KNOWLEDGE AREAS

Project Management Knowledge Areas


Knowledge areas describe the key competencies or functions that project j t managers must t develop d l and d apply l t to a project. j t Core Knowledge Areas (4):
C Core knowledge areas lead to specific f project objectives. Core C processes have clear dependencies that require them to be performed in essentially the same order on the most projects

Scope, Time, Cost, Quality Facilitating Knowledge Areas (4):


Facilitating knowledge areas are the means through which the project objectives are achieved

Human Resources, Communication, Risk, Procurement Integration Knowledge Area (1):


Integration knowledge area affects and is affected by all of the other knowledge areas

Integration I i management

Project Management Framework

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project Integration Management


What is Integration?
It is best described as p putting g all other management g processes p of the project into a cohesive whole.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project Integration Management


Monitoring & Controlling Processes Planning Processes

Enter phase/ Start project

Initiating Processes

Closing Processes

Exit phase/ End project

Executing Processes

Knowledge Area

Process Initiating Develop Project Charter Planning Develop Project Management Plan Executing Direct and Manage Project Execution Monitoring & Control Monitor and Control Project Work Perform Integrated Change Control Closing Close Project or phase

Integration

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project Scope Management


Monitoring & Controlling Processes Planning Processes

Enter phase/ Start project

Initiating Processes

Closing Processes

Exit phase/ End project

Executing Processes

Knowledge Area

Process Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring & Control Closing

Scope

Collect Requirements Define Scope Create WBS

Verify Scope Control Scope

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project Time Management


Monitoring & Controlling Processes Planning Processes

Enter phase/ Start project

Initiating Processes

Closing Processes

Exit phase/ End project

Executing Processes

Knowledge Area

Process Initiating Planning Define Activities Sequence Activities Estimate Activity Resource Estimate Activity Durations D l Schedule Develop S h d l Executing Monitoring & Control Closing

Time

Control Schedule

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project Cost Management


Monitoring & Controlling Processes Planning Processes

Enter phase/ Start project

Initiating Processes

Closing Processes

Exit phase/ End project

Executing Processes

Knowledge Area

Process Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring & Control Closing

Cost

Estimate Costs Determine Budget

Control Costs

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project Quality Management


Monitoring & Controlling Processes Planning Processes

Enter phase/ Start project

Initiating Processes

Closing Processes

Exit phase/ End project

Executing Processes

Knowledge Area

Process Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring & Control Closing

Quality

Plan Quality

Perform Quality Assurance

Perform Quality Control

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project Communication Management


Monitoring & Controlling Processes Planning Processes

Enter phase/ Start project

Initiating Processes

Closing Processes

Exit phase/ End project

Executing Processes

Process Knowledge Area Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring & Control Closing

Communication

Indentify Stakeholder

Plan Communication

Distribute Information Manage Stakeholders Expectations

Report Performance

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project Human Resource Management


Monitoring & Controlling Processes Planning Processes

Enter phase/ Start project

Initiating Processes

Closing Processes

Exit phase/ End project

Executing Processes

Process Knowledge Area Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring & Control Closing

Human Resource

Develop Human Resource Plan

Acquire Project Team Develop Project Team Manage Project Team

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project Risk Management


Monitoring & Controlling Processes Planning Processes

Enter phase/ Start project

Initiating Processes

Closing Processes

Exit phase/ End project

Executing Processes

Knowledge Area

Process Initiating Planning


Plan Risk Management Identify Risks Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis Plan Risk Responses

Executing

Monitoring & Contol

Closing

Risk

Monitor and Control Risks

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project Procurement Management


Monitoring & Controlling Processes Planning Processes

Enter phase/ Start project

Initiating Processes

Closing Processes

Exit phase/ End project

Executing Processes

Process Knowledge Area Initiating Planning Pl Procurements Plan P t Executing Conduct C d t Procurements Monitoring & Control Administer Ad i i t Procurements Closing Close Cl Procurements

Procurement

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

DEVELOP PROJECT CHARTER

Develop Project Charter


Develop p Project j Charter

Develop a document that formally authorizes a project or phase Documenting initial requirements that satisfy the stakeholders stakeholder s needs and expectations

Develop Project Charter Key Points


Establishes a partnership between performing organization and requesting organization. Approved project charter formally initiates the project. Project are authorized by someone external to the project such as sponsor PMO sponsor, PMO, portfolio steering committee committee. Project charter can be created by them or delegated to Project Manager.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Develop Project Charter


Inputs Project statement of Work Business Case Contract Enterprise Environmental factors Organization process assets Tools and Techniques Expert judgment Outputs Project charter

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Develop Project Charter

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Develop Project Charter


Project Statement of work (SOW)
Description of products or services to be delivered by the project. project The SOW references: Business need Product scope description Strategic plan

Business Case
Provide the necessary information from business standpoint to determine whether or not the project is worth the required investment.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Develop Project Charter


Contract
A contract is an input if the project is being done for an external customer customer.

Enterprise Environmental Factors


Organization culture/structure Government or industry standards Marketplace conditions

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Develop Project Charter


Organization Process Assets
Policies (e.g. safety & health policy, project management policy) Procedures Forms Lessons learned knowledge base Historical information Standards and guidelines

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Tools & Techniques Develop Project Charter


Expert Judgment Consultants Subject Matter Experts Industry groups Professional P f i l and d technical h i l associations i i Stakeholders including customer or sponsor PMO Other unit within organization

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Develop Project Charter


Project Charter
Issued by project initiator/sponsor (external to the project) Document that formally authorizes a project Think about it Can a project exist without a charter? Documents business needs and the new product service or in other words the high level project requirements Links the project to the ongoing work of the organization Question What about client projects?
Document that officially acknowledges the existence of a project.

Developed by corporate executive or sponsor p

Defines the responsibilities and boundaries of both project manager and project

The project charter provides the project manager with the authority to use the budget and deploy the organizations resources

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Develop Project Charter


Project Charter Components
Project title Introduction Project manager and his/her responsibilities and levels of authority

Basic needs of the work to be performed

Product description

High level schedule

Initial cost estimates

Initial resource needs

Organizational support needs

Project information management and control t l

Approvals (corporate executive responsible for the creation of the d document t (external ( t l to t the project)

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Outputs Develop Project Charter


Project Charter - Example
Project j Charter Template.doc

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

IDENTIFY STAKEHOLDERS

Identify Stakeholders
Identify y Stakeholders

Identifying all people or organizations impacted by the project Documenting their interests, involvement, and impact on project success

Identify Stakeholders Key Points


It is critical for project success to identify the stakeholders early in the project Develop a strategy to analyze their level of interest and timing, expectations, importance and influence

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Identify Stakeholders
Inputs Project Charter Procurement documents Enterprise Environmental factors Organization process assets Tools and Techniques Stakeholder Analysis Expert Judgment Outputs Stakeholder Register Stakeholder management strategy

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Identify Stakeholders

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Identify Stakeholders


Project Charter
Provides information about internal and external parties involved and affected by the project Example : Sponsor, customers, team members, groups and departments, and other organizations

Procurement Documents
Required when project is result of procurement activity or based on an established contract.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Identify Stakeholders


Enterprise Environmental Factors
Organizational or company culture and structure Government or industry standards

Organization Process Assets


Stakeholder register templates Lessons learned from previous projects Stakeholder registers from previous projects

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Identify Stakeholders


A technique of systematically gathering and analyzing quantitative & qualitative information to determine whose interests should be taken into account throughout the project. Step p 1: Identify y all p potential p project j stakeholders and relevant information Step 2: Identify the potential impact or support each stakeholder could generate and classify them so as to define an approach strategy. Classification models like Power/Interest grid, Power/Influence grid etc can be used used. Step 3: Assess how key stakeholder are likely to react or respond in various situation
Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

High

F
Keep Satisfied

D
Manage Closely

Power

A H

Monitor (Minimum Effort)

Keep Informed

E
Low

Interest

High

Sample grid showing classification model

Tools & Techniques Identify Stakeholders


Expert Judgment Involves groups or individuals with specialized training or knowledge knowledge. Example: SME in business or project area Industry group and consultants Project Manager who have worked on projects in same area Professional and Technical associations Can be obtained through individual consultations (one-to-one meetings, interviews, etc.) a panel format (focus groups, surveys etc.)

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Identify Stakeholders


Stakeholder Register
Contains all details related to identified stakeholders like
Name Role in Contact C t t Project Information Internal I t l/ External Company Impact Influence Main expectations Attitude Attit d about b t Major requirement the project

Stakeholder Management Strategy


Defines f an approach to increase the support and minimize negative impacts of stakeholder. Common way of representing is by using stakeholder analysis matrix.
Stakeholder interest(s) in the project Assessment of impact Potential strategies for gaining support or reducing obstacles

Stakeholder

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

DEVELOP PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN

Develop Project Management Plan


Develop p Project j Management g Plan

Process of documenting the actions necessary to define, prepare, integrate and coordinate all subsidiary plans

Develop p Project j Management g Plan Key y Points


Taking the results of other planning processes and putting them into a consistent, coherent document executed, monitored & controlled Defines how the project is executed and closed Documents the collection of outputs This process results in a project management plan that is updated and revised through the Perform Integrated change control process

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Develop Project Management Plan


Inputs Project Charter Outputs from planning processes Enterprise Environmental factors Organization process assets Tools and Techniques Expert Judgment Outputs Project Management Plan

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Develop Project Management Plan

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Develop Project Management Plan


Project Charter

Output from planning processes

Enterprise Environmental Factors


Organization structure and culture PMIS Government or industry standards Infrastructure (existing facilities and capital equipments) Personnel administration

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Develop Project Management Plan


Organization Process Assets
Standardized guidelines, work instructions, proposal evaluation criteria criteria, and performance measurement criteria Project management plan templates Project files from past projects Historical Information Lessons learned Configuration management knowledge base

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Tools & Techniques Develop Project Management Plan


Expert Judgment
Tailor the process to meet project needs Determine level of configuration management to apply on project Determine resources and skill levels needed to perform project work Develop technical and management details to be included in project management plan

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Develop Project Management Plan


Project Management Plan
The formal, approved document integrating and consolidating all subsidiary management t plans l and d baselines b li used dt to manage & control t l project j t execution Includes the life cycle selected for the project and processes that will be applied to each phase. phase Can be either summary level or detailed, and can be composed of one or more subsidiary plans. Also Al i includes, l d Change management plan Configuration management plan Requirements management plan Process improvement plan

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Develop Project Management Plan


Subsidiary Management Plan) y Plans (Project ( j g )
Scope Management Plan Requirements Management Plan Schedule Management Plan Cost Management Plan Quality Management Plan Process Improvement Plan Human Resource Plan Communication Management Plan Risk Management Plan Procurement Management g Plan

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Develop Project Management Plan


Performance measurement baseline (Project Management Plan)
The project management plan contains scope, schedule, and cost baselines, against which the project manager will need to report project performance. f Baseline created during planning. Scope baseline o The project scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and WBS dictionary Schedule baseline o The agreed-upon schedule, including the start and stop times Cost baseline o The time-phased cost budget Deviations from baselines are often due to incomplete risk identification and risk management.
Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Develop Project Management Plan

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project Management Plan Some Terms / Concepts


Work Authorization System
Generally a system defined at the organizational level. Used to notify team members / sub-contractors that they may begin work on a work package package.

Project Management Plan Approval


Since this is the document based on which project is executed it needs approval pp Sponsors and Stakeholders Sign-offs needed

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Project Management Plan Some Terms / Concepts


Kick off Meeting
A meeting of all project parties (customers, sellers, team, senior management, g agencies, g functional management, sponsor) to make sure everyone is familiar with the project. It is a communications and coordination meeting to make certain everyone is familiar with the details of the project and people working on the project. Held at the end of the planning process group before beginning g g work on the p project. j

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Change Management Plan


Describes how changes will be managed and controlled. Covers for the p project j as whole. May include: Change control procedures (how and who) The Th approval l levels l l f for authorizing th i i changes h The creation of a change control board to approve changes A plan outlining how changes will be managed and controlled Who should attend meetings regarding changes Tools to use to track and control changes Each knowledge area are described in the individual management plans

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Change Management Plan

Change_Managemen t_Plan_Template.doc

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How Everything so for Connects

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

COLLECT REQUIREMENTS

Collect Requirements
Collect Requirements q

Process of defining and documenting Stakeholders needs to meet project objectives

Collect Requirements Key Points


Projects success is directly influenced by the care taken in capturing and managing project and product requirements. Collecting requirements is defining and managing customer expectations Balance stakeholders stakeholder s requirement: prioritizing requirement & resolve conflicts Requirements become the foundation of the WBS, Cost, Schedule and Quality planning

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Collect Requirements
Collect C ll t Requirements R i t Key K P Points i t
Requirements can be categorized into Project Requirements Business Requirements j Management g Project Requirements Delivery Requirements etc

Product Requirements Information on technical requirements Security requirements Performance P f requirements i t etc t
Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Collect Requirements
Inputs Project Charter Stakeholder Register Tools and Techniques Interviews Focus Groups Facilitated Workshops Group Creativity Techniques Group decision making Techniques Questionnaires and Surveys Observations Prototypes Outputs Requirements Documentation Requirements Management Plan Requirements Traceability Matrix

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Collect Requirements

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Collect Requirements


Project Charter
High level Project requirements High level Product Description

Stakeholder Register
Identify Id tif Stakeholders St k h ld that th t can provide id i information f ti on detailed project and product requirements

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Collect Requirements


Interviews
Formal or Informal information discovery y from stakeholders Performed by asking prepared and spontaneous questions and recording responses one-on-one on one Often conducted one

F Focus Groups G
Bring together prequalified stakeholders and subject matter experts to learn about their expectations A trained moderator guides the group through an interactive discussion

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Collect Requirements


Facilitated Workshops
Bring cross functional stakeholders together to define product requirements This can build trust, foster relationship and improve communication leading to increased stakeholder consensus Example E l Joint Application Development (JAD session) Quality function deployment (QFD) session

Prototypes ototypes
Working model of expected product before actually building it

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Collect Requirements


Group Creativity Techniques
Nominal Group Technique Brainstorming The Delphi Technique Idea/mind mapping Affinity Diagram

Group Decision Making Technique


It is an assessment process of multiple alternatives with an expected outcome in the form of future actions resolution Unanimity y Majority (>50%) Plurality Dictatorship p

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Collect Requirements


Questionnaires and Surveys
Written sets of questions designed to accumulate information from wider respondents

Observation
Viewing individual in their environment Job Shadowing Participant observer performing process to uncover hidden requirement q

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Collect Requirements


Balance Stakeholders Requirement
There is a need to balance stakeholders requirement Some issue are so complex p they y cannot be resolved by y PM alone Facilitate the resolution of competing requirement, consider: business case, project charter charter, project scope statement, project constraints

What you can do: Conflict resolution, team building, meeting, problem solving skills, escalation, , approval pp from stakeholder

Stakeholder request to do or add something that is not related to the reason of project created should be rejected!

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Collect Requirements


Requirements Documentation
Business Need or opportunity and P j t Objectives Project Obj ti Functional & Non Functional requirements Quality requirements, Acceptance Criteria, Business rules Impact to other organization areas and d entities titi Support and Training requirement Assumptions and constraints

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Collect Requirements


Requirements Management Plan
Documents how requirements will be analyzed, documented and Managed Includes, Planned, tracked and reported activities Configuration management activities Requirements Prioritization Product P d t Metrics M t i and d Traceability Structure etc.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Collect Requirements


Requirements Traceability Matrix
Links requirements to their origin and traces the requirements to Business need opportunities, goals, objectives scope, product d t design d i Product development, test strategy and test scenarios etc scenarios,

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DEFINE SCOPE

Define Scope
Define Scope p

Process of developing a detailed description of project and product

Define Scope Key Points


Builds upon the Major deliverables, assumptions and constraints The project scope is progressively elaborated during planning

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Define Scope
Inputs Project Charter Requirement Documentation Organizational Process Assets Tools and Techniques Facilitated Workshops Expert Judgment Alternative identification Product Analysis Outputs Project scope statement Project Document updates

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Define Scope

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Define Scope


Project Charter
High Level project description and product characteristics Project approval requirements

Requirement q Documentation Described earlier Organization Process Assets


Organizational policies, procedures, Templates for Project scope statement Previous project files Lessons Learnt from Previous Projects

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Define Scope


Expert Judgment
Use of experts to develop scope statement Example Other units of Organizations, consultants, Stakeholders, Professional and technical associations, Industry groups, Subject Matter experts

Product Analysis
Methods used to translate project objectives into tangible requirements and deliverables Example Product breakdown Structure systems engineering, systems analysis value engineering, value analysis, functional analysis

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Define Scope


Alternative Identification
Helps generate different approaches to execute or perform work Example of techniques Brainstorming Lateral thinking

Facilitated Workshops Described earlier

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Define Scope


Project Scope Statement
Forms basis of future project d i i decisions Helps develop common understanding among stakeholders Is revised to reflect approved changes Includes or refers Product Scope description Product Acceptance Criteria Project Deliverables Project exclusions Project Constraints Project assumptions

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Define Scope

Scope_Statement_T emplate.doc

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Define Scope


Project Document Updates
Updates to Stakeholder Register Requirements Documentation Requirements traceability matrix ti

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

CREATE WBS

Create WBS
Create WBS

Process of P f subdividing bdi idi project j t deliverables d li bl and d Project P j t work k into Smaller and more manageable components

Create Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Key Points


Deliverable-oriented hierarchal decomposition of work to be executed by project team to accomplish project objectives Defines total scope of project and create required deliverables Develops common understanding of the project scope Each descending level provides more detailed description of the deliverable Items at lowest level of WBS are called work-packages A work package can be scheduled, cost estimated, monitored and d controlled t ll d WBS does not show dependencies. Dividing work package into activities is part of the time management process (Define A i ii ) Activities)
Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Create WBS
Inputs Project Scope statement Requirement Documentation Organizational Process Assets Tools and Techniques Decomposition Outputs WBS WBS Dictionary Scope baseline Project document updates

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Create WBS

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Create WBS


Project Scope Statement Described earlier

Requirement Documentation Described earlier

Organization Process Assets Described earlier

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Create WBS


Decomposition
Decomposition is the subdivision of project deliverables into smaller more manageable components until the work and smaller, deliverables are defined to the work package level The work package level is lowest level in WBS, and is the point at which the cost and activity durations for the work can be reliably estimated and managed Activities in Decomposition Identify Id tif and d analyze l the th deliverables d li bl and d related l t d work k Structuring and organizing the WBS Decomposing to the required detailed level D Developing l i and d assigning i i codes d f for WBS components t Verify the sufficiency of degree of decomposition

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Outputs Create WBS


Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Example 1

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Outputs Create WBS


Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Example 2

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Create WBS


Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Example 3

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Create WBS


Work Breakdown Structure - Characteristics

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Outputs Create WBS


WBS Dictionary : Supporting document containing details of WBS components. It includes (but not limited to) :
Code of account identifier Description of work Responsible organization List of schedule milestone Associated schedule activities Cost estimates Quality requirements Acceptance criteria Resource required Contract Information

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Outputs Create WBS


WBS Dictionary Example 2

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Create WBS


Scope Baseline
The components of Scope baseline are, Project Scope S statement WBS WBS Dictionary

Project Documents update


Updates to Requirement documentation

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

PMP EXAM TIPS AND TRICKS

Approach to answering Exam Questions


Concepts
The PMBOK Guide is Always Right

A Project Manager is Proactive Addressing the root cause of the problem so that problem doesnt come back

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Approach to answering Exam Questions


Techniques
Read the question first

Use your brain

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Approach to answering Exam Questions


Techniques
Bottom up approach

Last sentence first

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management