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Hazard Analysis Critical Control


Esha Arshad
● HACCP is a
preventative system
of food safety
● Preventing problems
from occurring is the
paramount goal
underlying any
HACCP system.
● A HACCP system is designed to:

– Identify
the significant hazards associated
with your products or operations, and

– establishprocedures to monitor your

products and operations to ensure that
these hazards are controlled.
● HACCP is a tool to assess hazards and
establish control systems that focus on
prevention rather than relying mainly on
end-product testing.
● Forerunner to HACCP was developed in the
form of “production process monitoring”
during World War II.
– inefficient "end of the pipe" testing .

● HACCP was conceived in the 1960s when the

NASA asked Pillsbury to design and
manufacture the first foods for space flights.
● One of the highlights in the history of the
HACCP system was in 1993 when the Codes
Guidelines for the Application of HACCP
system were adopted by the FAO/WHO
Codex Alimentarius Commission.
● In 1994, the organization of International
HACCP Alliance was established initially for
the US meat and poultry industries to assist
them with implementing HACCP.

● Now its membership has been spread over

other professional/industrial areas.
7 Principles
● Principle 1: Conduct a hazard analysis.

● Principle 2: Identify critical control points.

● Principle 3: Establish critical limits for each

critical control point.

● Principle 4: Establish critical control point

monitoring requirements.
● Principle 5: Establish corrective actions.

● Principle 6: Establish record keeping


● Principle 7: Establish procedures for ensuring

the HACCP system is working as intended.
HACCP In Aquaculture
● Ensuring the safety of seafood presents special
challenges to both the industry and the regulator.

● Depending upon species and habitat, seafood can

be subject to a wide range of hazards before

● This includes bacteria and viruses, toxic

chemicals, natural toxins, and parasites.
● An additional complicating factor in
ensuring the safety of seafood
– no other flesh food is imported in
the quantity, or from as many
countries, as seafood.
Application of HACCP To Aquaculture
● The application of HACCP principles consists of the
following tasks:
● 1. Assemble HACCP team
– HACCP is implemented by a multidisciplinary team
of people (the HACCP team).
– Members of the team should be drawn from
personnel having knowledge and experience in the
following areas:
● quality assurance,

● aquaculture production or processing, and

● engineering.
● 2. Describe product
– A full description of the product should be
drawn up, including relevant safety
information such as:
● composition,

● physical/chemical structure

● microcidal/static treatments

● packaging

● durability and storage conditions &

● method of distribution
● 3. Identify intended use
–The intended use should be based on the
expected uses of the product by the end user
or consumer.
● 4. Construct flow diagram
– The flow diagram should be constructed by the
HACCP team.
– The flow diagram should cover all steps in the
– confirm the flow daigram (onsite) against the
flow diagram during all stages & hours of
operation & amend the flow diagram where
● 5.Hazard Analysis
– A hazard is defined as a biological, chemical, or
physical agent with the potential to cause an
adverse health effect.

– The first stage in the HACCP process is to conduct a

comprehensive hazard analysis of the food
(aquaculture product) relative to its intended end-
use, including
● a review of raw materials,
● ingredients,

● production and processing operations,

● consumer usage, etc

● The HACCP team must determine the type
and range of hazards that may be encountered
during the production and processing of an
aquaculture product.

● The flow chart may alert the team to the

opportunity for contamination or product
abuse at different stages in the production
● In conducting the hazard analysis, wherever possible
the following should be studied:
– the likely occurrence of hazards and severity
of their adverse health effects;
– the qualitative and/or quantitative evaluation
of the presence of hazards;
– survival or multiplication of microorganisms
of concern;
– production or persistence in foods of toxins,
chemicals or physical agents; and,
– conditions leading to the above.
● Potential hazards in aquaculture may be
identified as biological hazards, chemical, and
physical hazards.

● Hazards can enter an aquaculture product at

any time during production and processing
● 6.Determine Critical Control Points

– CCP relate to specific processing steps where a

hazard can be controlled.

– CCPs can be found by using knowledge of the

process and all the possible hazards to decide on
the best preventative measures for their control

– The determination of a CCP in the HACCP system

can be facilitated by the application of a decision
tree , which indicates a logic reasoning approach
● 7. Establish critical limits for each CCP

– Critical limits must be specified and validated if

possible for each Critical Control Point.

– Criteria often used include measurements of

temperature, time, moisture level, pH,
concenteration of antibiotics, drugs, chlorine, and
sensory parameters such as visual appearance and
● 8. Establish a monitoring system for each CCP

– Monitoring is the scheduled measurement or

observation of a CCP relative to its critical limits.

– The monitoring procedures must be able to detect

loss of control at the CCP.

– The monitoring should also provide this information

in time to make adjustments to ensure control of
the process to prevent violating the critical limits.
– Where possible, process adjustments
should be made when monitoring
results indicate a trend towards loss of
control at a CCP.

– Theadjustments should be taken before a

deviation occurs.
● 9. Establish corrective actions

– Specific corrective actions must be developed

for each CCP in the HACCP system in order
to deal with deviations when they occur.

– The actions must ensure that the CCP has been

brought under control.

– Actions taken must also include proper

disposition of the affected product.
● 10. Establish verification procedures
– Examples of verification activities include:
● Review of the HACCP system and its

● Review of deviations and product

● Confirmation that CCPs are kept

under control.

● 11. Establish Documentation and Record Keeping

Preventive Measures
● Preventive measures, using HACCP concept,
can be developed specifically to prevent

– drug residue and chemical contamination

in aquaculture products and

– to prevent microbiological contamination

at the farm and processing plants.
● Those measures are:
1. Register farms

2. Control the uses of feed/antibiotics

3. Monitor residue in products from farm

4. Monitoring the quality of water (both inlet and

outlet of farms).
5. Inspect farm hygiene and postharvest
handling practices.

6 Train farmers on good aquaculture practices

(GAP), safe use of chemotherapeutic agents
and good handling practices