Anda di halaman 1dari 8

MB0048 Operations Research Assignment

NAME : AMIT PATHAK ROLL NO : 1302016570 Q. No.1 Explain the scope of operations research. What are the features of operations research? Answer: In general, whenever there is any problem simple or complicated, the OR techniques may be applied to find the best solution. In this section we shall try to find the scope of OR by seeing its application in various fields of everyday life. i) In Defence Operations: In modern warfare the defence operations are carried out by a number of independent components namely Air Force, Army and Navy. The activities in each of these components can be further divided in four subcomponents viz.: administration, intelligence, operations and training, and supply. ii) In Industry: The system of modern industries is so complex that the optimum point of operation in its various components cannot be intuitively judged by an individual. The business environment is always changing and any decision useful at one time may not be so good some time later. iii) Planning: In modern times it has become necessary for every government to have careful planning, for economic development of the country. OR techniques can be fruitfully applied to maximize the per capita income, with minimum sacrifice and time. A government can thus use OR for framing future economic and social policies. iv) Agriculture: With increase in population there is a need to increase agriculture output. But this cannot be done arbitrarily. There are a number of restrictions under which agricultural production is to be studied. v) In Hospitals: The OR methods can be used to solve waiting problems in outpatient department of big hospitals. The administrative problems of hospital organization can also be solved by OR techniques. vi) In Transport: Different OR methods can be applied to regulate the arrival of trains and processing times, minimize the passengers waiting time and reduce congestion, formulate suitable transportation policy, reducing the costs and time of transhipment. vii) Research and Development: Control of R and D projects, product introduction planning etc. and many more applications. 1. Features of operation research Some key features of OR are as follows:-

OR is system oriented, OR scrutinise the problem from an organisations perspective. The results can be optimal for one part of the system, while the same can be unfavourable for another part of the system. OR uses scientific methods to solve problems. OR increases effectiveness of the management decision making ability

Q. No.2 Six Operators are to be assigned to five jobs with the cost of assignment in Rs. given in the matrix below. Determine the optimal assignment. Which operator will have no assignment? Jobs Operators 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5

6 2 7 6 9 4

2 5 8 2 3 7

5 8 6 3 8 4

2 7 9 4 9 6

6 7 8 5 7 8

Answer: hear no. of rows-no. of column So it is unbalanced assignment problem, No. of rows = 6, no. of column = 5, firstly we can convert it into balanced A.P. by using dummy column with 0 entries. Jobs Operators 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6

6 2 7 6 9 4

2 5 8 2 3 7

5 8 6 3 8 4

2 7 9 4 9 6

6 7 8 5 7 8

0 0 0 0 0 0

Now we apply Hungarian method: Step1: we choose minimum element from each rows and subtract it from each element of corresponding rows. Step2: and then we select minimum element from each column and subtract it from each element of the corresponding column. Step3: now we allocate exactly one zero in each rows and column.

Jobs Operators 1 2 3 4 5 6

4 0 5 4 7 2

0 3 6 0 1 5

2 5 3 0 5 1

0 5 7 2 7 4

1 2 3 0 2 3

0 0 0 0 0 0

Here 0 allocations is not possible Here we draw minimum no. of lines which cover all zones choose minimum from uncovered element and subtract it from uncovered element and add with the element which lies intersection of lines. Jobs Operators 1 2 3 4 5 6

1 5 2 0 3 5 4 5 5 7 6 2 In the question Mapping 1

0 2 5 0 0 4 4, 2

1, 3

2 4 2 0 4 0 6, 4 5, 5 2, 6

0 4 6 2 0 3

1 1 2 0 1 2 3, total = Rs. 16

1 0 0 1 0 0

Q 3. Explain the Monte Carlo simulation. Answer: Monte Carlo SimulationThe Monte Carlo method is a simulation technique in which stastical distribution functions are created by using a series of random numbers. This approach has the ability to develop many months or years of data in a matter of few minutes on a digital computer. The method is generally used to solve the problem that cannot be adequately represented by mathematical model or where solution of the model is not possible by analytical method. The Monte Carlo simulation procedure can be summarised in the steps. Step 1 Define the problem (a) Identify the objectives of the problem. (b) Identify the main factor that have the greatest effect on the objective of the problem. Step 2 Construct an appropriate model (a) Specify the variables and parameters of the model. (b) Formulate the appropriate decision rules i.e. state the condition under which the experiment is to be performed.

Step 3 prepare the model for experimentation

(a) Define the starting condition for the simulation. (b) Specify the numbers of runs of simulation to be made. Step 4 using step 1 to 3 experiments with model. (a) Define a coding system that will correlate the factors define in step 1 with the random numbers to be generated for the simulation. (b) Select a random number generator and create the random numbers to be used in the simulation. Step 5 Summarise and examine the results obtain in step 4. Step 6 Evaluate the results of the simulation. Step 7 Formulate proposals for advice management on the cause of action to be adopted and modify the model if necessary. Table for production rate and Probability Production Rate 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 Probability 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.30 0.15 0.15 Cumulative Probability 0.05 0.15 0.30 0.50 0.80 0.95 1.00 Random no. assigned 00-04 05-14 15-29 30-49 50-79 80-94 95-99

Simulation worksheet Trial No. Simulated Scooter waiting Production Rate in the factory 1 82 152 2 2 54 150 2 3 50 150 2 4 96 153 5 5 85 152 7 6 34 150 7 7 30 150 7 8 02 147 4 9 64 151 5 10 47 150 7 Total Therefore average no. of scooter waiting = 7/10 = 0.7/day. Q.4. Explain the characteristics and constituents of queuing system. Answer: Characteristics and Constituents of Queuing System: A queuing model has the following operating characteristics which enables us to understand and efficiently manage a queue: Random No. No. of example spaces in truck -------3 --3

Queue Length: the number of customers in the waiting line reflects one of the two conditions. Short queue could mean either good customer service or too much capacity. Similarly long queue could indicate either low server efficiency or the need to increase capacity. No. of Customer in System: The no. of customer in queues and also those being served in the queues relates to the service efficiency and capacity large values imply, congestion, potential customers dissatisfaction and need for more capacity. Waiting Time in Queues: long lines do not reflect long waiting times if the service rate is fast. However when waiting time seems long to customers they perceive that the quality of service is poor. Long waiting times may indicate a need to adjust the service rate of the system of change the arrival rate of customers. Waiting Time in System: the total elapsed time from entry into the system until exit from the system may indicate problems with customers efficiency or capacity. If some customers are spending too much time the service system. There may be a need to change the priority, discipline, increase productivity of adjust capacity in some way. Service Facility Utilisation: the collective utilisation of the service facilities reflects the percentage of time the facilities are busy management is interested in mainly high utilisation but this objective may adversely impact the other operating characteristic. A queuing system is side to be in transient state when its operating characteristics are dependent upon time if the operating characteristics become independent upon time. The queuing system inside to be in a steady state. Constituents of Queuing System: the constituents of a queuing system include arrival pattern service facility and queue discipline. Arrival Pattern: it is the average rate at which the customers arrive. Service Facility: Examining the number of customers served at a time and the statistical pattern of time taken for service at the service facility. Q.5. What do you mean by dominance? State the dominance rule for rows and column. Answer: (a) Dominance: in a rectangular game, the payoff matrix of player A is pay off in one specific row (rthrow) exceeding the corresponding pay off in another specific row (sth row) this means that whatever course of action A, yields greater gains than the course of action As ,therefore Ar is a better strategy than As irrespective of Bs strategy. Hence Ar dominates As. Alternatively if each pay-off in a specific column (Pth column) is less then the corresponding pay-off in another specific column (qth column) it means strategy Bp offers minor loss than strategy Bq irrespective of As strategy. Hence Bp dominates Bq (a) In the pay-off matrix, if each pay-off in rth row is greater than (or equal to ) the corresponding pay-off in the sth row Ar dominates As. (b) In the pay-off matrix, if each pay-off in Pthcolumn is less than (or equal to) the corresponding pay-off in the column Bp dominates Bq.

At times, a convex combination of two or more course of action may dominate another course of action. Whenever a course of action (say As or Bq ) is dominated by others, than that course of action (As or Bq ) can be deleted from the pay-off matrix such a deletion will not affect the choice of the solution but it reduce the order of the pay-off matrix. Successive reduction of the order using dominance helps in solving games. Answer (b) 1 9 6 2 5 9 2 3 5 4 6 6 3 1 4 4 2 4 A 4 8 6 3 2 8 5 0 7 8 1 8 Min. 0 4 2 1

1 2 3 4 Max.

Max (min) = Max (0, 4, 2, 1) = 4 Min (Max) = min (9, 6, 4, 8, 8) = 4 1 9 6 2 5 9 2 3 5 4 6 6 3 1 A 4 8 6 3 2 8 5 0 7 8 1 8 Min. 0 4 2 1

1 2 3 4 Max.

4
4 2 4

Here max (min) = min (max) = 4 Value of game = 4 and game is unfair strategy is (2, 3)

Q.6. What are the difference between PERT and CPM ? Answer: Difference between PERT and CPM- There are no essential difference between PERT and CPM as both of them share in common the determination of a critical path. Both are based on the network representation of activities and their scheduling which determinates the most critical activities to be controlled in order to meet the completion date of the project. PERT: (a) Some key points of PERT are as follows: PERT was developed in connection with an research and development (R & D) work. It had to cope with the uncertainties that are associated with R and D activities in PERT. The total project duration is regarded as a random variable. Therefore associated probabilities are calculated in order to characterise.

It is an event oriented network as in the analysis of a network emphasis is given on the important stages of completion of a task rather than the activities required to be performed to reach a particular event of task. PERT is usually used for project involving activities of non-respective nature in which time estimates are uncertain. It helps in pinpointing critical areas a project so that unnecessary completion date of the project. CPM: CPM was developed in connection with a construction project which consisted of routine tasks whose resource requirements and duration were known with certainty. Therefore it is basically deterministic. CPM is suitable for establishing trade for optimum between schedule time and cost of the project. CPM is used for project involving activities of repetitive nature. Project Scheduling by PERT-CPM- project scheduling consist of three basic phases planning, scheduling and controlling.

Planning

Scheduling

Controlling

Answer (b) Activity Duration 0-1 2 1-2 8 1-3 10 2-4 6 2-5 3


5 7 0 1 2 4 8

3-4 3

3-6 7

4-7 5

5-7 2

6-7 8

7-8 3

now we search the critical path by using the formula Esj (least start) and latest completion (Lcj) Esj = Esi + Dij If two activity exist than Esij = max ( Esi + Dij, Esi + Dji ) Eso = 0

Es1 = Es0+D01 = 0+2 = 2 Es3 = Es1+ Di3 = 2+10 = 12 Es6 = Es3+D36 = 12+7 = 19 Es7 = Es6+D67 = 19+8 = 27 Es8 = Es7+D78 = 27+3 = 30 Latest completion Lc8 = 30 Lc7 = Lc8 - D87 = 30-3 = 27 Lc5 = Lc7 D75 = 27-2 =25 Lc4 = Lc7 D74 = 27-5 = 22 Lc6 = Lc7 D76 = 27-8 = 19 Here min (25, 22, 19) = 19 So critical part is (0, 1), (1, 3), (3, 6), (6, 7), (7, 8)