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# Chap 6 Noise in Analog Modulation

Wireless Information Transmission System Lab. Institute of Communications Engineering g g National Sun YatYat-sen University

Outline

6.1 Introduction 6.2 Receiver Model 63 N 6.3 Noise i i in DSB-SC DSB SC R Receivers i 6.4 Noise in AM Receivers 6.5 Noise in FM Receivers

Yu-sing Lin ()

## Chap 6.1 Introduction

Wireless Information Transmission System Lab. Institute of Communications Engineering g g National Sun YatYat-sen University

6.1 Introduction

To undertake an analysis of noise in continuous-wave (CM) modulation systems, we need a receiver model. The customary practice is to model the receiver noise (channel noise) as additive, white, and Gaussian. These simplifying assumptions enable us to obtain a basic understanding of the way in which noise affects the performance f of f th the receiver. i

Yu-sing Lin ()

Wireless Information Transmission System Lab. Institute of Communications Engineering g g National Sun YatYat-sen University

s(t) denotes the incoming modulated signal. w(t) denotes front-end receiver noise. The power spectral density of the noise w(t) is denoted by N0/2, defined for both positive and negative frequencies. N0 is the average noise power per unit b d idth measured bandwidth d at t the th front f t end d of f the th receiver. i The bandwidth of this band-pass filter is just wide enough to pass the modulated signal without distortion. distortion Assume the band-pass filter is ideal, having a bandwidth equal to the transmission bandwidth BT of the modulated signal s(t) , and a mid midband frequency equal to the carrier frequency fc , fc >> BT .
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## Idealized characteristic of band-pass filtered noise.

The filtered noise n(t) may be treated as a narrow band noise represented in the canonical form:

n ( t ) = nI ( t ) cos ( 2f c t ) nQ ( t ) sin ( 2f c t )

( 6.1)

where nI(t) is the in-phase p noise component p and nQ(t) is the quadrature noise component, both measured with respect to the carrier wave Accos(2fct). Yu-sing Lin () 7

## The filtered signal x(t) available for demodulation is defined by

x (t ) = s (t ) + n (t )

( 6.2 )

The average noise power at the demodulator input is equal to the total area under the curve of the power spectral density SN( f ): N0 Pavg-noise = 2 BT = BT N 0 2 Input signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)I is defined as:

( SNR ) I

average power of the modulated signal s ( t ) average power of the filtered noise n ( t )

## Output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)O is defined as:

average power of the demodulated message signal average power of the noise
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( SNR )O =

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## Channel signal-to-noise ratio

( SNR )C

average power of the modulated signal average power of noise in the message BW

## measured at the receiver input

This ratio Thi i may be b viewed i d as the h signal-to-noise i l i ratio i that h results l from baseband (direct) transmission of the message signal m(t) without modulation, modulation as demonstrated in the following figure:

The message power at the low-pass filter input is adjusted to be the same as the average power of the modulated signal The low-pass filter passes the message signal and rejects out-of-band noise.
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Figure of merit

For the purpose of comparing different continuous-wave (CW) modulation systems, we normalize the receiver performance by dividing the output signal-to-noise signal to noise ratio by the channel signal signal-to-noise to noise ratio. The higher the value of the figure of merit, the better will the noise performance of the receiver be. The figure of merit may equal one, be less than one, or be greater than one, depending on the type of modulation used.

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Yu-sing Lin ()

## Chap 6.3 Noise in DSB DSB-SC Receiver

Wireless Information Transmission System Lab. Institute of Communications Engineering g g National Sun YatYat-sen University

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## The model of a DSB-SC receiver using a coherent detector

Figure g 6.4

The amplitude of the locally generated sinusoidal wave is assumed to be unity unity. For the demodulation scheme to operate satisfactorily, it is necessary ecessa y t that at t the e local oca osc oscillator ato be synchronized sy c o ed both bot in phase p ase and in frequency with the oscillator generating the carrier wave in the transmitter. We assume that this synchronization has been achieved.
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Yu-sing Lin ()

## 6.3 Noise in DSBDSB-SC Receiver

The DSB-SC component of the modulated signal s(t) is expressed as s ( t ) = CAc cos ( 2 f ct ) m ( t ) ( 6.4 ) where C is the system dependent scaling factor factor. The purpose of which is to ensure that the signal component s(t) is measured in the same units as the additive noise component n(t). m(t) is the sample function of a stationary process of zero mean, whose power spectral density SM( f ) is limited to a maximum frequency W, i.e. W is the message bandwidth. The average power P of the message signal is the total area under th curve of the f power spectral t l density d it
P = S M ( f ) df
W W

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## 6.3 Noise in DSBDSB-SC Receiver

In Example 5.12: Mixing of a Random Process with a Sinusoidal Process Y ( f ) = X ( t ) cos ( 2 f c t + ) RY ( ) = 1 RX ( ) cos ( 2 f c ) 2

1 SY ( f ) = S X ( f fc ) + S X ( f + fc ) 4 Therefore, the average power of the DSB-SC modulated signal component s(t) is given by: C 2 Ac2 P 2 The average power of the noise in the message BW is WN0 The channel signal-to-noise ratio of the DSB-SC modulation system is: C 2 Ac2 P (SNR )C ,DSB = 2WN 0
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## 6.3 Noise in DSBDSB-SC Receiver

Next, we wish to determine the output signal-to-noise ratio. Using g the narrowband representation p of the filtered noise n(t), the total signal at the coherent detector input may be expressed as:
= CAc cos ( 2 f c t ) m ( t ) + nI ( t ) cos ( 2 f c t ) nQ ( t ) sin ( 2 f c t )

x (t ) = s (t ) + n (t )

( 6.7 )

The output of the product-modulator product modulator component of the coherent detector is: ( t ) = x ( t ) cos ( 2 f c t ) cos(+) + cos() = 2cos()cos ()
1 1 sin(+) + sin() = 2sin()cos() = CAc m ( t ) + nI ( t ) 2 2 1 1 + + CA m t n t cos 4 f t Ac nQ ( t ) sin ( 4 f c t ) ( ) ( ) ( ) c I c 2 2

## low-pass p filter, , BW=W

1 1 y ( t ) = CAc m ( t ) + nI ( t ) 2 2

( 6.8 )
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## 6.3 Noise in DSBDSB-SC Receiver

Equation (6.8) indicates the following: The Th message signal i l m(t) and d in-phase i h noise i component t nI(t) of f the filtered noise n(t) appear additively at the receiver output. The quadrature component nQ(t) of the noise n(t) is completely rejected by the coherent detector. We note that these two results are independent of the input signalto-noise ratio. Thus, coherent detection distinguishes itself from other demodulation techniques in the important property: the output message component is unmutilated and the noise component always appears additively with the message, irrespective of the input signal-to-noise ratio.
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## 6.3 Noise in DSBDSB-SC Receiver

1 1 The receiver output signal : y ( t ) = CAc m ( t ) + nI ( t ) (6.8) 2 2 The average power of message component may be expressed as C 2 Ac2 P Pavg = 4 Th average power of The f the th noise i at t the th receiver i output t t is i 1 1 2WN 0 = WN 0 2 2

In the case of DSB-SC modulation, the band-pass filter in Figure 6.4 has a band-width band width BT equal to 2W in order to accommodate the upper and lower sidebands of the modulated signal s(t). Therefore, the average power of the filtered noise n(t) is 2WN0. F From P Property t 5 of fS Sect t5 5.11, 11 th the average power of f th the (low-pass) (l ) nI(t) i is the same as that of the (band-pass) filtered noise n(t).
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## The output signal-noise ratio for DSB-SC C 2 Ac2 P 4 (SNR )O ,DSB-SC = WN 0 2

C 2 Ac2 P = 2WN 0 We obtain the figure of merit

( 6.9 )
( 6.10 )

(SNR )O (SNR )C

=1
DSB-SC

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Yu-sing Lin ()

## Chap 6.4 Noise in AM Receivers

Wireless Information Transmission System Lab. Institute of Communications Engineering g g National Sun YatYat-sen University

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## A full AM signal is given by

cos ( 2 f c t ) s ( t ) = Ac 1 + ka m ( t )

( 6.11)

where Accos(2fct) is the carrier wave, m(t) is the message signal and bandwidth is W, ka is a constant that determines the percentage modulation. We would like to perform noise analysis for an AM system using an envelope l detector. d

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## 6.4 Noise in AM Receivers

We perform the noise analysis of the AM receiver by first determining the channel signal-to-noise signal to noise ratio, ratio and then the output signal-to-noise ratio. We can easily obtain average power of the AM signal s ( t ) = Ac cos ( 2 f c t ) + Ac ka m ( t ) cos ( 2 f c t )
1 2 1 2 2 Ac + Ac ka P 2 2 The average power of noise in the message bandwdith is WN0 (the same as the DSB-SC system) The channel signal signal-to-noise to noise ratio for AM is therefore: Ps =

(SNR )C ,AM =
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2 Ac2 (1 + ka P)

2WN 0
Yu-sing Lin ()

## 6.4 Noise in AM Receivers

The filtered signal x(t) applied to the envelope detector in the receiver is g given by: y x (t ) = s (t ) + n (t ) y ( t ) = envelope of x ( t ) = Ac + Ac ka m ( t ) + n1 ( t ) cos ( 2 f c t ) nQ ( t ) sin ( 2 f c t ) 6 13) ( 6.13

= Ac + Ac ka m ( t ) + nI ( t ) + n (t )
2 2 Q

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( 6.14 )

## Assume average g carrier power p >> average g noise power p

y (t )

Ac + Ac ka m ( t ) + nI ( t )

( 6.15)

The dc term or constant term Ac may be removed simply by means of a blocking capacitor. If we ignore the dc term Ac, we find that the remainder has a form similar to the output of a DSB-SC receiver using coherent detection.
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1 1 y ( t ) = CAc m ( t ) + nI ( t ) 2 2

( 6.8)

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(SNR )O ,AM

## Ac2 ka2 P 2WN 0

( 6.16 )

Eq. (16) is valid only if the following two conditions are satisfied

The average noise power is small compared to the average carrier power at the envelope detector input. The amplitude sensitive ka is adjusted for a percentage modulation less th or equal than l to t 100 percent. t (| ka m(t)|<=1) )|< 1)

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(SNR )O (SNR )C

## AM using Envelope Detector

ka2 P 1 2 1 + ka P

(SNR )O (SNR )C

DSB-SC

(SNR )O = (SNR )C

=1
SSB

The figure g of merit of a DSB-SC receiver or that of an SSB receiver using coherent detection is always unity. The corresponding figure of merit of an AM receiver using envelope detection is always less than unity. In other words, , the noise p performance of an AM receiver is always inferior to that a DSB-SC receiver. This is due to the wastage of transmitter power, which results from transmitting the carrier i as a component of f AM wave.
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## Example 6.1 Single-Tone Modulation

Consider a sinusoidal wave of frequency fm and amplitude Am as the modulating wave, as shown by m(t) = Amcos(2fmt) The corresponding AM wave is s(t) = Ac [1+ cos(2fmt)] cos(2fct)
modulation factor : = kaAm

The average power of the modulation wave m(t) is (assuming a load resistor of 1ohm) 1 2 P = Am 2
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## We obtain the figure of merit

(SNR )O (SNR )C

AM

1 2 2 ka Am 2 = 2 = 1 2 2 2 + 2 1 + ka Am 2

6 18 ) ( 6.18

When = 1 (100% modulation using envelope detection), we get a figure of merit = 1/3. This means that, other factors being equal, an AM system (using envelope detection) must transmit three times as much average power as a suppressed-carrier d i system (using ( i coherent h detection) d i ) in i order to achieve the same quality of noise performance.
Yu-sing Lin ()

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## Chap 6.5 Noise in FM Receivers

Wireless Information Transmission System Lab. Institute of Communications Engineering g g National Sun YatYat-sen University

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## The receiver model is given by:

The noise w(t) is modeled as white Gaussian noise of zero mean and power spectral density N0/2. /2 The received FM signal s(t) has a carrier frequency fc and transmission bandwidth BT, such that only a negligible amount of power lies outside the frequency band fc BT /2 for positive frequencies. The band-pass filter has a mid-band frequency fc and bandwidth BT and th f therefore passes the th FM signal i l essentially ti ll without ith t distortion. di t ti Ordinary, BT is small compared with the mid-band frequency fc so that we may use the narrowband representation for n(t), the filtered version of receiver noise w(t), in terms of its in-phase and quadrature components. Yu-sing Lin () 28

## 6.5 Noise in FM Receivers

In an FM system, the message information is transmitted by variations i i of f the h instantaneous i frequency f of f a sinusoidal i id l carrier i wave, and its amplitude is maintained constant. A variations Any i ti of f the th carrier i amplitude lit d at t the th receiver i input i t must t result from noise or interference. The limiter is used to remove amplitude variations by clipping the modulated wave at the filter output almost to the zero axis. The resulting rectangular wave is rounded off by another bandpass filter that is an integral part of the limiter, thereby suppressing harmonics of the carrier frequency. The filter output is again sinusoidal, with an amplitude that is practically ti ll independent i d d t of f the th carrier i amplitude lit d at t the th receiver i input.
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## The discriminator consists of two components:

A slope network or differentiator with a purely imaginary transfer function that varies linearly with frequency. It produces a hybrid-modulated wave in which both amplitude p and frequency q y vary y in accordance with the message g signal. An envelope detector that recovers the amplitude variation and thus reproduces the message signal. signal The slope network and envelope detector are usually implemented as integral parts of a single physical unit.

The post-detection filter, labeled baseband low-pass filter, has a bandwidth that is just large enough to accommodate the highest f frequency component of f the h message signal. i l This filter removes the out-of-band components of the noise at th discriminator the di i i t output t t and d thereby th b keeps k the th effect ff t of f the th output noise to a minimum.
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## The filtered noise at the band-pass filter output is defined as:

n ( t ) = nI ( t ) cos ( 2 f c t ) nQ ( t ) sin ( 2 f c t )

n ( t ) = r ( t ) cos 2 f c t + ( t ) r (t ) = n ( t ) + n ( t ) Rayleigh distribution nQ ( t ) 1 ( t ) = tan U ( 0,2 ) nI ( t ) The incoming FM signal s(t) is given by
2 I 2 Q 12
t s ( t ) = Ac cos 2 f c t + 2 k f m ( ) d 0

## ( 6.21) ( 6.22 ) ( 6.23)

( 6.24 ) ( 6.25) ( 6.26 )
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( t ) = 2 k f m ( ) d
0

s ( t ) = Ac cos 2 f c t + ( t )

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## The noisy signal at the band-pass filter output is:

x ( t ) = s ( t ) + n ( t ) = Ac cos 2 f c t + ( t ) + r ( t ) cos 2 f c t + ( t )

( t ) ( t ) r ( t ) sin ( t ) = ( t ) + tan A + r t cos t t ( ) ( ) ( ) c The envelope of x(t) is of no interest to us, because any envelope variations at the band-pass band pass output are removed by the limiter. limiter Our motivation is to determine the error in the instantaneous frequency of the carrier wave caused by the presence of the filtered noise n(t).
1

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## 6.5 Noise in FM Receivers

With the discriminator assumed ideal, its output is proportional to ( (t) )/2 where ( (t) is the derivative of (t) with respect p to time. We need to make certain simplifying approximations so that our y may y yield y useful results. analysis
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## ( t ) ( t ) r ( t ) sin ( t ) = ( t ) + tan ( t ) ( t ) Ac + r ( t ) cos (1) when CNR 1, A r ( t ) r (t ) r ( t ) sin (t ) (t ) + sin ( t ) ( t ) ( t ) ( t ) Ac A + r ( t ) cos ( t ) ( t )

c

( t ) 2 k f m ( t )dt +
0

r (t ) Ac

sin ( t ) ( t )

r ( t ) sin ( t ) ( t ) Ac 1, tan 1 ( x ) x

1 d ( t ) (t ) = 2 dt

( 2) x

k f m ( t ) + nd ( t )
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(6.31)
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## 6.5 Noise in FM Receivers

1 d nd ( t ) = r ( t ) sin i ( t ) ( t ) 2 Ac dt nd ( t ) nd ( t )

1 d r ( t ) sin ( t ) 2 Ac dt 1 dnQ ( t ) 2 Ac dt

( t ) U ( 0,2 ) Assume ( t ) ( t ) U ( 0,2 ) If such an assumption were true, then the noise at the discriminator output would be indep. of the modulating signal and would depend only on the characteristics of the carrier and narrowband noise. This assumption is justified provided that the carrier-to-noise ratio is high.

This means that the additive noise nd(t) appearing at the discriminator output is determined effectively by the carrier amplitude Ac and the quadrature component nQ(t) of the narrowband noise n(t).
Yu-sing Lin ()

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## 6.5 Noise in FM Receivers

The output signal-to-noise ratio is defined as the ratio of the g output p signal g power p to the average g output p noise p power. average From Eq. (6.31), the message component in the discriminator output, and d therefore h f the h low-pass l fil output, is filter i kf m(t). ) The average output signal power is equal to kf 2P, where P is the average power of f th the message signal i l m(t). ) To determine the average output noise power, we note that the noise nd(t) at the discriminator output is proportional to the time derivative of the quadrature noise component nQ(t). The differentiation of a function respect to time corresponds to multiplication of its Fourier transform by j2f. We may obtain the noise i nd(t) b by passing i nQ(t) though h h a li linear filter fil with i h a transfer f j 2 f jf = . function:
2 Ac Ac
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## 6.5 Noise in FM Receivers

f2 S N d ( f ) = 2 S NQ ( f ) Ac N0 f 2 2 , S Nd ( f ) = Ac 0, N0 f 2 2 , S NO ( f ) = Ac 0, 0

d x ( t ) j 2 fX ( f ) dt 2 ( 2 ) SY ( f ) = H ( f ) S X ( f )

(1)
f BT 2

X( (t)

H( f )

Y( (t)

otherwise f W otherwise

For wide-band FM, we usually find that W is smaller ll than h BT /2, /2 where h BT is i the h transmission i i bandwidth of the FM signal. This means that out-of-band components of noise no(t) will be rejected.
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## 6.5 Noise in FM Receivers

In FM system, increasing the carrier power has a noise-quieting effect. N0 W 2 2 N 0W 3 2 Average power of output noise = 2 f df = 2 2 W Ac Ac 3 Ac 2 2 k2 P 3 A f c kf P = ( 6.40 ) We obtain ( SNR )O ,FM = 3 2 3 2 N 0W 3 Ac 2 N 0W
The average power in the modulated signal s(t) is A2c /2, and the average noise power in the message bandwidth is WNo. The channel signal to noise ratio (SNR)C,FM is Ac2 (SNR )C ,FM = ( 6.41) 2WN 0 Figure of merit for frequency modulation: 3k 2 (SNR )O fP = 6 42 ) ( 6.42 2 (SNR )C FM W
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## 6.5 Noise in FM Receivers

Ex 6.2 Single-Tone Modulation A sinusoidal wave of frequency fm as the modulating signal, and assume a peak frequency deviation f . The FM signal is define by f s ( t ) = Ac cos 2 f c t + sin ( 2 f mt ) fm Therefore, we may write

f 2 k f m ( ) d = ( sin 2 f mt ) 0 fm Differentiating both sides with respect to time and solving for m(t)
t

m (t ) =

f cos ( 2 f mt ) kf
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## 6.5 Noise in FM Receivers

The average power of message signal m(t) (f ) 2 P= 2k 2 f We get output signal-to-noise ratio 2 3 Ac2 ( f ) 3 Ac2 2 = (SNR )O ,FM = 3 4 N 0W 4 N 0W Where = f /W is the modulation index and we get the figure of 2 merit i (SNR )O 3 f 3 2 = ( 6.43) = (SNR )C FM 2 W 2

It is important to note that the modulation index = f /W is determined de e ed by the e bandwidth ba dw d W o of the e postdetection pos de ec o low-pass ow pass filter and is related to the sinusoidal message frequency fm.
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## 6.5 Noise in FM Receivers

For an AM system operating with a sinusoidal modulating signal and 100 percent modulation, we have (SNR )O 1 = (SNR )C AM 3 It is of particular interest to compare the noise performance of AM and FM systems.
3 f = 2 W FM 3 2 1 when > 2 3

(SNR )O (SNR )C

3 2 = 2

compare

(SNR )O (SNR )C

=
AM

1 3

Define = 0.5 0 5 as the transition between bet een narro narrowband band FM and wide-band FM.
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