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Abstracts of Dissertations and Theses Accepted at the UST Graduate School, 2007-2008

To the reader:
The abstracts which follow are arranged according to the alphabetical order of authors family names. To facilitate locating abstracts by discipline and author an index (see pp. 631 ff.) is provided with page indications. The abstracts were prepared by the authors themselves. Name: Alaiza H. Alday Course: MBA May 29, 2008 Date of Defense: Title: Measuring the Efficiency of Selected Captive Offshore Companies in the Philippines: DEA-Regression Approach In the course of stiff global market competition, multinational companies are giving more attention to the core products and services of their businesses that led to the overseas transfer of business processes such as IT and IT-enabled services. This overseas migration of jobs, especially in the region of Asia, with the help of technology is coined as offshoring. A lot of studies as regards offshoring have been presented by many scholars: economic effects, cost advantages, knowledge and technology transfer, and intellectual property rights concerns are among those topics that put highlight on the phenomenon. However, very few covered the issue of efficiency. This study concentrated on the efficiency of the selected 9 captive offshore companies in the Philippines from 2002 up to 2006 using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether constant returns to scale (CRS) or variable returns to scale (VRS) is the proper assumption for the method. Finally, sensitivity analysis was then adopted to validate DEA results. Results reveal that 7 companies are efficient and 2 are not one was for the reason of inefficient management (technical inefficiency) and the other was because of disadvantageous conditions (scale inefficiency). In addition, non-controllable variables used in this study, namely: location, age and asset, do not affect VRS technical efficiencies of these companies; thus, CRS assumption is the appropriate. Peer evaluation and prediction through improvement and reduction (both in percentage) were utilized in validating DEA results. Findings on the peer evaluation of the 7 efficient firms disclose that 4 are peers to those that are inefficient, while the 3 went otherwise. For the prediction results, 2 inefficient firms need to increase the service income (inefficient management), and decrease MOOE (disadvantageous conditions), respectively to attain efficiency; therefore, validating DEA results.

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Name: Cornelia A. Aquino Course: Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology June 25, 2008 Date of Defense: Title: Effect of Relaxation Techniques on Induced Stress Levels through Cortisol Assay Today, more than ever, the increasing number of people who are always anxious and in stressful situations causing them to break down and suffer more serious, if not fatal consequences, has challenged mental health practitioners and counselors to come up with or develop new interventions or therapeutic techniques to assess as well as confront problematic situations. The goal is not only for treatment but also for the enhancement of the coping skills of the individuals thus, making them resistant to stressors. Primarily, this experimental study essayed to determine the effects of Relaxation Techniques on induced stress levels through Cortisol Assay and psychological appraisal using Stress and Adaptation Level Test (SALT) and Self Evaluation Questionnaire (SEQ) of 27 graduating Psychology students in LetranCalamba. The Solomon FourGroup design was adopted which involved four groups; Groups 1 and 2 were administered pretests and posttests, Groups 3 and 4 were administered posttests only, Groups 1 and 3 have interventions (Relaxation Techniques), and Groups 2 and 4 have no interventions. All participants were subjected to a psychosocial stress test. Psychosocial Stress Test (PSST) is a procedure where participants are asked to take part in a simulated job interview for five minutes followed by a mental arithmetic task in front of a committee of five people. Five sessions of the intervention were conducted for a period of one month. Nonparametric statistical tools such as MannWhitney U Test, Wilcoxon SignedRank test, and Friedman TwoWay ANOVA were utilized to determine significant differences between pretest and posttest scores of Groups 1 and 2, among posttest scores of all groups, between pretest scores of Group 1 vs Group 2, and if the pretesting of the participants significantly influenced the result of the posttest. Significant differences were found in the pretestposttest scores of the Group 1 participants as measured by SALT and SEQS and T but no significant differences were determined between pretest scores of Group 1 vs Group 2 in all measures of induced stress levels; serum cortisol, SALT, and SEQ-S and T. On the other hand, a significant difference was observed among posttest scores of all participants in serum cortisol measure. The pretesting of the first two groups of participants significantly influenced their posttest scores in serum cortisol measure. It can be concluded that Relaxation Techniques (RT) caused stress reduction for group 1 participants. RT created an effective change for this group. The amount of serum cortisol secreted, commonly considered as the physiological measure of stress, revealed that all participants in the four groups were stressed by the PSST. It appears then, that the PSST is effective in inducing stress in laboratory settings. Relaxation Technique is suggested to be significantly effective in reducing stress when measured by the two psychological tests, SALT and SEQ-S and T but needs further investigation when the cortisol level is determined. Thus, Cortisol Assay is recommended to measure stress levels to have a complete perception of the internal or physiological condition of the person. This is to protect the immune system and to prevent occurrence of more serious disorders. Keywords: Relaxation Technique, Induced Stress levels, Cortisol Assay, Psychosocial Stress Test, Solomon Four-Group design

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Name: Amor Mia Arandia Course: MA Psychology June 20, 2008 Date of Defense: Title: Socio-demographic Profile, Cognitive Processing, Emotion Regulation and Personality Traits as Predictors of Posttraumatic Growth Among Survivors of Intimate Partner Abuse Intimate partner abuse (IPA) in women has been around for ages. As a highly distressing event, it has correlated with negative consequences like depression, lowered selfesteem, increased levels of anxiety, eating disorders, sexual dysfunction and posttraumatic stress disorder. Considering this viewpoint, it is highly understandable that most researches on IPA has focused on negative sequelae. However, it is also interesting to know whether positive psychological changes known as Posttraumatic growth (PTG) also occurs in IPA survivors as a result of ones struggle with intimate partner abuse experiences. Utilizing a descriptive method, this study aimed to determine whether positive psychological changes are experienced by IPA survivors as a result of their struggle with abuse. A researcher-made data sheet was used to determine the socio-demographic profiles of respondents while valid and reliable instruments were utilized in investigating other variables in the study. Test administration and interview of some survivors were conducted to validate yielded results. Purposive sampling technique was used in gathering a total of 215 respondents which have passed inclusion criteria. Regression Analysis using a .05 level of significance revealed that some survivorsrespondents-do experience Posttraumatic growth. Socio-demo factors of age, relationship status and educational attainment are independent variables which significantly contribute as determinants of posttraumatic growth. Neuroticism and Conscientiousness facets among the big five personality traits and positive cognitive restructuring is highly associated with overall posttraumatic growth and its domains. Interestingly, overall abuse experiences and posttraumatic stress symptoms did not significantly contribute to the prediction of PTG.

Name: Rosalie B. Balbin Course: MA Library Science Date of defense: June 20, 2008 Title: Library Marketing In Selected Academic Libraries In Metro Manila: A Basis For A Strategic Marketing Plan For St. Jude College Library, Manila In an age of complex higher education environment and rapid technological advancements, the need to market the library effectively has become essential. Academic libraries may have enjoyed the monopoly in providing information resources and services to students and faculty in the past, but today, users have a variety of options available to meet their needs instantaneously. With changing user expectations, academic libraries must move beyond the traditional service model to remain viable and be able to function competitively in this environment in order to survive and grow (Adams and Cassner, 2000). The use of marketing techniques to identify appropriate products (services, programs and materials) and to evaluate the effectiveness of these services assures that library services offered will be wanted and valued by the clients (Bushing, 1995). One of the management tools that is now being used by academic libraries is strategic planning. A strategic plan provides a structure in analyzing current and future opportunities and challenges an organization faces. It anticipates problems, creates a library wide awareness
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and ensures that everyone in the organization is working towards achieving a common goal. Strategic planning focuses on the broad issues of an organization, allowing libraries to be able to anticipate and respond to environmental changes in a timely manner. Using descriptive survey method, the study aims to assess the library marketing strategies of selected academic libraries in Metro Manila in terms of the 4Ps that make up the marketing mix, namely, product, price, place and promotion. Perceived effectiveness of these strategies by respondent students and faculty members was measured and tested using ANOVA and independent T-test. Findings culled will then serve as the basis in the formulation of an effective strategic library marketing plan for St. Jude College Library, Manila. Findings reveal that the respondent academic librarians use product (AWM = 3.70) followed by promotion library marketing strategies always. There is also high and significant differences in the perceived effectiveness of the different library marketing strategies used by respondent students and faculty members. The student respondents perceive product strategies used by the respondent academic libraries as effective, as reflected by (AWM = 3.33). On the other hand, the respondent faculty members also find product strategies very effective as reflected in (AWM = 3.53) while promotion, place and price strategies effective. The respondent librarians always focus on providing quality programs and services to be offered to their library customers as a means of marketing their libraries. The most common way of library marketing is the use of library handouts or pamphlets, posters, announcements, or bulletin board displays to inform the academic community of library developments as well as conducting library orientation. Keywords: Library Marketing Strategies, Marketing mix, 4Ps, St. Jude College Library, Manila Name: Cindy Michelle M. Basa Course: MS in Advertising March 12 2008 Date of Defense: Title: The Impact of TV Commercials Using Graphic Design with Animation on Brand Recall, Attitude and Brand Disposition TV is said to be a unique and powerful advertising medium. Globalization and new technologies gave way to the evolution of graphic design as a practice and profession. Nowadays, some advertising agencies are engaging into more creative means in presenting TV advertisements such as using graphic designs or computer generated images. Using graphic design can draw attention and could be entertaining because of its creativity, uniqueness and freshness in style. Adding animation or movement to graphic design may increase attention. The study was designed to determine the responses of consumers toward TV commercials with graphic designs and animation, as to whether TV ads using heavy graphic designs with animation are better recalled and liked than ads with less graphic designs with animation. Furthermore, the study also determines whether TV ads with many graphic designs with animation will elicit favorable attitudes than TV ads with less graphic design with animation. The study utilized both qualitative research technique (focus group discussion, FGD) and quantitative research (Survey). A total of 100 TV viewers participated between 18 to 35 years of age comprised the study sample. Thirty (30) respondents participated in the
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FGDs and 70 participated for the survey. Purposive and Convenience sampling techniques were used to draw the sample. Nine (9) test commercials were inserted in a 15-minute TV program to simulate normal TV viewing. Four test commercials were inserted the TV program for the FGDs and the other five test commercials were inserted in the TV program for the self-administered survey. The study findings revealed that the message of the TV ads using graphic design communicated clearly to the respondents. TV ads using light graphic design and animation are better recalled by the respondents than TV ads using heavy graphic design and animation. Moreover, respondents are more likely to pay attention to TV ads with light graphic design and animation than TV ads with heavy graphic design and animation because TV ads with heavy graphic design and animation tend to clutter information. However, TV ads using graphic design and animation are perceived to be creative. Favorable responses towards TV ads with graphic design and animation are the following: Most of the respondents who strongly/ slightly agree that the graphic design used in the ad is attractive, Most of the respondents who strongly/slightly agree that the animation made the ad entertaining. Most of the respondents who strongly/slightly agree that the ad made them want to try the brand and most of the respondents who strongly/slightly agree that they enjoyed watching the ad. Keywords: TV advertising, graphic design, animation, brand recall, attitude and brand disposition.

Name: Rhodesa U. Cruzet Course: M.S. in Applied Physics Major in Medical Physics Date of Defense: May 3, 2008 Title: Comparison Between Clinically Used Irregular Fields Shaped by Cerrobend Blocks and by Multileaf Collimator Using a Clarkson Sector Integration Computer Program The purpose of this study is to compare 19 clinically used irregular fields shaped by customized Cerrobend blocks and by a Varian Millennium 80-leaf multileaf collimator using a Clarkson Sector Integration computer program developed using National Instruments LabVIEWTM 7.0. The comparison was made based on: (1) the calculated equivalent square fields, (2) the in-phantom output measurements of the fields shaped by customized Cerrobend blocks and by a Varian Millennium 80 MLC, and (3) the in-phantom output measurements of block-shaped and MLC-shaped irregular fields and the outputs of the equivalent square fields. The in-phantom output measurements were obtained using Varian Clinac 600C Medical Linear Accelerator with 6MV photons in a water phantom with a PTW 30004 Farmer-type ionization chamber at fixed Source-to-Chamber Distance (SCD=100cm) and at depths: dmax, d5, and the clinically prescribed depths (dc). A block tray was used for all measurements. In-phantom outputs were taken under the central axis point unless the central axis is blocked. Results show that the calculated equivalent square fields side lengths are similar for 89.4% of block-shaped and MLC fields with a difference of 2.0 mm. For all field shapes, the percent difference of in-phantom outputs of block-shaped and MLC fields at clinically prescribed depths is less than 2.0%. Comparison of in-phantom outputs of block-shaped irregular fields and the equivalent square fields at dc show that 26% of the field shapes have percent difference 1.0%. On the other hand, the comparison of in-phantom outputs at
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dc between the equivalent square fields to MLC irregular fields resulted to 42% of the field shapes with percent difference 1.0%. For this study, the displacement errors in block-shaped fields are relatively greater compared to MLC fields. Consistent with related studies, both field shaping methods have distinct geometric inaccuracies and limitations.

Name: Christopher C. Cueto Course: MS in Architecture March 16, 2007 Date of Defense: Title: The Conservation of the Faade of the Malate Church Religion has always played a very important role in shaping the history of the Philippines. In a country where approximately 85 percent of the population are Christians (mostly Roman Catholic), one will not fail to notice the influence that Christianity has brought to bear on every day life in general and architecture in particular. The hundreds of churches that were built throughout the Philippines were a product of the missionary enterprise of the Spanish regime that began in 1565. Rebuilt in 1864, Malate Church, this unique structure with Moslem-baroque architecture is considered to be one of the oldest churches outside the walled city. It was founded by the Augustinian friars. The church is renowned for two points of interest. It is dedicated to Nuestra Senora de Remedios (Our Lady of Remedies), an image of the Virgin Mary to whom the faithful have turned in times of trouble over four centuries. It is also historically significant. It was in 1762, during the invasion of Manila by the British when Malate church played a historic role. The British used the church as headquarters and from there laid the siege of Manila. It was severely damaged and destroyed by massive earthquakes, but was later rebuilt with twin towers flanking the faade. The present weathered adobe structure is actually only over 100 years old, though various predecessors have stood on the site since the end of the 16th century. This study aims to provide the correct and applicable methods of conserving the present faade of the Malate Church, the last remaining vestige of her glorious and tumultuous past by giving an in-depth study of the types of materials used and agents that are causing the deterioration of these materials. We live in a period where the conservation of our cultural heritage is taken seriously by few. We would rather destroy and forget about our past rather than learn from them. This study also aims to be the start of an advocacy that will help conserve our cultural architectural treasures in the hope that the preservation of these will help rekindle in our people a sense of national identity and pride. Keywords: Advocacy, Church, Conservation, Cultural Architectural Treasures Deterioration, Moslem-Baroque Architecture

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Name: Geraldine M. Budomo-Dayrit Course: MS in Microbiology Date of Defense: March 17, 2008 Title: In Vitro Anti-Tuberculosis Activity of Virgin Coconut Oil Tuberculosis (TB) is the 5th leading cause of mortality and the 6th leading cause of morbidity due to a single infectious agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). An equally disturbing fact is the emergence of multiple-drug resistance in TB strains, not only locally, but globally as well. New drugs are, therefore, being searched to address this problem. In response to the need for an all-natural and inexpensive medication to control or even eradicate the spread of MTB, the anti-TB activity of virgin coconut oil (VCO) was investigated. Virgin coconut oil was prepared by a modified traditional method, and its antimycobacterial activity was compared to commercial VCO (Splash) and Monolaurin (Philippine Coconut Research and Development Foundation, Inc.), a coconut oil derivative. The identification of the MTB isolates provided by the Philippine Tuberculosis Society, Inc. were confirmed performing the acid fast bacilli microscopy by Ziehl-Neelsen Method, Lowenstein-Jensen morphology, niacin production and nitrate reduction. Using the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA), twofold serial dilutions of VCO, Monolaurin and Rifampicin were tested against a standard density of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv ATCC 27294 (Tropical Disease and Research Foundation, Inc.) and MTB clinical isolates (N=17). The assay was done in a Class 2 Biological Safety Cabinet under Biosafety Laboratory Level 3 of TB Section, Laboratory Department of the Philippine Tuberculosis Society, Inc. (PTSI), and proper protocol for disposal and biosafety measures were strictly followed. Resazurin (Sigma-Aldrich) was used as mycobacterial growth indicator. After incubation for 5-8 days, the concentration in the last well that remained clear or blue was noted as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the test drugs. The assay was done in duplicates. Results indicated that all the MTB isolates provided were confirmed MTB strains. All VCO samples were free of microbes after filter-sterilization. The anti-tuberculosis activity of VCO ranged from 78 to 5000 g/ml while Monolaurin was active at 78 312.5 g/ml. Our interesting results hold promise for a new anti-TB supplement or drug alternative.

Name: Felle Andree Maureen L. Diaz Course: MBA May 29 2008 Date of Defense: Title: Evaluating the Safety and Soundness of the LANDBANK of the Philippines (LBP) 2002-2006: Using Camels Indicators Banking sector dominates the Philippine financial sector, one of the most regulated industries in the world. It is being supervised by the Central Bank of the Philippines. BSP imposed standards for the Philippine Banking System to check the safety and soundness of banks performances. CAMELS ratios are used to quantify the financial soundness and health of banks through micro analysis of financial statements. These ratios are commonly used to envisage the earlier signals of prospective problems in banks financial health. These prospects, including various financial indicators, incorporate quality of assets, financial soundness, management quality, earning capacity of assets, liquidity position and risk taking behavior of banks. The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and soundness of LBP using CAMELS indicators for the period 2002 through 2006. This study was also supplemented by statistical tests such as, mean, median, standard deviation, minimum,
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maximum, and One-Way Anova. Data samples were variables from the audited financial Statements of LBP in order to benchmark against International/BSP Standards and Industry Averages. Based on the the results, using CAMELS and other ratios, LBP was safe and sound from 2002 through 2006. The average for each LBPs CAMELS indicators showed the same trend performance over the period. Keywords: LBP, BSP, CAMELS Indicators, One-Way Anova.

Name: Cristina T. Escudero Course: MS in Chemistry Date of Defense: May 29, 2008 Title: Optical Fiber Sensor for Iron Based on Bathophenantroline/Nafion Membrane There is a need for an easy, low-cost and sensitive method for the monitoring of iron in food. Iron is an important trace element in animal and human nutrition, and lack of this nutrient causes some health problems such as anemia. One of the most effective technological approaches to prevent iron deficiency is food fortification. Presently, the established methods for determining iron are time-consuming, with high chemical consumption and require trained personnel and expensive equipment. Optical sensors present an attractive option for measurement of iron because of their low cost, possibility of miniaturization, great flexibility and robustness. These sensors generally make use of a reagent that interacts selectively with the analyte to give a distinct change in an optical property. In this study, an optical fiber chemical sensor for the determination of Fe(II) was developed based on the colorimetric reagent bathophenanthroline immobilized in Nafion membrane. The membrane was cast onto glass substrate and incorporated to the flow-through sensing cell. The reflectance readings were measured through a fiber-optic spectrometer (Ocean Optics) which was connected to the sensing cell. The sensing membrane was highly transparent and mechanically stable. Parameters such as reagent concentration, amount of the reagent, pH, flow rate of the sample and the curing time were found to affect the performance of the sensor system and were subsequently optimized. The analytical performance of the sensor was evaluated. It exhibited a good sensitivity to Fe(II) concentration in the range 0-100 g/mL (r = 0.9980) with its limit of detection of 1.249 g/mL. It also showed a reproducible result with relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 1.23% and an average response time of 8.5 minutes (20 g/mL Fe(II)). The responses of the sensor towards Fe(II) were found to be reversible, using 1M HCl as the regenerating solution. The developed optical sensor system was applied to determine the iron concentration in fortified and unfortified food samples and water samples. The results obtained were validated using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (Varian flame SpectrAA 55B). The results obtained using the sensor showed good correlation (r = 0.9893) with those obtained from AAS. Keywords: Iron, Optical sensor, Bathophenanthroline, Nafion, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

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Name: Anna Victoria Damian Course: MS in Advertising March 4, 2008 Date of Defense: Title: Credit Card Rewards Program as a Promotional Strategy In 2005 only 4.6 million out of almost 85 million Filipinos were credit cardholders. A year after, cardholders had grown to around 4.8 million, ninety percent of which were situated in and outside of Metro Manila. The trend in the credit card spending has completely evolved. Around 40 to 50 percent of the Filipino credit card spending was allocated for essentials such as supermarket purchases as well as daily basic needs; 20 to 30 percent for leisure and the rest for utility bill payments, miscellaneous expenses and insurance among others. The researcher undertook a study to analyze the credit cardholders attitudes along with their responses towards the Rewards Program (RP) currently offered by the major credit card issuing banks. Specifically the study determined similarities and differences between the rewards program participants and non- participants in terms of RP awareness, sources of awareness, ad recall, features they like/dislike along with their comments and thoughts for Citibank, HSBC and BPI Rewards Program, and the cardholders individual experiences from RP participation. The study also investigated the cardholders comments on the idea of a separate rewards card. The study used a combination of qualitative research design (e..g. Focus Group Discussion) and quantitative (e.g. the survey method ). There were three focus groups with two groups for RP participants and one group for non-participants. A total of 70 credit cardholders participated in the Survey method. The study respondents are male and female primary/ principal cardholders for at least 2 years between the ages of 21 to 48 years old. The Convenience and Purposive sampling techniques were used to draw the sample. Citibank Rewards is the most popular rewards program among the credit card reward programs. Majority of the respondents learned the RP through Statement of Account Inserts, Print Ads and Direct Mailers- Reward Catalogs. Citibank ranks the highest in number of RP participants, followed by HSBC, while BPI and AIG rank third. Features that attracted majority of the cardholders are:1) Mileage Program of HSBC; 2) Travel Rewards of BPI; 3) Charity Rewards for Citibank; 4) No points expiration from BPI; 5) Citibank offers wide range selection of reward items; and 6) The items offered by HSBC are not ordinary. Cardholders were not receptive to having a separate rewards card as it was found to be inconvenient, hassle and confusing. Main reasons for non- participation were centered on high point requirement necessary to redeem an item and the length of time required to redeem the rewards. Some were not interested, while a few were unaware of the rewards programs. Keywords: Credit Card Rewards Program, Attitudes, Rewards Card and Sales Promotion

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Name: Racquet B. Dreu Course: MA in Psychology May 23, 2008 Date of Defense: Title: Effects of Structured Learning Intervention on the Self-Esteem of College Students in a Sectarian School Self-esteem is the substance of the individuals perception and opinion about him or herself. It is being formed through the interaction of the person with the significant people around them and creates an impact of change that affects their desire to achieve and excel. This study aims to find out the effects of Structured Learning Intervention on the self-esteem of college students. It employed a True Experimental Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design. The Personal Data Sheet and Self-Esteem Inventory Adult Form were utilized to gather the research data. The t-tests for independent and dependent samples were used for statistical analysis. The respondents were randomly identified after the research instruments were given to 128 presently enrolled students at La Cons0lack)n College-Binan. Thirty participants were identified with low self-esteem and randomly assigned in the Experimental Group (n=15) and Control Group (n=15), respectively. Participants in the Experimental Group attended 4-day sessions of the Structured Learning Intervention Program while, the Control Group attended the usual counseling program. Results revealed that there is no sign-ificant difference between the pretest of the Experimental Group and the Control Group before the intervention. Moreover, there is a sign-rficant difference between the pretest and posttest of the Experimental Group after the intervention while the control group showed no significant difference. Finally, result shows that Structured Learning Intervention has an effect in enhancing the self-esteem of the respondents and can be utilized as an alternative program. Keywords: Low Self-esteem, Self-esteem, Structured Learning Intervention, Enhancement Name: Florence Imee A. Joaquin Course: MBA October 7, 2008 Date of Defense: Title: Assessing the Competitiveness of the Selected Regional Cities in Visayas and Mindanao as an Emerging Offshore Bpo Destination Based on the projection made by the ICT division of the Philippine Board of Investment (BOI), the Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) sector which generated a revenue of $2.4 Billion in 2005 is expected to grow to about $13 Billion in 2010. To accommodate this anticipated increase in demand for BPO services, the Philippine national and local government in collaboration with the private sector, are continuously striving to create multiple BPO center within the countrys border. The general purposed of this study was to evaluate the capability of the emerging regional BPO destinations in providing an environment conducive to BPO industry. Likewise, to determine which Regional City is currently the most competitive BPO destination. Employing the scoring method, regional cities competitiveness was measured based on four indicators; human resource, infrastructure, cost-effectiveness, and LGUs support and initiatives, while the Balance Scorecard (BSC) was utilized in developing metrics and strategy formulation. Keywords: BSC, BPO, Outsourcing, Regional Cities.
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Name: Ophelia Laurente Course: MS in Biological Sciences September 25, 2008 Date of Defense: Title: The Morphological Diversification and Taxonomy of the Philippine Marsdenieae (ApocynaceaeAsclepiadoideae) The Philippine representative of tribe Marsdenieae, family Apocynaceae Asclepiadoideae, comprises seven genera. The five genera (Clemensiella Schltr., Gymnema R.Br., Marsdenia R.Br., Sarcolobus R.Br., and Telosma Coville) are still incompletely known. Details of their up-to-date generic and species descriptions are based on field observation and study of herbarium specimens. The first full illustrations of the species, practical keys as well as information on their habitat, ecology, distribution, phenology, chromosome number, pollination and dispersal are provided. The complexity of tribal subdivisions in the family lies in the structures of the gynoecium and androecium based on SEM investigations of reproductive parts. The synapomorphy and diversification of the characters were noted for generic delimitations and species identification. Likewise, the taxonomic relationships of the Philippine Marsdenieae were discussed.

Name: Frances Caroline Lopez Course: MS in Applied Physics October 9, 2008 Date of Defense: Title: Validation of Recombination Correction Factor for Farmer Type Ionization Chamber in 6MV Pulsed Photon Beams Via MVT and TVT This thesis describes the behavior of ion recombination in an ionization chamber when exposed to 6MV pulsed photon beams. The study is intended to aid both the development and validation of ion recombination correction factor models which are essential in the characterization of an instruments saturation behavior when exposed to radiation. The experimental study involves the measurement of radiation output using a FC65G Farmer type ionization chamber at several collection potential settings from +50 V to +400 V incremented at 50 V at measurement depths 3 cm, 5 cm, 7 cm, 10 cm and 12 cm in water phantom. Ion recombination correction factors, ks, from these measurements were computed via three protocols: a) the Multi-voltage technique (MVT), where linearity of the inverse of the charge measurement to the reciprocal of the applied voltage were evaluated and used; b) the Two-voltage technique (TVT), where ks values were calculated based on Voltage Ratio, VR; and c) and by way of dose per pulse properties (DPP), where ks values were noted from the actual doses received by the chamber per pulse. While the calculated ks value for all three protocols seem within 5% range in general, unsatisfactory linearity trend between 1/q and I/V was noted with the MVT protocol. TVT suggests that ks properties of the chamber are within limits except at VR = 8. ks as a function of dose per pulse showed a linear relationship at all measurement depths and PRF settings. Keywords: Ion recombination, saturation correction, TVT, MVT and DPP

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Name: John Dick L. Madeja Course: MBA March 14, 2008 Date of Defense: Title: Bank Fraud: A Challenge to an Effective Internal Control System of Selected Universal Banks This study was conducted to determine the common causes why bank employees commit fraud, identify the signs or warnings of fraud known as red-flags, determine the effectiveness of internal control measures to prevent or control fraud and irregularities and identify problems encountered in the implementation of internal control system. The researcher utilized the descriptive evaluative type of research. One hundred twenty (120) respondents including managers, cashiers and auditors from top three universal banks comprised the study sample. Percentage, ranking and mean rating scale were used as statistical tools in the analysis and interpretation of data. To test the hypothesis whether there are significant differences in the preventive measures employed by respondent banks to address the problem of bank fraud, a Kruskal Wallis Test was utilized. Findings obtained from the study are as follows: 1. Profile of fraud offenders revealed the following: perpetrators were both officers and staff (62%), mostly female (72%) and penalty imposed was dismissal (79%). 2. The common causes of bank fraud were ranked according to frequency as follows: (1) financial need, (2) living beyond means or extravagant lifestyles, (3) temptation, (4) family problem, (5) lust for money or power. 3. The signs or warnings of fraud that can easily be detected are as follows: (1) unexplained or sudden change in lifestyle not commensurate with salary, (2) financial problems such as calls from credit cards or lending institutions, (3) employee who is on Absence without Leave (AWOL) or mysterious disappearance, (4) employee who is associated with unexplained or perennially incurred cash shortages, (5) missing blank forms or series of accountable forms. 4. Fraud can be detected or discovered by means of (1) internal control, (2) special audit or investigation, (3) accidental detection, (4) through tips or complaints from clients or employees and (5) by anonymous letter. 5. Another significant findings showed that fraud and irregularities can be prevented or controlled by means of the following measures: of (1) having a good system of internal control, (2) conduct regular audit, (3) establishing penalties and prosecution policies, (4) create a positive work environment, (5) restructuring employees incentives or salaries. 6. The hypothesis that there are no significant differences in the preventive measures employed by respondent banks to address the problem of bank fraud is rejected. The chi-square (X2 = 23.045 > 7.815) computed is significant at 1% level and shows evidence of differences in the implementation of control measures. Bank C exemplified the highest perception regarding the effectiveness of preventive measures compared to Banks A and B. 7. The following problems in the implementation of internal control system were also ranked as follows: (1) difficulty in implementing it due to heavy workload, (2) complacent to implement internal control, (3) different interpretation of guidelines or procedures, (4) internal control policies and procedures keep on changing from time to time, (5) implementation of internal control is risky, any lapses will result to penalties and sanction. Keywords: Bank fraud, internal control, red flags, universal banksvi
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Name: Maria Lynne V. Magtanong Degree: MA in Psychology July 29, 2008 Date of Defense: Self-efficacy and Job Performance in Relation to Job Satisfaction and Title: Organizational Commitment of Teachers: Basis for a Proposed Work Enhancement Program This is a descriptive-correlational study which seeks to determine the socio-demographic profile, level of self-efficacy, rate of job performance, level of job satisfaction, and the level of organizational commitment of teachers. It also aims to establish whether the teachers socio-demographic profile, level of self-efficacy, and rate of job performance are significantly related to their level of job satisfaction and level of organizational commitment. The researcher employed purposive sampling method for the study. There were fortytwo (42) respondents, all full time teachers from Maria Montessori Foundation (MMF), who participated in this research. The research instruments used to gather data for the study were the following: Personal Information Sheet, Teachers Efficacy Scale (TES), Job Performance Rating Scale (JPRS), Job Satisfaction Scale (JSS), and TCM Employee Commitment Survey. The data were analyzed using the following statistical tools: percentage distribution for the analysis of the respondents sociodemographic profile, weighted mean and standard deviation to determine the respondents level of selfefficacy, job performance, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment, and Pearson productmoment correlation coefficient to identify if the teachers socio-demographic profile, self-efficacy, and job performance are significantly related to their job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The data were analyzed through the use of SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 10. Results of the study revealed that the respondents are predominantly female, single, and within the age bracket of 25 - 29 years old. Majority of the respondents only completed a Bachelors Degree and have served in MMF for 2 - 4 years. There are more teachers in the Grade School Department than in the other departments. Overall the respondents rated themselves moderate in self-efficacy, very good in their job performance, very satisfied with their job and committed to their school organization. The results of the study also showed that certain aspects of the socio-demographic profile like gender and teaching level assignment are significantly related to the level of job satisfaction (at 0.05 level of significance) and that educational attainment is significantly related to the level of organizational commitment. On the other hand, self-efficacy and job performance are not significantly related to overall level of job satisfaction and overall level of organizational commitment. Based on the results of the study, a supplementary work-enhancement program is proposed to maintain the teachers high performance and retention of the schools philosophy, vision, and mission in education. Keywords: self-efficacy, job performance, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, work enhancement program

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Name: Jacqueline D. Mendoza Course: MS in Chemistry Date of Defense: April 29, 2008 Title: Ferricyanide Mediated Amperometric BOD Sensor based on Immobilized Escherichia coli on a Glassy Carbon Electrode Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) is an important environmental index of organic pollution in wastewater. The conventional and standard method BOD5 assay described by American Public Health Association apart from it takes 5 days to complete. Rapid BOD microbial sensor using dissolved oxygen (DO) probe pioneered by Karube et al., uses oxygen as an electron acceptor. However due to poor solubility of oxygen in water, rapid and extensive biodegradation of organic compounds is difficult to achieve in this system. To alleviate this limitation, redox-active substances, such as ferricyanide, is used as an alternative electron acceptor for oxygen in the biodegradation of organic compounds since these substances are highly soluble in water. The measurement is based on monitoring the amount of microbially produced ferrocyanide. In this study, a disposable ferricyanide-mediated amperometric biosensor based on Escherichia coli for BOD was developed. The recognition element consisted of an Escherichia coli immobilized in an agarose gel and set on a glassy carbon via gauze. An operating potential of 450 mV (vs Ag/AgCl) was employed and the current was measured against platinum electrode. Glucose-glutamic acid (GGA) solution was used as a standard solution in all the experiments. Optimum condition was observed at 1:2 cell to agarose ratio microbial layer, 60 mM potassium ferricyanide in 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0, 25C), with 5 minutes N2 purging prior to analysis. The sensor exhibited a linear response from 50 up to 240 mg O l-1 BOD with an average reproducibility of 11.3%, and obtained a high correlation to domestic wastewater but not to food-grade wastewater with respect to BOD5 test. A stable response was observed in less than ten minutes and its stability of the sensor was achieved up to seven days of storage. Keywords: BOD, biosensor, glassy carbon, agarose gel, Escherichia coli, ferricyanide

Name: Cheryll Didi Nellie N. Obra, MSPT, PTRP Course: MS in Physical Therapy Major in Orthopedics Date of Defense: May 30, 2008 Title: Correlates of Anthropometric and Fitness Measures on Playing Positions of Ilocos Norte Collegiate Basketball Players Basketball is a complex technical game requiring varying capabilities in the anthropometric and physiological domains. While several studies have documented the physiological and anthropometric characteristics of elite basketball players, investigations on collegiate players are limited. The purposes of this study were to create an anthropometric and fitness profile and to determine the relationship of anthropometric and fitness measures on playing positions of collegiate basketball players of Ilocos Norte. Five mens basketball teams participated in this study (N=40). According to playing positions, players were categorized as guards (n=22), forwards (n=11), and centers (n=7). Subjects underwent anthropometric and fitness testing. ANOVAs revealed significant differences between the players across playing positions for height, weight, arms span. Guards are significantly shorter than forwards and centers while forwards and centers do not differ significantly in height. Centers are significantly heavier
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than guards however, forwards do not differ significantly in weight with any of the guards or centers. The arm span of centers is also significantly longer than the forwards who have significantly longer arm span than the guards. Data varied widely across playing positions for body circumferences, BMI, waist-hip ratio. There is statistically significant difference in peak oxygen consumption of the players, with the guards having significantly higher VO2max values while the centers having the lowest values. There are no significant differences in other fitness measures of the players regardless of their playing position. The collected profile data can contribute in identifying possible athletes, selection procedures, evaluating and monitoring current players, and as a source of comparison with other athletic groups.

Name: Rene D. Olamit, REE Course: MS in Management Engineering Date of Defense: September 27, 2008 Title: Efficiency Performance Evaluation of Selected Independent Power Producers in Luzon Area-Philippines Using the Fuzzy DEA Model: 2000 -2006 The purpose of this study is to evaluate and investigate the efficiency performance of nine (9) selected Independent Power Producer (IPP) firms using the Fuzzy Data Envelopment Analysis (FDEA) Model. The data were drawn from a data base of 7 panel firms in Luzon Area-Philippines over the period 2000 2006. The efficiency performance evaluations were done first from 63 pooled panel data prior to cross-sectional analysis in three stages (CVRSTE 1, UCVRSTE 2 and UCVRSTE 3). The input controllable variables were (X1) Total Number of Employees, (X2) Depreciation, input uncontrollable variable (X3) ISO Certification. The output controllable variables were (Y1) Total Operating Revenue, (Y2) Total MWH-Sales, output uncontrollable variable (Y3) Age of Technology. Empirically, this study suggested that: (1) ISO Certification and Age of Technology entry into the IPP firm study implies enhanced fuzzification, thus connoting the possible loss of precision; (2) Input and output orientation via UCVRSTE (Stages 2 and 3) manifests deficiencies through inappropriate use of scale transformation; (3) slacks occurrence exhibited in three stages implies mismanagement of variable alternatives; (4) an average of 1.33 percent yearly for ISO Certification compliance is required for the IPPs relative technical efficiency and continuous deterrence yields non compliance of quality standards; (5) average reduction of 1.22 percent yearly for refurbishment of old technologies is tantamount to an IPP firms efficient score, otherwise, non-adherence means disregard of technology rehabilitation and upgrading. This study provides the theoretical, comparative empirical models, and robust evidence of how the DEA-CVRSTE Model (Stage 1) justified the enhanced discriminating power of FDEA-UCVRSTE (Stage 2) Model. The methodology tackles handling information that contains controllable (precise, exact) and uncontrollable (imprecise, uncertain, missing, unclear, vague, fuzzy) values. Hence, this study is an aid for strategic multi-criteria decision making and risk management. Keywords: Fuzzy DEA; correlation; slacks; technical efficiency performance; Independent Power Producer Industry

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Name: Ma. Reina O. Olayvar Course: MBA May 2, 2008 Date of Defense: Title: The Employment Potential of Tourism in the Philippines, 1996-2006: A Sectoral Analysis This study evaluated the perceived positive effects of tourism on employment and job generation in the Philippines for the period 19962006. The study also assessed how government policies have fostered tourism growth, using econometric multiple regression analysis, which will be validated through key informant interviews. Results suggest that the Philippine tourism industry significantly contributes directly and indirectly to local employment. Tourism is already an export trading within the country, the influx of foreign currencies provides a good margin of income to all tourism related establishments and to the government through the remittances of their taxes. The DoT was found to be effective in managing local tourism-related activities, thus, helping increase tourism-generated revenues. Quantitatively, tourism international arrival is the only significant indicator that contributes to local job generation. Tourism receipts and M.I.C.E. have a negative result that has a propensity to lessen the sustainability of employment. Domestic arrival data has a probable replicate of a single tourist visiting two or more local destinations compared to international arrivals. This study recommends for extensive tourism program development, commercial marketing campaign on reputable Filipino values, reformation on international and domestic airport, to name a few. Keywords: Philippine tourism industry; employment; government policies.

Name: Rebecca D. Ong Course: M.A. in Industrial Psychology Date of Defense: May 22, 2008 Title: Emotional Intelligence, Coping Mechanisms and Job Performance of Selected Rank and File Employees of Philippine National Bank: An Assessment This study aims to determine the relationship of Emotional Intelligence, Coping Mechanisms and Job Performance of selected rank-and-file employees of Philippine National Bank. A total of 207 respondents, 106 female and 101 male and who are assigned in the operations in PNB Head Office participated in the study. The researcher employed descriptive research, which utilizes correlational and comparative study. Personal Data Sheet, Emotional Intelligence Appraisal, Coping Resources Inventory-Adult (CRI-Adult) and latest Performance Appraisal of the Bank were used as instruments to gather the needed data. The following statistical measures were also utilized in the study: Frequency Distribution, Percentage, Mean, Standard Deviation, t-test, ANOVA and Pearson r. Results of the study revealed that there is a significant difference in the level of the Emotional Intelligence of the respondents in terms of their socio-demographic profile except in age category. While the coping results showed that there is no significant difference in the age category in terms of the 8 scales of coping featured in CRI-Adult such as Positive Reappraisal (PR), Seeking Guidance and Support (SG), Problem Solving (PS), Cognitive Avoidance (CA), Seeking Alternative Rewards (SR) and Emotional Discharge (ED) except in Logical Analysis (LA) and Acceptance or Resignation (AR).
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Likewise, there is no significant difference in the coping mechanisms of the respondents in terms of their gender and length of service. Moreover, there is also no significant difference in the level of coping of the respondents in the civil status category in terms of 8 scales of coping in CRI-A except in AR. When it comes to job performance, data indicates that there is no significant difference in the level of work performance of the respondents except in gender and length of service category. Findings further reveal that when grouped according to demographic profile, there is a significant relationship between EQ and coping mechanisms in terms of the following: a) age, particularly in LA, PR, PS, SR and ED scales of coping; b) gender in PR, PS and SR; c) civil status in all 8 scales of coping; and d) length of service in PS and SR. As for the EQ and job performance, it was found out that majority of the respondents yielded a moderately correlation in terms of their socio-demographic profile. Data also uncovered that there is significant relationship between job performance and coping mechanisms of the respondents in terms of their socio-demographic profile except in gender and length of service, wherein results were found negligible, low or nonsignificant. Lastly, the data revealed the following findings: a) there is a moderately small positive correlation between EQ and JP; b) likewise, there is also a moderately small positive relationship between EQ and CM in terms of scales of coping except in AR and ED areas who have both very small negative correlation; and c) there is very small positive relationship between JP and CM in scales of coping except in ED who bears no correlation at all. Keywords: Correlation, Socio-demographic profile, Emotional Intelligence, Coping Mechanisms, Job Performance Name: Arnold F. Rivera Course: MA in Nursing Date of Defense: October 23, 2008 Title: Redefining Nursing from the Perspective of Hospital Staff Nurses Filipino nurses count among the best in the world. They are known for both competence and character. Presently, they are very much in demand in Europe, in the U.S., and neighboring countries (Conclara, 2001). Right now, there are numerous schools of nursing to accommodate the increasing number of nurse enrollees across the country. In this period where nursing enrollees in the Philippines are at its highest number and many have the goal of going abroad in mind, nursing needs to be clear to every Filipino nurses. It is difficult to clarify the characteristics of the nursing profession and the problems that exist within this field. Gaining, therefore, an understanding of the nurses perception regarding their profession can improve knowledge on this subject. Twelve (12) participants from tertiary, general hospitals (two private and two government operated) in Manila were included in the study. Purposive sampling was employed in the selection of the participants where the assistance of nurse supervisors were sought to identify staff nurses who could openly share their experiences of the phenomenon. A qualitative phenomenological approach was utilized to explore the perceptions of the participants on their definition of nursing. A semistructured interview guide, which consists of eight (8) open-ended questions, was validated by a panel of experts and was used by the researcher in the collection of data through selfreport approach. The data gathered were coded into three levels and were analyzed using
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Collaizzi method of data analysis. Hospital staff nurses articulated nursing as it is practiced in terms of the meaning of the term nursing as to essence, activities, goals, and meaning as a profession. Nursing in the Philippines is highly valued profession compared to neighboring countries. Cultural factors underpinned the hospital staff nurses conceptualization of nursing. Due to the commercialization, nursing profession in the Philippines is faced with various challenges, socially and institutionally. Furthermore, the essence of nursing among participants of the study is caring. Caring towards their families that transcends to their patients. Through nursing, hospital staff nurses could help to mobilize the social and economic status of their families by having job overseas. Name: Ma. Victoria M. Ronidel Course: Master of Fine Arts October 22, 2008 Date of Defense: Title: Elevating the Humble Rattan to a Vital Expressive Element Of Comics Sculptures The proponent of this thesis proposal aims to call attention to the rich potentials and vital significance of rattan as material and as an expressive element of comics sculptures. Rattan is a raw material in making baskets, furniture and handicrafts. It is a climbing palm with numerous spines, hairs and bristles scattered all over the plant. They grow throughout the country from Batanes to Tawi-Tawi. They are often found near sea-level and medium  elevations in virgin and second-growth forests but never in the open fields. Generally, most rattan species have a wide altitudinal range although there are some species, which tend to  have specific ranges. Each sculpture will feature various stick figures for narrating childrens stories. The safety of rattan makes it inviting for children to play with it; and may even encourage the children to provide conclusion of the stories. Inspired by the style and techniques of Paul Kle, the proponent hopes to coax the versatility of rattan toward transforming this humble material into an attractive and persuasive integral part of comics sculpture. Name: Minnie Jill DC Lopez Course: MA in Economics Date of Defense: November 4, 2008 Title: The Use of Borrowed Reserves as a Tool of Monetary Policy in the Philippine Economy Rediscounting is a privilege which a qualified bank earns in obtaining loans and advances from the central bank, Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, using the eligible papers of its borrowers as collateral. As one of the major instruments of monetary policy, the BSP is able to control the money supply in the economy and at the same time maintain the financial stability and liquidity of the banks. While there are basically two types of rediscounting facility available in the Philippine financial system (a) the Peso Rediscounting Facility and

 

Pongkaluang, p. 197 as cited by Rimando, 1996 Lapis. 1995 [624]

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(b) the Exporters Dollar and Yen Rediscount Policy, this study, however, focuses only on the Peso Rediscounting Facility. The main objective of this study is to determine the impact of rediscounting policy of the BSP on the Philippine economy principally through borrowed reserves, non-performing loans, and aggregate output for the period from period 1997 to 2006. Using quarterly data, this study examined empirically the impact of Lending Rate, Rediscounting Rate, and Aggregate Output on the Level of Borrowed Reserves in the Philippines. Also, it attempted to examine if non-performing loans (NPL) of the banking system is in some way connected with the deposit level (DL) of the banking system. In addition, the study also examined the impact of the money supply on aggregate output in the Philippine economy. All in all, three (3) empirical models were fitted to the available data at hand and tested for their statistical significance using multiple regression analysis. Results show that Lending Rates exert a negative effect on the level of Borrowed Reserves, while Rediscounting Rate and Aggregate Nominal Output both exert positive effect. However, only Aggregate Output is found to be statistically significant. On the 2nd Model, the incidence of NPL among commercial banks is largely conditioned by the availability of deposits rather than availment of borrowed reserves, although both factors tend to reduce the non-performing assets of the banking system which serve as a drag on its efficiency. For the 3rd Model, changes in money supply shows a highly significant effect on aggregate output in the Philippines. It is shown that the growth in aggregate output has the strongest and most significant effect on the availment of borrowed reserves by the banking system. Although it is suspected that a causality relationship may emerge from borrowed reserves to aggregate output as implicit in the 3rd model, this is an empirical issue that could be the subject of future research. Non-performing loans (NPL), on the other hand, tend to decline as banks deposit levels increase. This is plausible because increased liquidity on the part of banks as deposit levels increased could likely roll over or renew NPLs to current status thus reducing bad loans. Keywords: borrowed reserves, NPL, lending rate, rediscounting rate, Chow breakpoint test, Ramsey specification error test. Name: Jennifer D. Samonte Course: MS in Advertising March 12, 2008 Date of Defense: Title: Creative Kiosk Retailing with Maximum Impact Retailers are considered one of the most significant contributors to Philippine economy. Today, Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) are sought to be the driving force of Philippine economic development since they are considered the number one job creators in the country. The Philippine National Statistics Office (2004) counted 437,325 establishments engaged in retail trade in 2000, with the industry employing over 1.7 million people. Retail sales in 2002 amounted to 1,692.3 billion pesos (approximately US$30 billion), an 11.1% increase from 2001 (Euromonitor, 2004). Today, SME employs 67.9 percent of the countrys labor force or 3,877,369 people. Philippines Retail Trade has indeed blossomed and this is why developing SME is also part of the Arroyos Flagship programs. This study focuses on helping entrepreneurs and aspiring entrepreneurs as well that its about time to take a chance on your decision to become your own boss. This study analyzed customer perceptions, concept testing using In the Pink Marketing as the actual retailing shop business. This study also interviewed business owners in different product or service

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categories, to be able to consider what made the pioneers survived and what made the new entrepreneurs push through considering a tough competing industry for business. This is the dilemma facing SME nowadays, there is indeed a market of opportunity in business, but first and foremost they would need to survive the tough competition and hold a share in the market place. This research is about implementing creative retailing strategy with maximum impact in business. What would be the proper merchandising materials, retail environmental aesthetics, and brand image to consider? What would be the best way to run your business through the ladder of success especially in the first difficult months and the other lean months of the year? How retailers can sell their business creatively to the market? Keywords: aesthetics, brand image, creative retailing, maximum impact, merchandising, retailers Name: Patrick Neil M. Santiago Course: Master of Fine Arts October 22, 2008 Date of Defense: Title: Imaging Spiritual Crisis: Exploring Automotive Acrylic and Found Objects to Portray the Threatened Human Condition This researcher aims to explore a technique, here, being proposed as a new approach to representation. By new is understood that this technique is different from the methods of traditional classical realism as well as recent modern styles. Initially, the approach is applied to portraiture, that is, representing particular individuals, then finally, to virtually abstract paintings strewn with found objects aimed at imaging the spiritual condition of man in our present time. Inspired by abstract expressionism as demonstrated particularly in the style and techniques of Jackson Pollock, this researcher hopes to build up particular individual representations (portraits) using paint drips but with new mediums: the hardware materials, automotive acrylic and found objects. As a voyage into the new, this researcher will explore the extent to which Pollocks paint drips could be controlled and manipulated for representational purposes. An experimental aspect is the researchers use of non-traditional objects like wires, screwdrivers, broken bottles, etc., instead of conventional paint brushes to obtain the contours, masses and depths. Abstract expressionism involves and is essentially characterized by figural and space distortions. Accordingly, this researcher will apply his new technique in portraiture to image spiritual crisis that is a condition of our times. Finally, the exploration will be extended to apparently pure abstract paintings where faint facial features seem to surface through found objects evoking the image of humanity after a cataclysm.

Name: Suhendra Course: MA in Philosophy May 16, 2008 Date of Defense: Title: The Notion of Justice in Derridas Deconstruction This study is an attempt to explore Derridas deconstructive justice alongside the discourse on law and violence. The exploration is premised on the primary problem of this study which is: Is it evident that Derridas discourse on justice has ethical and political significance?

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Following the ethical and political reading of Derrida, the objective of this study is to discourse how justice arises as an issue of deconstruction. In doing so, the discourse on justice is discussed in its relation to law and violence. The deconstructive reading of law and violence leads Derrida, which is the very purpose of this study to explicate, to claim that deconstruction is justice. The nature of the study is both expository and interpretative, which is the method employed in understanding Derridas notion of justice. The main text under scrutiny is the Force de loi. It has also served as the matrix of interpreting all other texts. The other primary sources consulted are seen in the light of their significance and implications to the Force de Loi. On the other hand, the other primary sources and authoritative secondary sources are also used to guarantee the integrity of the interpretation on the Force de loi. Thereby, the textual interpretation is an attempt to surmise the leading and cohesive understanding of both Derrida and his critiques, and also to indicate, whenever it is possible, and some significant points that have been silenced but essential to the understanding of justice. As an archival research, it utilizes materials available in various libraries and refereed journals on philosophy. Derrida, by making the provocative claim that, deconstruction is justice and that it is a responsibility without limits, challenges the traditional notion and destabilizes the authorial intention of justice. Furthermore, by contrasting justice into law, he arrives to the conclusion that justice is deconstruction itself only if it goes beyond the concept of legality and illegality. Within the juridical sphere, however, justice itself becomes the ground of opposition. In order for justice to escape this opposition, it has to move beyond its juridical character; that is, to take its deconstructive dimension. Derrida pursues his argument of justice through his deconstructive reading of law and violence. Law does not guarantee justice, while law is impotent without its assumed direction towards justice. Justice is not law. It is because at the foundation of law is actually violence. Violence is the force of law. Thus, deconstruction is justice. This means that justice is aporia or the fruitful and active engagement of binaries such as law and non-law, decidable and undecidable, possible and the impossible, calculable and the incalculable. These binaries points to the character of deconstructive justice as a responsibility and gift.

Name: Magdalene Tiengo Course: MS in Commerce May 21, 2008 Date of Defense: Title: Credit Risk Management Practices Of Selected Non-Governmental Organization Microfinance Institutions In Metro Manila In Relation To Loan Collection Performance Microfinance institutions continue actively in the Philippines since the 1980s, in an effort to help the plight of the poor, provide financial services (i.e. loans, voluntary savings.) Non-governmental Organization-Microfinance Institutions (NGO-MFIs) in the rural or urban areas are faced with the challenge of utilizing the resources they have to maintain efficient operations and remain effective. NGO-microfinance institutions like any other financial institutions are not exempted from the risks that loan activities hold. These risks must be managed well to ensure efficiency & sustainability of operations in an organization. The objectives in this study are to determine the credit risk management practices that are applied within the selected NGO-MFIs, to determine the level of loan collection performance and the methods being used to reduce credit risk. The study is focused on four
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(4) NGO-MFIs in Metro Manila that were willing to be part of the study after being selected purposely from among the members of the Microfinance Council of the Philippines. The basic research instrument is the questionnaire. However, interviews were also conducted as well as document analysis, to further facilitate the responses. Data gathered were analyzed and interpreted using the descriptive statistics namely frequency, rank, percentage, weighted mean, Cronbachs Alpha, and Pearsons Product Moment of correlation were computed using the SPSS software. The study has the following results: The selected NGO-MFIs loans are administered based on the credit information gathered and requirements adhered to. Credit evaluation of clients utilizes the information gathered mainly through interviews with the prospective clients, by reference from other people and records at the community office. Character of client is described as most highly evaluated. The credit information proved significantly related to the loan collection performance. Microfinance officers monitor the weekly payments with the help of group and center leaders. Results indicated a common trend in practices of credit risk management some practices are more standardized or established in all the institutions resulting in a positive but non-significant relationship to loan collection performance. The institutions consider Portfolio-at-Risk (PaR) very important in measuring the risk of loans outstanding; all four selected institutions have a PaR below 10% which is acceptable but could be lowered. On-time repayment rate is above 81% with only one institution falling on the lower end of this rate. Three of the selected NGO-MFIs have Past-due rates ranging 5% and below, one ranged 6%-10%. Generally, regular monitoring of loan payments and reports need to be improved. The researcher arrived at the conclusion that the value of the loans needs to be established in the clients in order for them to be responsible and motivated in credit discipline. Respondents agreed that more discipline should be instilled in both clients and officers. Results of this study served as the basis for recommending ways to improve credit risk practices and may also be used for future review wherever applicable. Keywords: NGO Microfinance Institutions, credit risk management, credit information, credit evaluation, monitoring loans, credit analysis, and loan collection performance. Name: Joemar P. Turingan Course: MA in Philosophy Date of Defense: November 7, 2008 Title: The Concept of Freedom in Hannah Arendts Vita Activa In her study of the state of modern humanity, Hannah Arendt considers humankind from the perspective of the actions of which it is capable. The problems Arendt identified thendiminishing human agency and political freedom, the paradox that as human powers increase through technological and humanistic inquiry, we are less equipped to control the consequences of our actionscontinue to confront us today. Although, Arendt is usually treated a proponent of action in the narrowly political sense, she in fact intended something far more ambitious. Her goal in The Human Condition was to allow the underlying experiences of the vita activa to emerge more clearly that they do when one looks down on them from the contemplative standpoint of the philosopher. Arendt is fundamentally concerned with reasserting the politics as a realm of human action, praxis, and the world of appearance in the public realm, which only exists for the dominant figure in the family, is most closely related with action and is where man gains a sense of freedom. This study aims to examines Arendts phenomenological reconstruction of the Vita Activa that provides the framework for the concept of Freedom viewed mainly through,
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The Human Condition. Arendts explication of the constitutive features of the vita activa in The Human Condition (labor, work and action) illustrates how the realm of action and appearance (including the political) has been subordinated and depreciated, with the rise of the society (that is the rise of the household, oikia), has become a collective concern. The advent of modern technology and the introduction of machinery such as computers and factory machines have allowed for decreased thought on the part of the average person, therefore, according to Arendt, a decrease in freedom. The increase in man-made products and rise of an economy-based society has led to the divergence of priorities. The structures of modern society have strayed from the ideal (Greek) and moved toward the mere functional, causing Arendts case to be lost in the furrows of capitalism and technology. This study contends the problem of what we call isolation as reflected in the political sphere and loneliness in the sphere of social intercourse. But, what remains is it adheres to the same hope and faith that Arendt believes into, that is the supreme capacity of man, to create new beginnings (Initium ergo ut esse, creatus est hom, ante quem nullus fuit that there be a beginning, man was created, before whom nobody was. Said by St. Augustine). As politically claimed, mans action is identical with freedom and this beginning is guaranteed by each new birth, inherent in every man. Keywords: vita activa, action, politics, freedom and equality Name: Vivian G. Villegas, RMT Course: MS in Medical Technology July 29, 2008 Date of Defense: Title: Prevalence of Hepatitis C in Representative Sectors of Hemodialysis Centers in Metro Manila Scope: This is a cross-sectional analytic study of the prevalence of hepatitis C infection among hemodialysis patients in Metro Manila from April 2007 to May 2008. Objective: To determine if there is a significant difference in the prevalence of hepatitis C infection among hemodialysis patients in representative sectors in Metro Manila, namely, private, government, and free standing hemodialysis centers, and its relation to age, gender, years of hemodialysis treatment, occurrence of blood transfusion and source of blood for blood transfusion. Method: The study utilized stratified random sampling method based on the classification of hemodialysis centers as private, government, and free-standing hemodialysis centers. Simple random sampling technique was utilized in order to eliminate bias in choosing the hemodialysis centers. Sample size is 338. A consent form was signed by the respondents before blood samples were drawn and tested for anti-HCV. Patients were then interviewed to obtain other information needed in the analysis. Chi-square was computed based on the data gathered. Result: Out of the 338 respondents who participated in the study, 32 (9.50 %) tested reactive to anti-HCV. In the private hemodialysis center, out of 108 hemodialysis patients who participated in the study, 2 (1.90 %) tested reactive to anti-HCV. In the government center, out of 113 patients, 6 (5.30 %) tested reactive to anti-HCV. And in the free-standing hemodialysis center, out of 117 patients who participated in the study, 24 (20.50 %) tested reactive to anti-HCV. Chi-square test showes that there is significant association in the prevalence of HCV infection in private, government, and free standing hemodialysis centers in Metro Manila. Keywords: Prevalence, anti-HCV, representative sectors of hemodialysis centers, age, gender, duration of hemodialysis treatment, occurrence of blood transfusion, source of blood for blood transfusion

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Name: Xue, Shanshan W. Course: MS in HRM October 30, 2008 Date of Defense: Title: An analysis of the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Knowledge, Skills and Values of the Nurses in Shi Jia-zhuang Central Hospital in Shi Jia-zhuang China The unique function of a nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery. The study aims to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the nurses in Shi Jia-Zhuang Central Hospital in order to determine the training needs to enhance and improve their performance for better services to the patients. The study used the descriptivesurvey research method to gather data by the ues of survey questionnaires which were distributed to 224 regular nurses who were selected by the researcher and 17 nurse supervisors who were assigned in all the 17 clinical departments. The data were subjected to statistical treatment by using percentages, weighted means, standard deviation, and analysis of variance. The nurses and their supervisors suggested the following: involvement of the nurse in the planning and presentation of in-service training sessions: have the nurses participate in pharmaceutical in-service training to understand behavior changes and side effects of drugs; have a system for documenting individual nurse needs that indicate a problem area and outline the intervention taken to remedy the problem; use the system when making decisions about in-service training needs; hold impromptu in-service training for specific units/staff & for specific situations/conditions and offer in-service training on all shifted to accommodate nurses schedule, hold in-service training that provides hands on experience on realistic scenarios; use of educational tools such as realistic videos, workbooks, interactive computer programs, and games; provide feedback mechanism for the patients/patients relatives; use social service authorities to talk about residents psycho-social needs; and invite legal authorities to talk about residents rights. Keywords: Strength, weaknesses, knowledge, skill, and values

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