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MUHAMMAD ATIF ALI

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GEN 4100 Section 1

IIUM-MID SEMESTER EXAMINATION SEMESTER II, 2012/2103 SESSION KULIYYAH OF ENGINEERING

1.

Explain the contributions of three prophets of God to engineering activities based on the Quran [10 Marks]

The contributions of the prophets to engineering activities that based on the Quran could be divided into different aspect. In term of technical aspect, the Prophet of Noahs Ark story is one of an exemplary example. There came a day when Allah revealed to Noah that no others would believe. Allah inspired him not to grieve for non-believer at which point Noah prayed that the disbelievers to be destroyed. He said:

"My Lord! Leave not one of the disbeliveers on the earth. If you leave them, they will mislead Your slaves and they will beget none but wicked disbeliveers." (Ch 71:27 Quran)

Allah accepted Noah's prayer. The case was closed, and He passed His judgment on the disbeliveers in the form of a flood. Allah the Exalted ordered His worshipper Noah to build an ark with His knowledge and instructions and with the help of angels. Almighty Allah commanded:

"And construct the ship under Our Eyes and with Our Inspiration and address Me not on behalf of those who did wrong; they are surely to be drowned." (Ch 11:37 Quran)

Noah chose a place outside the city, far from the sea. He collected wood and tools and began to day and night to build the ark. The ark built by the Prophet Noah was an engineering marvel, considering the structure and load that the ark can handle, the ark constructed using ancient engineering technology. These size or dimensions of the ark rank it as one of history's greatest engineering achievements. Since the earliest day, god showed to the human that arising problems could be overcome by the application of engineering knowledge. We must fully utilize the knowledge to ensure the survival of all his creation by maintaining the ecosystem while enjoying better life.

The Prophet Muhammad taught us to be highly ethical when dealing with others. He was a very amanah, honest person hence gain trust and respect from his people. He had a good reputation as a hardworking and very successful businessman honest.

MUHAMMAD ATIF ALI

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Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) said, "The seller must explain to the buyer the defects, if any, in the quality of the explain to the buyer the defects, if any, in the quality of the article offered for sale. Should this not be done, the seller article offered for sale. Should this not be done, the seller will permanently be caught in the Wrath of Allah will permanently be caught in the Wrath of Allah.

Also in the quran, Allah stated:

"Woe to those that deal in fraud, - those who, when they have to receive by measure from men, exact full measure, but when they have to give by measure or weight to men, give less than due. Do they not think that they will be called to account- on a Mighty Day when (all) mankind will stand before the Lord of the Worlds." Quran (133: 1-6)

Even though the Quran verses and hadith above are more directly related to business and trading activities, the message and reminder also highly imply on other activities, especially engineering. This is because both trading and engineering field involve calculation and data analysis activities. Engineers should not only be precise and correct in the measurement or calculation made, but must be honest with the crunching data process. A single mistake on calculation made by engineers could cost human life and loss to the company. An engineer also has to be honest when explaining the pro and con of their engineering design/project so that people will be aware of any consequences from the proposed project and improvement could be made to reduce or eliminate the side effect.

Lastly, engineering field is a very tough and challenging field. Sometimes, the engineers have to face a very hard problem that overcoming it seems to be a dead end. The world is getting complex nowadays and scarcity is happening everywhere. As the human population keep growing tremendously, world is getting congested and depleting natural resources for foods and energy (oil etc) make it worst. The engineers must be very patient and determine to find the solution for the arising complicated problems. One example of a man with a great patient is Prophet Ayyub (A). Nabi Ayyub (A) have been tested by Allah in every facet of his life. At one point all his sons died. His servants were killed and he became very, very ill. He was so ill that his whole body was covered with sores and scars that left lone him. All his friends and relatives stopped visiting him. Nabi Ayyub(A) remained patient through his trial and he sought Allah's forgiveness.

MUHAMMAD ATIF ALI

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And We will surely test you with something of fear and hunger and a loss of wealth and lives and fruits, but give good tidings to the patient, (Surat Al Baqarah 2: 155)

The story conveys great lesson for anyone specifically engineers to be strong when facing great difficulties and always seek the guidance from Him. We must uphold great moral values even though some people might hate us because of that, because seeking for His blessing is what matter most.

MUHAMMAD ATIF ALI 2.

1021631

GEN 4100 Section 1

Are engineering sciences neutral? [10 Marks]

Basically, engineering science in nature is natural since the knowledge is derived from observation, experiment, logic and scientific deduction. The cores of engineering knowledge are physics, mathematics and science. Engineers use their knowledge of science, mathematics, logic, economics, and appropriate experience or tacit knowledge to find suitable solutions to a problem. Creating an appropriate mathematical model of a problem allows them to analyze it (sometimes definitively), and to test potential solutions. Therefore, it is not base on weak argument such as perception or emotion.

Engineering is the application of scientific, economic, social, and practical knowledge, in order to design, build, and maintain structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes. Neutral could be define as not aligned with, supporting, or favoring either side in a war, dispute, or contest. In the context of question above, I define neutral as; any decision or implementation that is not influenced by only one specific external factor or in the other word, free from biasness and must be holistic. Whether engineering sciences is neutral or not is heavily depending on the practitioner in the field. Engineering knowledge is just a tool and the practitioner is the user.

The purpose of engineering in general is to improve the quality life of humankind by applying the science and technology knowledge. It is meant to be harmless to the human and nature. Engineering is meant to be neutral, in which it should benefit not only the economic aspect, but also another aspect such as social and politic. Nowadays, a lot of engineers, working with giant or even small engineering related companies try to gain maximum profit. The application of engineering knowledge solely driven by profit may lead to bias in which all decision will be made base only on the economic aspect and neglecting the social aspect. Engineering sciences can be considered as neutral when the technologies that being developed will not only benefit the business/economic but also social aspect.

The influences of different ideologies such as capitalism, socialist have somehow denaturalized the engineering sciences with negative values. For example, countries that believe advance weaponry are important to retain their influence and power will use the engineering knowledge to build sophisticated weapon for defense or even to attack another country. But nation who believe in peace will use their expertise and resources in engineering to build better environment for the world.

For Muslim, engineering science should be neutral but within specific boundaries. There is no restriction for engineers to use their knowledge to gain greater profit for their organization but at the same time must

MUHAMMAD ATIF ALI

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fulfill the greater needs of human kind and preserve the nature. On top of all, the application of engineering should comply to syariah law. Muslim engineers have to instill in their heart and prove through action, the roles as khalifah which is to bring mercy to the entire world ( ).

The conclusion that can be made is, engineering science principally is neutral but human may apply the knowledge the for various reasons and pollute the knowledge with negative elements.

MUHAMMAD ATIF ALI

1021631

GEN 4100 Section 1

3.

Discuss two unethical practices in the engineering field. [10 Marks]

One of the most unethical practices in the engineering field is to design or invent a product that can be harmful to humankind. In general, engineers in the fulfillment of their professional duties, shall: Hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public. However, due to external factor such as political pressure, some engineers could insanely set aside their moral responsibility. For instance, the development of mass destructive weapon technology such as nuclear weapon technology caused mass destruction to human life including the innocent people. During atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, within the first two to four months of the bombings, the acute effects killed 90,000166,000 people in Hiroshima and 60,00080,000 in Nagasaki, with roughly half of the deaths in each city occurring on the first day. The Hiroshima prefecture health department estimated that, of the people who died on the day of the explosion, 60% died from flash or flame burns, 30% from falling debris and 10% from other causes. Nuclear power on the other hand could contribute to lower footprint and green house gas. Other than that, technology or industrial activities that openly emit heavy and hazardous gaseous that can give long term bad effect to human and earth is second worst to the mass destructive weapon.

Another unethical practice in engineering is by getting involved in fraud or corrupt activities. Engineers are responsible to uphold and advance the integrity, honor and dignity of the engineering profession by: Being honest and impartial, and serving with fidelity the public, their employers and clients. Engineering industries is enormous and some of the project can cost million or billion. One can make big money or profit out of the business hence it is quite luring and tempting. It is important for engineers to practice high moral standards in their profession because they cannot budge and compromise in trading integrity and human life for their self interest. One example of corrupt activity is, the project owner may pay a bribe to the funder's consulting engineer to issue an engineering report which conceals adverse site, social or environmental data in relation to the project. The funder may then make a decision on the viability of the project on the basis of false advice. This act could endanger the people or community by putting their life at risk since the project abides the standard safety codes and regulation set up by authorities.

. Engineering has a direct and vital impact on the quality of life for all people. Misconduct by engineers will not only put their future in jeopardy but may cause disaster to others.