matrices

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matrices

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- matrices
- Notes of Matrices
- MTH 220 MTH220 Week 3 Checkpoint.docx
- Linear Algebra
- Gaussian Elimination
- Semantic Analysis of Tweets using LSA and SVD
- Multivariate Statistics
- weatherwax_grewal_solutions.pdf
- Elementary Matrices
- Concise Matrix Notes
- Pivoting n Mixed Boundary Conditions
- 8_1 MATRICES AND SYS OF EQNS.pdf
- Matlab Tutorial
- fem1lho
- Machine Learning Prob
- Patterns in Sys Eq
- L2_MA_4301
- Minimal solution of fuzzy neutrosophic soft matrix
- lecture-notes.pdf
- math background

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1.

1.1 Definition

MATRICES

A matrix is a set of real or complex numbers (or elements) arranged in rows and columns to form a rectangular array. If there are m rows and n column, it is called an mxn (read as m-by-n) matrix and is said to be of order mxn. If m = n, its called a square matrix of order n. A matrix is indicated by writing the array within large square brackets E.g.

Note: The number of rows is stated first and the number of column second.

4 5 So the matrix 6 7 is order 3x2 8 9

And the matrix Special cases: A matrix with only 1 column is called a column vector, similarly a matrix with only one row is called a row vector E,g. (i)

1 4 7 5 is of order 2x4 3 0 6 2

[a

(ii)

The general matrix of order mxn can be written as a11 a12 ... ... a1n a21 a22 ... ... a2n E.g. A = aij = : : : : am1 am2 ... ... amn

[ ]

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MATRICES

The element of the matrix in the Ith row and the jth column is denoted by aij with the subscripts in this order. i.e. a23 indicates the element in the second row and third column and a31 indicates the element in the third row and first column.

e.g.

6 3 2 If A = 1 0 4 3 1 7

a12 = -3, a22 = 0 a32 = -1, a13 = 2 a23 = 4 a33 = 7

if n is a square matrix, the elements aij with I = j are called diagonal elements ( or elements on the diagonal).

1.2

Equality

Two matrices are said to be equal if and only if they are of the same order and corresponding elements are equal. If

a11 a12 a 21 a 22

a13 4 5 6 = a 23 9 8 7

Example 1

i)

4 5 If A = 6 7 and B = 8 9

1 2 1 1 2 x = find x and y 2 0 x y 3 0 2 3

Solution

By equality,

x = 1, x2 y = 2. y = -1

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MATRICES

EXERCISE 1.1

1.

(a)

2 1 3 4

(b)

1 6 2 3 2 4

(c)

1 2 3 5 6 2 1 5 2

2.

If A = and

3.

a11 = b21 + b22.

4.

1 2 A= 3 1 1 2 32 4 A= 9 x 7 y

1 B= yx 1 2x + 7y 17 , 42

x 1 2

(b)

32 6 B = 4 17 50 42

1.2

To be added or subtracted, two matrices must be of the same order. The sum or difference is then determined by adding or subtracting corresponding element.

Example 2

1 3 If A = 2 2 and B = 3 1

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MATRICES

Solution

1 3 4 6 1 4 3 6 3 3 A + B = 2 2 + 5 5 = 25 25 = 3 3 6 4 3 6 1 4 3 3 3 1

B+A=. BA=

: Let k be a constant or scalar. By the product kA we mean the matrix in which every element of A is multiplied by k. Thus

a11 a12 ... ... a1n a21 a22 ... ... a2n if A = : : : : am1 am2 ... ... amn ka11 ka12 ... ... ka1n ka 21 ka 22 ... ... ka 2n kA = : : = : : kam1 kam2 ... ... kamn

i.e. in general, k[aij] = [kaij]

Example 3

Iif

4 7 1 A = 3 1 0 1 7 3

I) A + 2B

and

1 6 2 B= 7 4 4 3 2 5

ii) -A + 3B

Evaluate

Matrix Multiplication

Two important points must be remembered 1. Matrices are in general not commutative in multiplication;( AB BA). However if two matrices are such that AB = BA, then they are said to be commutative 2. Two matrices A and B can only be multiplied if they are conformable. I.e when the number of column in the first is equal to the number of rows in the second. For instance

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MATRICES

mxp lxn mxn

mxp lxq rxm mxn

Example 4

If X =

2 1 , 3 4

2 3 and Y = 1 3 2 6

5 4 3 1 10 5 Z= 7 6 3 2 1 4

Then,

If A = (aij) is an m x n matrix and B = (bij) is an n x r matrix then the product AB = C = (cij) is the m x r matrix whose entries are defined by

Cij =

a

k =1

ik

To find the ijth element of product, take the Ith row of A and jtj column of B, multiply the corresponding elements pairwise and add the resulting numbers.

b11 b a11 a12 a13 21 , then and B = [b ] = E.g. If A = [aij] = ij b31 a a a 22 23 21 b11 a11b11 + a12b 21 + a13b31 a11 a12 a13 b21 . = A.B = a21 a22 a23 b31 a 21b11 + a 22b 21 + a 23b31

The product AB is now a 2x1 matrix

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MATRICES

Example 5

8 5 9

Exampl 6

1 2 3 If A = and B = 4 5 6

7 8 9 10 , find AB and BA 11 12

A continued product of matrices such as ABC is to be interpreted as follows: First premultiply C by B and then premultiply product BC by A. this process will not be possible unless b is conformable with C and A wiuth BC For matrix multiplication: ABC = (AB) C = A (BC) - Associative (A + B) C = AF + BC - Distributive C(A + B) = CA + CB

Example:

If

2 1 A= 3 4

Example:

If

A = [1 2 3] ,

1 0 0 B = 0 1 0 and C = 0 0 1

Definition:

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MATRICES

: An = A x A x A x .x A ( n times in all)

Example 7

If A =

4 3 2 3 find A and A 2 5

1.3

Special Matrices

i.e

[0

0 0] ,

0 0 0 0 ,

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Theorem : If the zero matrix below are of suitable order, then i) A+O=O+A=A ii) AxO=OxA=O iii) A = B if and only if A B = O

Definition : A Square matrix of order n which has all its diagonal elements equal to 1 and all its other elements equal to zero is called a unit matrix of order n, denoted by I is a matrix of order mxn where m = n

From definition,

iij =

1 0

;i=j ;ij

Theorem:

Suppose that I is the unit matrix of order n. If A is of order n x m, then I A = A (order n x m) If A is of order m x n, then A I = A (order m x n) If A is square matrix of order n, then A I = I A = A

i) ii) iii)

Example 8:

If

2 4 5 A = 7 1 5 and I3 = 0 8 3

1 0 0 0 1 0 then A.I = 0 0 1

2 4 5 7 1 5 i.e A.I = A. 0 8 3

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MATRICES

1 0 0 2 4 5 I.A = 0 1 0 7 1 5 0 0 1 0 8 3 1( 2 ) + 0( 7 ) + 0( 8 ) 1( 4 ) + 0( 1 ) + 0( 8 ) 1( 5 ) + 0( 5 ) + 0( 3 ) 2 4 5 = 0( 2 ) + 1( 7 ) + 0( 8 ) 0( 4 ) + 1( 1 ) + 0( 8 ) 0( 5 ) + 1( 5 ) + 0( 3 ) = 7 1 5 0 ( 2 ) 0 ( 7 ) 0 ( 8 ) 0 ( 4 ) 0 ( 1 ) 0 ( 8 ) 0 ( 5 ) 0 ( 5 ) 1 ( 3 ) 0 8 3 + + + + + +

Therefore, the unit matrix I, behaves very much like the unit factor in ordinary algebra and arithmatics.

Definition: If A is a matrix of order m x n then the transpose of A, denoted by At is the matrix of order n x m such that A = (aji) where A = (aij) Example 9

2 5 Hence if A = 7 9 , then AT = 4 6

2 7 4 5 9 6 .

Example 10

Given that

2 7 6 A= and B = 3 1 5

4 0 3 7 , find (A.B)T 1 5

Example 11

1 2 Find the transpose of A, B, A + B and AB, where A = 0 1 1 1 3 1 0 . Confirm that (AB)T = BTAT and B = 1 2 2

T

Definition: A matrix is said to be symmetric if AT = A, A must be a square matrix.

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MATRICES

1 2 5 e.g. A = 2 8 9 is a symmetric. 5 9 4

Definition: A matrix is said to be anti-symmetric (skew symmetric) is AT = - A

2 5 0 e.g. A = 2 0 9 5 9 0

Note : If A is either symmetric or anti-symmetric it must be square matrix.

Example 12

a)

c)

a h g l h g

h b f h 0 f

g f c g f l

b)

0 h g

h 0 f

g f 0

EXERCISE 1.2

1.

If A = (a)

4 6 5 7 and B = 3 1 9 4

A+B (b)

2 8 3 1 5 2 4 6 , determine

AB

2.

If (a)

4 7 1 A = 3 1 0 and B = 1 7 3

A+B (b)

1 6 2 7 4 4 , find 3 2 5

B-A

3.

If A =

4 6 5 7 and B = 3 1 9 4

2 8 3 1 5 2 4 6 , determine

(a) 2A + 3B

(b) 5(A B)

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MATRICES

4 3 If A = 2 7 and B = 6 1

determine (a) 5A

4.

5 9 2 4 0 8

(b) A.B (c) B.A

5.

1 1 1 If A = 1 1 1 and B = 1 1 1

(a) A.B

1 1 1 1 1 1 , find 1 1 1

B.A

(b)

6.

Given that A=

3 4 0 . 1 0 2

2 1 2 B= 2 1 3 , 4 3 1

C=

2 1 5 3 2 1

Find, where possible the following matrices. If it is not possible give the reason. (i) 3A - 2C (ii) AB (iii) AC

7.

2 1 3 T Given the square matrix A = 2 0 1 . Show that A + A is a symmetric 3 1 2 T matrix, and A A is skew-symmetric

8.

Given A =

4 2 6 determine 1 8 7

(a) AT

(b) A.AT

9.

10.

1 2 If A = 4 5 7 8 2 Let A = 1 2

11.

A2 = I3

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MATRICES

1 0 B= 1 2 3 1

12.

1 2 1 Let A = 2 3 1

Show that A(BC) = (AB)C

C=

1 1 1 2

13.

2 1 3 If A = 1 1 2 1 2 1

1.4

The following operation are called elementary row operation. i) Interchange of the ith row and jth row, denoted by Ri Rj ii) Multiplication of each elements of ith row by a scalar k, denoted by kRi iii) Addition to each elements of the ith row, k times the corresponding elements of the jth row denoted by Ri + kRj

Example 13

Given the following matrices, perform the stated elementary row operation.

a)

b)

1 2 3 3 7 0

1 2 4 3 6 5 0 2 0 4 2 1

2R1

R3 + 2R2

c)

2 1 1 2 3 4 3 6 5

R3 R 2

d)

4 0 2 7 0 4 1 2 1

R2 +

1 R1 2

Definition: Two matrices A and B are said to be equivalent, denoted by A B, if one can be obtained from the other by sequence of elementary transformations.

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MATRICES

Example 14

2 1 1 A= 2 4 3 1 2 6

=B

The matrix A is reduced to matrix B by sequence of elemtary row transformations, B is said to be row equivalent to A and conversely.

Example 15

1 2 3 A = 2 4 3 3 2 1

Definition:

= B

A matrix A said to be in row echelon form if it satisfies the following three conditions. 1) All zero rows appear at the bottom of the matrix if any 2) The first non-zero number from the left in each non zero is 1 (called the leading 1) 3) Each leading 1 is to the right of the leading 1 in the preceeding row matrix is said to be in reduced row echelon form if: (1) The matrix is in row echelon form. (2) The column containing the leading 1 has zero elsewhere .

Definition:

Example 16

a)

b)

1 4 5 0 1 2 0 0 0

c)

1 0 3 0 0 1

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MATRICES

Example 17

a)

b)

c)

1 0 1 0 1 0

d)

1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 1 3 0 0 0

Example 18

Which of the following matrices are in row echelon form? Which are in reduced row echelon form?

a)

1 2 3 4 0 0 1 2

0 1 0 0 0 0

b)

1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1

f)

c)

1 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

d)

e)

1 1 1 0 1 2 0 0 3 0 1 3 4 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0

1 4 6 0 0 1 0 1 3

g)

1 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 2 4 0 0 1 3 6

h)

Example 19

Using the elementary row operation reduce the following matrices to row echelon form and reduced row echelon form

a)

1 2 3 2 1 3 3 2 1

b)

2 4 3 1 2 2 1 1 1

The process of using elementary row operation to transform a matrix into reduced row echelon form is called Gauss-Jordan reduction

EXERCISES 1.3 Using the row operations, transform the following matrices to row echelon form and then reduced row echelon form.

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MATRICES

0 1 0 1 4 1 0 3 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 0 3 1

a)

b)

c)

2 3 1 1 4 2 1 1 1

d)

1 2 0 0 1 1 2 0 3

1.5

a11x1 + a12x2 + a13x3 + ..+ a1n xn = b1 a21x1 + a22x2 + a23x3 + ..+ a2n xn = b2 a31x1 + a32x2 + a33x3 + ..+ a3n xn = b3 am1x1 + am2x2 + am3x3 + ..+ amn xn = bm

A X = B ..(*)

a 11 a 21 A = a 31 .... a m1

Example 20 The system

a 12 a 22 a 32 .... a m2

a 13 a 23 a 33 .... a m3

a 1n X1 x a 2n 2 a 3n , X = X 3 , B = .... : a mn X n

b1 b 2 b3 : b n

3x + 2y + z = 5 x - 2y + 5z = -2 2x + y 3z = 0

1 3 2 1 2 5 2 1 3

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x 5 y = 2 0 z

MATRICES

If we attach to the coefficient matrix an additional column whose entries are the numbers on the right hand side of the system, we obtain the new matrix

1 3 2 1 2 5 2 1 3

5 2 0

Definition: The system of equation is called non-homogenous if B is not a zero matrix. I.e at least one bi is not zero for I = 1, 2, 3, . n Definition: The system of equation is called homogenous if B is a zero matrix. I.e bi = 0 for I = 1, 2, 3 , n Gauss Elimination Method.

Gauss Elimination Method is a systematic procedure for solving system of linear equations. To apply the elementary row operations to the above system of linear equations, we write the equation A X = B in the form of the augmented matrix [A : B ] and reducing the augmented matrix of a system to another augmented matrix that is row echelon form. Then the system is solved by back substitution.

Example 21

c)

d)

The Gauss-Jordan elimination method uses row operation on the augmented matrix to solve a system of linear equations. The procedure can be described as follow: 1. Write the augmented matrix [A : B] for the system, where A is the square matrix whose the elements are the coefficients of the unknowns in the system and B is the column matrix whose elements are the constants. Use row operation to change [A : B] to [I : C] where I is an identity matrix of the same size as A and where C is a column matrix Read the solutions from the column matrix C

2.

3.

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MATRICES

Example 22

c)

Definition: The number of non-zero rows of a matrix A in row echelon form (reduced row echelon form) is called the rank of A and is denoted by rank A or r(A). Example 23

a)

1 1 3 1 A= 1 1 2 2

1 6 1 8 2 5 3 7

b)

0 1 B= 2 1

1 3 2 2 6 0 3 9 2 1 3 2

The rank of the matrix plays an important role to determine whether a system of linear equations is inconsistent; consistent for unique solution or consistent for infinitely many solutions.

Theorem: The system of linear equations A X = B is consistent if and only if the rank of matrix A is equal to the rank of the augmented matrix [A : B] Theorem: If the augmented matrix [A : B] in row echelon form or reduced row echelon possesses a zero row the system of linear equations is linearly dependent otherwise it is linearly independent. A) Solution of non-homogeneous equations

To solve the system of linear equations AX = B We first find the rank of A and [A : B]. three possibilities will arise. i) r[A] r[A : B], the system of equations is inconsistent and has no solutions ii) r[A] = r[A : B] = n = number of unknowns, the system of equations is consistent and has a unique solution. iii) r[A] = r [A : B] = r < n, the system of equations is consistent and has infinitely many solutions.

Example 24

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MATRICES

Solve

a)

x + y + 2z = 9 2x + 4y 3z = 1 3x + 6y 5z = 0 x + y + 2z = 8 -x - 2y + 3z = 1 3x - 7y + 4z = 10 x1 + 2x2 + x3 = 1 -2x1 + 3x2 x3 = -7 x1 + 4x2 2x3 = -7 2x1 + x2 + 3x3 = 2 x1 + 3x2 x3 = 11 2x1 - 2x2 + 5x3 = 3

b)

c)

d)

Example 25

Determine whether the following systems of equations are i) linearly dependent or linearly independent ii) Consistent or inconsistent. If consistent find their solutions. a) x1 + x2 + x3 = 2 2x1 + 3x2 + 4x3 = 3 x1 - 2 x2 - x3 = 1 x1 - 2x2 - 3 x3 = -1 3x1 + x2 + x3 = 4 11x1 - x2 - x3 = 10 x1 + x2 - 3x3 = 3 2x1 - 3x2 + 4x3 = -4 x1 - x2 + x3 = 2

b)

c)

Example 26

a) tx + 3y - z = 11 x + 2y + z = 2 -tx + y + 2z = -1 b) tx + y + z = 1 x + ty + z = 1 x + y + tz = -2

Find the value of t such that the system of equations are i) not consistent ii) having infinitely many solutions iii) having unique solution

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MATRICES

B)

a11x1 + a12x2 + a13x3 + ..+ a1n xn = 0 a21x1 + a22x2 + a23x3 + ..+ a2n xn = 0 a31x1 + a32x2 + a33x3 + ..+ a3n xn = 0 am1x1 + am2x2 + am3x3 + ..+ amn xn = 0

In a matrix, we have

A X = 0 ..(**)

Where 0 is a zero matrix. Here there are two possibilities to be considered i) if r[A] = n = number of the unknowns, then the system of equations is consistent and has a trivial solution, x1 = x2 = x3 = x4 .. = xn = 0 If r [ A ] = r [ A : 0 ] = r < n (number of the unknowns) then the system of homogeneous equation has infinite number of solutions where r unknowns can be expressed as a linear combination of (n r) unknowns which arbitrary values (parameters) may be assigned.

ii)

Example 27

a) x1 + x2 - x3 = 0 x1 - 4 x2 + 3 x3 = 0 3 x1 + 7 x2 - x3 = 0 x - y + 2z + w = 0 3x + 2y + w =0 4x + y + 2z + 2w = 0

b)

1.6

Definition:

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MATRICES

Example 28 Show that the inverse of A =

1 1 is B = 2 0

1 0 2 1 1 2

The Gauss-Jordan elimination method is used to find the inverse of square matrix A of any order n, provided A-1 exist. The procedure is given by the following steps. 1. 2. 3. Augment the given nxn matrix A to transform the identity matrix (In) of the same order, [A : In] Use the elementary row operation to transform [A : In] into the form [In : B]. If this is not possible, them A-1 does not exist. If [A : In] is transformed into [In : B] by row operation, the inverse can be read from the last n column of [In : B]. Then A-1 = B

Example 28

Use the Gauss-Jordan elimination method to find the inverse of each of the following matrix if exists

1 3 2 2 5 7 1 4 0 2 3 3 3 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 2 0 1 3 2 1 3 1 4 2 2 9 5 1 5 4 1 1 1 1 1 0 2 0 1

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

.EXERCISE 1.4

1. Solve the following systems of linear equations by Gauss elimination method a) 2x - 7y = 5 8x + y = -9 b) x + y + 2z = 9 2x + 4y - 3z = 1 3x + 6y 5z = 0 x + y + 2z = 8 -x 2y + 3z = 1 3x 7y + 4z = 10

b)

4x - y + 2z = 15 -x + 2y + 3z = 5 5x - 7y + 9z = 8 x + y + 2z = 3 2x y + z = 6 -x + 3y = -5

d)

e)

2.

a)

1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1

b)

0 3 1 2 3 2 1 0 2 1 0 1

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MATRICES 1 1 2 3 1 2 4 3 1 2 2 4

c)

d)

1 1 3 3

3 2 4 5 2 5 1 8

4 10 2 10

3.

For each system of linear equations below, determine whether the system is i) consistent or inconsistent ii) dependent or independent If the system is consistent, find the solution. a) 3x + y + z = 3 x - 2y + z = -5 x + y + 2z = -1 x + y + 3z = 3 x + 2y + 8z = 2 2x + 4y + 16 = 4 b) x - 2y + 3z = 6 x - y + 2z = 5 3x - 3y + 6z = 14 x - y + z = 1 3x + y - 2z = 1 3x - 2y - z = 0

f)

d)

4.

Determine the values of k such that the system of linear equations has i) unique solution ii) no solution iii) infinitely many solutions a) kx + y + z = 1 x + ky + 2z = 1 x + y + z = 1 x - 3y = -3 2x + ky - z = -2 x + 2y + kz = 1 b) x + y + kz = 2 3x + 4y + 2z = k 2x + 3y - z = 1

c)

Determine the values of k such that the system of linear equations 2x + y = 2 x + 2y + 3z =1 4x + 5y + kz =4 i) ii) has a unique solution. has no solution. (April 2008)

6.

Using Gaussian elimination method, determine the value(s) of k so that the system 2x + y + 3z = -3 x + 3y + 5z = 1 -x + 2y + (k2 -2)z = k + 2 i) ii) is inconsistent. has infinitely many solutions.

7..

(Oct 2008) A homogeneous system of n linear equations in n unknown A X = 0 has a nontrivial solution if det A = 0 or the r(A) < n. Determine which of the following linear system has a nontrivial solution?. a) x + y + 2z = 0 b) x - y + z = 0

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MATRICES

2x + y + z = 0 3x - y + z = 0 x + y =0 2x - 2y + 2z = 0

c)

2x - y + 5z = 0 3x + 2y - 3z = 0 3x - y + 4z = 0

8..

Find the solution of the homogeneous system of linear equations a) x - 2y + 3z - 2w = 0 3x - 7y - 2z + 4w = 0 4x + 3y + 5z + 2w = 0 b) x - 2y + 2z = 0 2x + y - 2z = 0 3x + 4y - 6z = 0 3x - 11y + 12z = 0

9.

Use the Gauss-jordan method to find the inverse of the following matrices

a)

c)

1 2 3 2 1 0 4 2 5 2 2 1 2 4 1 3 2 0

b)

d)

8 1 3 5 1 2 10 1 4 3 4 1 1 0 3 2 5 4

10.

Use the elementary row operations method to find the inverse of the matrix

0 4 1 2 1 8 0 1 1

(April 2008) 11. Using the elementary row operations, find the inverse of the matrix

15 11 9 1 A= 1 1 . 6 10 8

Hence, or otherwise, solve the following linear equations -11x + 9y + 15z = -2 -x + y + z = 0 8x - 6y - 10z = 4

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