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GE Oil & Gas

Heavy-wall reactors and pressure vessels


Meticulous design and manufacturing for superior performance

Pressure vessels
Heavy-wall reactors, steam condensers and a variety of other large tubular vessels are critical components of processing applications such as hydrocarbon cracking and sulfur removal, as well as exhaust heat exchange in thermal power generation plants. Since these processes involve extremely high temperatures, pressures and gas velocities, core equipment requirements include material strength, vessel volume, design efficiency and weld integrity.

A long history with large vessels


GE Oil & Gas has been manufacturing reactors, exchangers and related fabricated equipment for more than 40 years. With hundreds of our units installed around the world for hydrocracking, desulfurization, hydrotreating and similar processes, GE is one of the most referenced companies in large vessel manufacturing. Industry-leading facilities Our plant in Massa, Italy, is fully equipped with the most advanced manufacturing and testing technologies dedicated to the production of heavy-wall reactors for refinery applications and special vessels for petrochemical plants. This facility is also used extensively for welding high-strength materials and for manufacturing other equipment for the oil and gas industry. The Massa plant is ideally located near the seaport of Marina di Carrara, so there are virtually no limits to the size of equipment we are able to manufacture and ship. GEs lifting devices and rollers are easily capable of handling reactors as large as 2,000 tons.

Industry-wide solutions
Hydroprocessing reactors These reactors are installed in hydrocracking, hydrotreating, heavy oil upgrading and desulfurization plants where high pressures and high temperatures are critical to the process. Steam condensers With a complete range of steam turbines for both generator drive and mechanical drive applications, GE Oil & Gas has the capability to provide turbines and condensing systems with logistic and economic advantages only possible through single-source supply responsibility. Heat recuperators GE has over 20 years experience with heat recuperators and has unparalleled qualifications to offer turbine upgrading from simple cycle to regenerative cycle.

GE Oil & Gas solutions


GE has over 40 years of proven experience designing and manufacturing these massive products including many of the largest units ever made. Our extensive production capabilities include reactors up to 2,000 tons and wall thickness up to 400 mm. We can ship complete units or deliver sections and perform the same highquality assembly at the installation site. We have developed the most advanced welding techniques available, have comprehensive testing capabilities and are committed to providing innovative design features across our entire portfolio. As a result, GE reactors, condensers, exchangers and recuperators continually deliver the size, strength and efficiencies needed to improve performance and reliability in the most demanding processing conditions.

Bigger and better

Heavy-wall reactors
Heavy-wall reactors are used for high-pressure and hightemperature processes in refineries and petrochemical plants such as heavy oil upgrading, hydrocracking, hydrotreating, desulfurization and ammonia production. For more than 30 years, GE Oil & Gas has manufactured hydroprocessing reactors for all major process licensors including Axens, Chevron, ENI, ExxonMobil, Lummus, Shell and UOP. Our world-class design and manufacturing teams and facilities offer full qualification and expertise in reactor fabrication. Key capabilities include automatic welding technology with ultranarrow gap beveling, and advanced, high-strength materials such as 21/4 Cr 1Mo1/4V for which GE is one of the most highly referenced manufacturers in the world. Product portfolio Hydrocracking reactors Hydrotreating reactors Heavy oil upgrading reactors Industry-leading welding technologies Given the extremely high pressures and temperatures, and the sheer scale of the units involved in the various applications, welding integrity is critical to safety and productivity. Therefore, GE has developed the most advanced technologies for reactor welding and manufacturing facilities. Our production capabilities include: Wall thicknesses up to 400 mm Unit capacities in excess of 2,000 tons Reactor lengths of 60 m No shipping limitations Advanced processes and continuous improvement Through continuous technology upgrades and operator training initiatives, we have greatly improved reactor quality resulting in increased efficiency and productivity for our customers. Latest enhancements to our approach include: Direct supervision of welding processes at the shop floor Flux handling with no moisture absorption using the SAW welding technique Controlled procedure of pre- and post-heating Ultra-narrow gap beveling Ergonomic arrangement of welding station Comprehensive capabilities Continuous effort is dedicated to product development and plant facilities improvement to maintain our leadership position and to guarantee defect-free manufacturing. The Massa plant is equipped with state-of-the-art facilities to ensure the highest quality fabrication of hydroprocessing reactors. Heat-treatment furnace Our large furnace can stress-relieve in one-piece pressure vessels up to 32 m long, 9 m in diameter and 2,000 tons. Longer reactors can be manufactured in two sections with NDT and stress relief on the last circumferential welding performed locally. RT bunker The radiographic bunker is equipped with a linear accelerator suitable for performing x-ray inspections of welds up to 400 mm thick. NDT techniques GE Oil & Gas is equipped and experienced with advanced NDT techniques such as time of flight diffraction (TOFD), BC scan and phased array for very high thickness welds. These NDT techniques have been used in accordance with ASME C.C. 2235 in lieu of RT on several heavy-wall reactors. Consumable storage All consumables are supplied by highly qualified manufacturers and are stored in a state-of-the-art facility equipped with ovens to maintain flux and electrodes in a dry environment. Weld overlay Single and double layer weld overlays have been applied for many years using SMAW, FCAW, SAW and ESW techniques. Latest generation welding machines are available for overlay of the shell ring inner surface. With these welding techniques, GE Oil & Gas achieves outstanding results, such as the absence of disbonding of weld overlays during maximum cooling rates commonly experienced during shutdown transients. Hydrogen control during welding Conservative and experienced procedures and special devices are used to control and reduce hydrogen content during welding. Ultra-narrow gap beveling Ultra-narrow bevel angles are used in circumferential welding to reduce shrinkage and residual stresses. This is made possible by the use of automatic self-adjustment devices and the application of industry best practices.

Steam and geothermal condensers


Steam condensers Steam condensers are a type of shell-and-tube heat exchanger that are part of the steam turbine system. These surface condensers are fabricated in accordance with applicable international standards, such as Heat Exchange Institute, using clad tube sheets and the highest-quality materials including copper, copper-nickel, stainless steel, duplex and titanium alloys in addition to common carbon steel. Geothermal condensers Geothermal condensers are constructed to effect condensation of steam and other vapors by means of direct contact with condensing water. GE Oil & Gas has extensive experience in the design and manufacture of these units with integrated vacuum systems. Designed to proprietary performance design codes, our steam condensers generally include from one-pass through condenser bundles to three/to four-passes. Water boxes division can be applied to increase versatility of plant use and maintenance needs. GEs enhanced features include: Design flexibility suitable for a variety of applications, including variable flow Increased condensing efficiency and avoidance of air blanketing through an innovative tube layout Optimized component design through FEM analysis Simplified maintenance and service through a bolted channel solution Specialized software developed to evaluate direct contact phenomena and spray system definition Metallurgy capabilities for any chemical content of applied water Experience Our steam condensers are used in onshore applications around the world. They are successful in environments as varied as northern Russia and the Sahara desert, with extreme ambient conditions with temperatures ranging from -40 to 122F (-40 to 50C). Applications Condensers are available for waste-to-energy, geothermal power plants and combined-cycle power generation, and all mechanicaldrive applications with steam turbines.

Turnkey solutions

Double-passage steam condenser

Copper-alloy steam condenser


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Heat recuperators
Heat recuperators are used in gas turbine regenerative cycles to recover heat from the exhaust gas and add it to the compressor outlet air before the air enters the combustion chamber. This improves fuel efficiency by 5-7% and reduces the cycles heat rate by an average of 20%. Experience GE Oil & Gas has extensive experience in the design and manufacture of heat recuperators. Design advantages Our gas-turbine upgrades from simple cycle to regenerative cycle deliver significant efficiency improvements and reduced operating costs. Key features of our comprehensive inhouse solutions include: High efficiency with substantial heat rate reduction Rugged construction with tailored metallurgy for specific plant and process requirements Designed for low-maintenance operation Optimized tube-bundle design A variety of ducting system options are available (symmetric and asymmetric) Risk-free retrofit
Fuel Exhaust gases to stack

Regenerative cycle
Compressed air to regenerator

Regenerator

Inlet air

Combustion chamber

Compressor

Turbine

Load

Higher efficiency Lower cost

Site activities and technical services


Site activities When practical constraints prohibit shipment of fully assembled reactors to a job site, our broad resources enable field fabrication and assembly of reactor sections shipped from our Massa plant. With leading technologies, manufacturing capabilities and unparalleled field experience, our teams can provide complete field fabrication of complex hydroprocessing reactors to the same specifications and standards as units assembled at our own facilities. Our teams have accumulated extensive experience assembling and installing units in many locations worldwide, under diverse weather and environmental conditions. Technical services GE Oil & Gas offers comprehensive technical service programs for all types of static equipment, designed to help reduce plant operating costs and increase plant efficiency. Extensive technical expertise, advanced diagnostics, NDT systems and regional service teams combine to guarantee full coverage of customer needs. Our services include: Installation assistance Spare parts supply Routine inspections, repairs and maintenance Predictive inspections Preventive maintenance Performance assessment, upgrades & modifications Diagnostics and NDT inspection Residual life assessment and failure analysis Plant shutdown planning Gas turbine heat recovery

Quality assurance
All manufacturing and testing processes at our Massa plant are carried out under a system that integrates the GE Six Sigma quality program with ISO 9001 quality standards to guarantee total customer satisfaction. This stringent quality program ensures the long-term stability of our own process improvements as well as the quality of products for our customers. Our quality program is certified by Lloyds Register and fully documented in the Quality Assurance Manual used as our company-wide reference for all policies relating to reactor manufacturing. The Massa plant is also qualified and certified for ASME Stamps S, U, U2, U3 and is staffed with third level NDT personnel.

What our customers say about us


Our customers words of praise are our highest source of pride. Here are just a few examples of what our customers think of us: France: 1 HCU reactor, 1,500 tons. One of the worlds largest and heaviest HCU reactors congratulate the entire GE team for the good job performed during the whole execution of the order, in terms of quality, follow up and respect of schedule. Thank you.
Project Procurement Manager, February 2005

Morocco: 1 HCU reactor, 1,000 tons Congratulations for having successfully achieved the work and inspection on the reactor. We have already started the final transfer as per our agreement. I thank you for your constant support and collaboration, and the assistance of all those who have contributed to this successful job.
Procurement & Contracting Manager, July 2007

Congratulations for all the professional work performed by your organization on this project. Thanks for your cooperation.
Project Director, July 2007

Portugal: 2 HCU reactors, 700 and 1,500 tons Many thanks again for your teams continuous commitment during the development of this project. Please continue forging ahead. We look forward to more of the same high service level demonstrated so far, and to successful completion.
Expediting Department, February 2010

The two largest and heaviest reactors ever fabricated at a final installation site (refinery in northern Italy). They are each 2,000 tons and 50 m long, with 274-mm walls and 15 circumferential seams
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GE Oil & Gas


Global Headquarters Via Felice Matteucci, 2 50127 Florence, Italy T +39 055 423 211 F +39 055 423 2800 customer.service.center@ge.com Nuovo Pignone S.p.A. Reactors Facility Via Dorsale, 3 54100 Massa, Italy T +39 0585 7951 F +39 0585 791322 Americas Regional Headquarters 4424 West Sam Houston Parkway North Houston, Texas 77041 P.O. Box 2291 Houston, Texas 77252-2291 T +1 713 683 2400 F +1 713 683 2421

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The information contained herein is general in nature and is not intended for specific construction, installation or application purposes. GE reserves the right to make changes in specifications or add improvements at any time without notice or obligation.

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