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Talking in Sentences

-A

Marilyn M. Toome
artist
CIRCUIT PUBLICATIONS

Susan Christy-Pallo

TALKING IN SENTENCES
Marilyn M. Toomey
artist

Susan Christy-Pallo

Maplewood, NJ

Copyright 1997 by Circuit Publications PO Box 1388 Maplewood, NJ 07040 All rights reserved. 11 10 09 08TS 8 7 6 5 The text of this publication, or any part thereof, may be reproduced for use in classes for which Talking in Sentences is the text. It may not be reproduced in any manner whatsoever for any other purpose without prior written permission from the publisher. ISBN: 0-923573-26-7 Printed in the United States of America on recycled paper.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction
This is (name, female) This is (name, male) . This is (item) Name/she is (action) Name/he is (action) Name and name (they) are (action) Person (noun/pronoun) can/can't (action) Name has (item); his (item) Name has (item); her (item) Name and name have (item); their (item) Animal has (feature) Animals have (feature) Name/pronoun likes/doesn't like (item) Name/pronoun likes/doesn't like to (action) Person is (action) and (action) Item is ( phrase; location: in, on) Person is (phrase; location: in front, between, behind, next to) Animal (descriptive phrase) is (location) Person (descriptive phrase) is (action) Animal (descriptive phrase) is (phrase including modifier, location) 42 34 36 40 2 4 6 8 Event happens (time phrase; day/night) 10 Someone (verb phrase) (under certain conditions) .68 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 . . . . .28 30 32 Someone knows how/doesn't know how to (verb phrase) Teacher teaches someone how to (verb phrase) teacher teaches someone about (item) Parents show children how to/tell children not to (verb phrase) Person and person like to (action) and (action) (phrase; location) . Person and person (past action) and (past action) (phrase; location) (day) Person/animal needs (item) so she can (action or verb phrase) People should (verb phrase) People are supposed to (verb phrase) Person knows where he is supposed to (verb phrase) . Someone, no one is (action) Anyone, everyone, no one; various positions in sentences Comparative sentences Person/people (past action) himself/herself/themselves Person would like to (verb phrase) . . . 50 Person/people would (action) if (condition) Person (action); (indirect object) (item) Person (action) (object or compliment) but (unexpected outcome) Simple stories; simple sentence formulation activities 102 104 108 112 116 118 98 100 94 96 82 90 92 70 74 76 .78 80 66 Person (is talking/thinking about or wants to talk about) (item) Person (verb phrase) (time phrase; morning/afternoon) 64

60

Person (descriptive phrase) is (specific worker) . . .44 I know where to put (item) Person knows where to find (item) Person doesn't know where to find/can't find (item) 46 48

Person knows when to (action or verb phrase) . . . .52 Person knows how to (action or verb phrase) . . . .54 Person is looking at (item) 58

Circuit Publications

Talking in Sentences

Introduction
When students come to us using incorrect syntax or using very short utterances-often one or two words-in place of sentences, we know what has to be done. We want to hear these children talking in sentences! We might help these students learn to do this by following educational plans with written goals and objectives. Or we might try to increase students' sentence formulation skills in different ways in various settings. Children who have difficulty formulating sentences often speak in very short utterances. Our conversations with them involve asking detailed questions which cue simple responses. Or we might find ourselves repairing children's sentences or finishing sentences for them. Teachers and parents come to us hoping we can do something that will change these patterns for their children. We know that our job is to structure activities where children generate their own sentences, both in order to practice doing this as well as to build their self-images as better speakers. We know how gratifying it is to hear a child come forth with a longer-than-expected utterance, and, while anticipating a response, display a look of satisfaction or even surprise. (Wow! Did I say that?) This is why we work so hard to help them! Over years of helping children express themselves a method of teaching children to talk in sentences has evolved. This method has been quite effective for me. Now, with the text in this book and Susan's beautiful artwork, I wish to share it with you. The method that I've used is a combination of principles or techniques that most of us have probably tried working to help students learn to formulate sentences: shared knowledge of information, modeled sentences or reconstructions of students' sentences, minimal prompts, and follow-up activities for carryover.

This book presents over 50 lessons, each devoted to a particular sentence element or pattern referred to as a target. The goal of each lesson is for your student to express the target in sentences. A picture page illustrates the concept expressed by the target. A corresponding text page presents the steps of teaching the target, each step applying one of the principles noted above: The Target is stated at the beginning of its text page. Shared knowledge is established in the Introduction. Here you familiarize your student with information used in the lesson including the vocabulary and concepts. Modeling of the target is done through the receptive language tasks in the Listen and respond section. In this section your student processes questions or statements which include the target and is asked to respond to each one. In the Talk about section of each lesson you present specific instructions directing your student to formulate sentences including the target element or pattern. Do this by giving your student each instruction (referred to as a stimulus request) which includes a minimal prompt. He holds this stimulus request in his working memory as he formulates his sentence. The minimal prompt is the first word (or words) of his sentence. Let's talk, the final section, is the follow-up portion of the lesson. Here your student uses the target in a less structured manner, often expressing his own experiences. In most lessons you're encouraged to stimulate and request him to formulate sentences using the target and the words /, we, me, my and other first person terms. The book is designed so your student looks at the pictures while you look at the text as you go through each lesson. The structured, repeated format helps students anticipate and become comfortable using longer utterances as they grow in sentence formulation ability. The target sentence elements or patterns do not necessarily occur in order of expected development or difficulty. Lessons are intended for you to select which of the targets would best help your students. The order in which you present these targets or lessons is up to you. The last twelve pages of the book present six five- or six- part stories in which your student uses many of the target sentence elements and patterns. Various targets occur in each story; your student following your stimulus requests, retells the story in sentences!
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Talking in Sentences

Now I'll talk you through a sample lesson where you'll see how a particu lar target is addressed in each part of the lesson.

Target: The (item) is on/under the table. You want your student to learn to formulate this sentence telling where things are in re/a\ tion to a table.
r

Introduction: Look at the table. I see something to eat. It's a cake. It's on the table. The cake is on the table. I see something to wear on my foot. It's a shoe. It's under the table. The shoe is under the table.

Listen and respond: I see something to eat. It's


on the table. Point to it. What is it? (a cake) You're right. It's a cake. The cake is on the table. I see something to wear. It's under the table. Point to it. What is it? (a shoe) Right, it's a shoe! The shoe is under the table. Talk about the things that are on the table and the things that are under the table. (Point to the cake.) I see the cake. It's on the table. Start with the and tell me where the cake is. Or, start with the cake and tell me where it is. Your student should respond: "The cake is on the table." Repeat this stimulus request asking your student to tell you where the shoe is. Construct your stimulus requests keeping in mind the limits of your student's processing and working memory ability.

Let's talk about where things are. Place some things on the table and under the table in your classroom. Ask your student to tell you where each thing is.

Lessons should be presented several times. The tasks will become easier for your student each time. A student who needs encouragement to talk in sentences will respond to the structure of these lessons and generate sentences more readily. With your help she can carry this skill into settings outside of a language lesson. This method establishes a partnership between you and your student. She knows she can depend on you for help, but it's clear to her that she must do most of the work. She knows that when she hears your stimulus, "Start with . . .," she must get ready to express a thought in a sentence rather than just a word or two.

It's easy to carry this method into many general conversational settings as well. For example, if your student wants to tell you that she got new shoes, she might point to her shoes and say a word or two. You can say, "Oh, I see you got new shoes. They're pretty Tell me about your shoes." Start with / and tell me what you got. You can use this method just to enjoy the pleasure of conversing with your students or to demonstrate this "language partnership" to parents and teachers. New shoes, friends, stories, parties, games, pets~so many wonderful things are alive in our students' minds-ready to be talked about. Susan and I hope this book will help you teach your students to talk about all these special thingsin sentences!

Talking in Sentences

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Jude can't find his radio. Todd is looking at the bird.

f I can tell y o u \ f about all these ) \y people!

Kevin knows how to play the guitar.

Sam and Matt are riding their bikes in the park.

Jenny doesn't like medicine.

The boy with sunglasses is walking his dog. Mary Ellen is jumping. The clown is showing the children how to juggle.
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Talking in Sentences

1 ) 1 1 1 )

|)

W h o is this? W h a t is h e r n a m e ?

Kathy
Talking in Sentences

Target:

This is (name). Her name is (name).

Introduction: Identify each of these girls by name using the sentences, This is (name) and Her name is (name). pointing to each picture and saying, Her name is (name). Listen and respond: Repeat girls' names often so your students easily associate names with pictures. Miko has straight, black hair. She is wearing glasses. Find Miko. Maria has pretty long braids. Point to Maria. Abby has freckles on her cheeks. She has short hair. Where is Abby? Look at Kathy. Her long hair is tied back. Point to Kathy. Tonya has black, curly hair. She has a bow in her hair. Where is Tonya? Jenny has dark, wavy hair. She doesn't have a bow in her hair. Point to Jenny. Mary Ellen has long, blond hair. She has two big buttons on her dress. Where is Mary Ellen? I see someone with pretty long braids. What's her name? Someone has a bow in her black curly hair. What's her name? I see someone with two big buttons on her dress. She has long, blond hair. What is her name? Someone has short, black hair. She is wearing glasses. What's her name? Someone has freckles. She has short hair. What's her name? Someone's blond hair is tied back with a ribbon. What's her name? I see someone with wavy, dark hair. What's her name?

Repeat girls' names one by one,

Talk about these girls. Point to the picture to which you want your student to respond.

I see Miko. Start with this and tell me who this is. I see Tonya. Start with this and tell me who this is. I see Mary Ellen. Start with this and tell me who this is. I see Jenny. Start with this and tell me who this is. I see Kathy. Start with this and tell me who this is. I see Maria. Start with this and tell me who this is. I see Abby. Start with this and tell me who this is.

Ask your student to tell you each girl s name. Point to the picture to which you want your student to respond. Example: Start with her and tell me what her name is.

Let's talk about the names of girls whom you know. Ask your student to tell you what his name is. Ask him to start with my_ and tell you what his name is. Ask him to tell you names offemale family members or friends. List these people and their names and ask him to tell you about each one. Example: Tell me about your sister. Start with hgr and tell me what her name is. Introduce words associated with female relatives: aunt, grandmother, sister, mother. Ask your student to talk about his female relatives using these terms.

Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

M i l l ) !

| |

) j

W h o is this? W h a t is his n a m e ?

Todd Jerome

Kevin Alan

Sam Jude
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Matt
Talking in Sentences

Target:

This is (name). His name is (name).

Introduction: Identify each of these boys by name using the sentences, This is (name) and His name is (name). Repeat boys' names one by one pointing to each picture and saying His name is (name).

Listen and respond: Repeat boys' names often so your students easily associate names with pictures. Todd has wavy, blond hair. There are two buttons on his shirt. Find Todd. Jerome has dark, curly hair. Point to Jerome. Kevin has blond hair. There are three buttons on his shirt. Find Kevin. Alan has straight, dark hair. He is wearing glasses. Where is Alan? Jude has straight, dark hair, too. He does not have glasses. Find Jude. Sam has straight, black hair. There is a soccer ball on his shirt. Find Sam. Matt has freckles. He has straight, blond hair. Where is Matt? I see someone who has freckles. What's his name? I see someone with straight dark hair. What's his name? Someone is wearing glasses. He has straight dark hair, too. What's his name? Someone has a soccer ball on his shirt. What's his name? I see someone with freckles. What's his name? Someone has wavy, blond hair. He has two buttons on his shirt. What's his name? Someone else has blond hair. His shirt has three buttons. What's his name?

Talk about these boys. Point to the picture to which you want your student to respond.

I see Jerome. Start with this and tell me who this is. I see Kevin. Start with this and tell me who this is. I see Todd. Start with this and tell me who this is. I see Sam. I see Jude. Start with this and tell me who this is. Start with this and tell me who this is.

I see Matt. Start with this and tell me who this is. I see Alan. Start with this and tell me who this is.

Ask your student to tell you each boys name. Point to the picture to which you want your student to respond. Example: Start with his and tell me what his name is.

Let's talk about the names of boys who you know. Ask your student to tell you what her name is. Ask her to start with m and tell you what her name is. Ask her to tell you the names of male family members or friends. List these people and their names and ask her to tell you about each one. Example: Tell me about your brother. Start with his and tell me what his name is. Introduce words associated with male relatives: uncle, grandfather, father, brother. Ask your student to talk about her male relatives using these terms.

Talking in Sentences

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) I

W h a t i s this? W h a t a r e t h e s e ? W h a t d o y o u d o w i t h a ( a n ) (object)?

Talking in Sentences

Target:

This is a (name). These are (plural/object). I, you, someone (use of object) with a (object).

Introduction: student is familiar.

Identify each object. Ask your student to identify and name each object. Also, present a sentence telling about the use of each of these objects.

Use only items in the following sections with which your

Listen and respond:


Find something to write with. Show me something that sticks things to paper. Point to something to make toast in. Point to something to play with. Find something to play music on. Point to something to brush my hair. Show me something to cook food on. Where is something to watch? Show me something to read. Find something to dig a hole with. Show me something that children ride to school. Point to something to put things in. Find something to wear on your feet. Point to something to pound a nail with. Find something to sit on. Show me something to eat. Point to something to live in. Show me something to cut with. Find something to measure with. Find something to mow the lawn with.

Talk about these things. Ask your student to tell you what each of these objects is. Example: Start with this (these) and tell me what this (these) is (are). Then ask her to use these words in sentences as follows.
I see something to write with. Start with^ow and tell me what you do with a pencil. Here is something that sticks things to paper. Start with vow and tell me what you do with tape. This is something to make toast in. Start with you and tell me what you do with a toaster. I see something to play with. Start with you and tell me what you do with a yo-yo. Here is something to play music on. Start with you and tell me what you do with a guitar. This is something to brush my hair with. Start with you and tell me what you do with a brush. Here is something to cook food on. Start with you and tell me what you do with a stove. This is something to watch. Start with vow and tell me what you do with a TV. I see something to read. Start with you and tell me what you do with a newspaper. Here is something to dig a hole with. Start with you and tell me what you do with a shovel. I see something to ride to school in. Start with you and tell me what you do in a school bus. Here is something to pound a nail with. Start with you and tell me what you do with a hammer. This is something to put things in. Start with you and tell me what you do with a bag. These are things to wear on your feet. Start with you and tell me what you do with shoes. I see something to sit on. Start with you and tell me what you do with a chair. Here is something to eat. Start with you and tell me what you do with an ice cream cone. I see something to live in. Start with you and tell me what you do with a house. These are things to cut with. Start with you and tell me what you do with scissors. Here is something to measure with. Start with^ow and tell me what you do with a ruler. I see something to mow the lawn with. Start with you and tell me what you do with a lawn mower.

Let's talk about these things. Find some objects that you can use and repeat these tasks using actual objects. pencil, crayon, book, key, money or a cup.
7

Use simple familiar objects such as a

Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

W h a t i s ( n a m e ) d o i n g ? W h a t i s s h e doing? W h a t c a n ( n a m e ) do?

Target:

(Name) is (action). She is (action) (Name)/She can (action).

Introduction: Each of these girls is doing something. Abby is talking. Maria is walking. Mary Ellen is jumping. Jenny is riding her bike. Miko is running. Tonya is sitting. Kathy is sleeping. These girls can do many things. Miko can run. She can run fast. Kathy can sleep when she is tired. Mary Ellen can jump up high. Maria can walk. She can walk to school. Jenny can ride her bike. Abby can talk. She can tell her mom and dad what she did at school.

Listen and respond:

Talk about these girls. Point to the picture to which you want your student to respond. Start with Tonya and tell me what she's doing. Start with Abby and tell me what she's doing. Start with Jenny and tell me what she's doing. Start with Maria and tell me what she's doing. Start with Mary Ellen and tell me what she's doing. Start with Kathy and tell me what she's doing. Start with Miko and tell me what she's doing. Start with Abby and tell me what she can do. Start with Jenny and tell me what she can do. Start with Maria and tell me what she can do. Start with Mary Ellen and tell me what she can do. Start with Kathy and tell me what she can do. Start with Miko and tell me what she can do.

Someone is talking. She is telling someone what happened. Who is talking? Someone is walking. Who is walking? Someone is running. Point to someone who is running. Someone is jumping. Who is jumping? Point to her. Someone is riding her bike. Who is riding her bike? Someone is tired. She is sleeping. Who is sleeping? Someone is sitting on a high stool. Who is this? Someone can ride her bike. Who is this? Someone can jump. She can jump up high. Who is this? Someone can walk. She can walk to school. Point to her. Someone can talk. She can tell what happened. Who can talk? Someone can run fast. Who can run? Point to her.

Let's talk about some things that you can do. Discuss some things that your student do. List some of these (Simple action words are best.) Then ask her to talk about each one. Example: Can you run? (Yes) Start with [and tell me this. Look at pictures of people doing different things. Discuss people in such pictures and ask your student to tell you what each one is doing. Ask your student to do some simple actions (sit, run, stand, walk, jump). Ask her to tell you what she is doing for each one. Example: Are you sitting? (Yes) Start with Vrn and tell me this.

Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

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Talking in Sentences

10

Target:

(Name) is (action). He is (action). (Name)/He can (action).

Introduction: Each of these boys is doing something. Matt is running. Jude is sitting. Alan is talking. Sam is riding his bike. Jerome is jumping. Todd is walking. Kevin is sleeping. The boys can do many things. Matt can run. Alan can talk about things. Jude can sit on a high stool. Sam can ride his bike. Jerome can jump high. Todd can walk to school. Kevin can sleep when he's tired.

Listen and respond:

Talk about these boys. Point to the picture to which you want your student to respond.

Someone is talking. Who is talking? Point to him. Someone is riding his bike. Point to him. Let's be quiet; someone is sleeping. Who is sleeping? Someone is sitting. Point to him. Someone is walking. He is going for a walk. Who is walking? Someone is in a hurry. He is running. Point to him. Someone is jumping. Who is jumping? Someone can jump up high. Show me who can jump. Someone can sit up high on a tall stool. Point to him Someone can run. He can run fast. Who can run? Someone can talk. He can tell what happened. Point to him. Start with Jerome and tell me what he is doing. Start with Jude and tell me what he is doing. Start with Alan and tell me what he is doing. Start with Sam and tell me what he is doing. Start with Kevin and tell me what he is doing. Start with Matt and tell me what he is doing. Start with Matt and tell me what he can do. Start with Jude and tell me what he can do. Start with Alan and tell me what he can do. Start with Sam and tell me what he can do. Start with Jerome and tell me what he can do.

Let's talk about some things that you can do. Discuss things that your student can do. Possibly use these pictures for ideas. tells you and ask him to tell you about each one. Example: Can you run? (Yes) Start with [and tell me this.

List some of the things he

Ask your student to do some simple actions (walk, run, sit, stand, jump). Ask him to tell you what he's doing as he does each of these. Example: Are you jumping? (Yes) Start with Um_ and tell me what you 're doing.

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Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

! ] ) ) ) ) ]
W h a t a r e ( n a m e ) a n d ( n a m e ) doing? W h a t a r e t h e y doing? W h a t c a n ( n a m e ) a n d ( n a m e ) do?

I ) )

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Talking in Sentences

12

Target:

(Name) and (name ) are (action). They are (action). They can (action).

Introduction: These children are doing many different things. Maria and Todd are walking. Abby and Alan are talking. Kevin and Kathy are sleeping. Jenny and Sam are riding their bikes. Mary Ellen and Jerome are jumping. Miko and Matt are running. Tonya and Jude are sitting.

Listen and respond:


Who is running? Who else is running? Show me two children who are riding their bikes. Point to two children who are sleeping. Someone is talking. Someone else is talking. Who are they? Show me two children who are sitting. Point to two children who are walking. Someone is jumping. Someone else is jumping. Who are they? Two children can walk. Who are they? Two children can run. They can run fast. Who are they? Two children can jump up high in the air. Find them. Two children can sit on high stools. Who are these children? Two children can talk. They can tell what happened. Find them. Two children can ride their bikes. Who are they? Two children can sleep. They must be tired. Find them.

Talk about these children. Tell me what they 're doing. Point to the picture to which you want your student to respond. Start with Abby and Alan and tell me what they're doing. Start with Miko and Matt and tell me what they're doing. Start with Maria and Todd and tell me what they're doing. Start with Jenny and Sam and tell me what they're doing. Start with Tonya and Jude and tell me what they're doing. Start with Mary Ellen and Jerome and tell me what they're doing. Start with Kathy and Kevin and tell me what they're doing. Abby and Alan can talk. Start with they and tell me this. Miko and Matt can run. Start with they and tell me this. Maria and Todd can walk. Start with they and tell me this. Jenny and Sam can ride their bikes. Start with they and tell me this. Tonya and Jude can sit. Start with they and tell me this. Mary Ellen and Jerome can jump. Start with they and tell me this. Kathy and Kevin can sleep. Start with they and tell me this.

Let's talk about what children are doing. Talk about simple actions that you and your student (or two or more students) are doing. Use simple actions and do each one together as you ask your student to tell you about this. Example: Are we standing? (Yes) Start with we 're and tell me what we 're doing. Two children can (do something). If there are more than two children in your group, ask two of them to do simple actions and ask the third one to tell you what these two are doing. Example: Are Jack and Laura sitting? (Yes) Start with thev 're and tell me what they 're doing.

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Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

II I

I I

J J

, ]

I , ,

, ,

, ,

W h o c a n (do s o m e t h i n g ) ? W h o c a n ' t (do s o m e t h i n g ) ?

Circuit Publications

Talking in Sentences

14

Target:

(Name) can (action). He/she can (action). (Name) can't (action). He/she can't (action.)

Introduction: These children can do some things; they can't do other things. Maria and Todd can walk on a street, but they can't walk on a tightrope. Alan can build things with blocks, but he can't build a brick wall. Sam and Jenny can ride their bikes, but they can't drive a car. People can do some things, but they can't do other things.

Listen and respond:

Talk about these people and what they can do. Talk about what they can't do.

Show me someone who can walk on a tightrope. Show me someone else who can walk on a street. Who can't walk on a tightrope? Who knows how to walk on a tightrope? Who doesn't know how to walk on a tightrope? Can you walk on a tightrope? Show me someone who can build things with blocks. Point to someone who can build a brick wall. Alan can build something with blocks. Start with Alan and tell me this. Who can't build a brick wall? Alan can't build a brick wall, can he? (No) Start with Alan and tell me this. I see a grown-up driving a car. He is old enough to drive a car. Point to him. Find some children who are not old enough to drive a car. They can't drive a car. Can you drive a car? Let's talk about things that you can and can't do. Discuss things that some people can't do and some of the reasons why We can't do some things because special skills are needed. Only certain people have these skills. Laws often tell us that we can't do certain things. Some things can be done in certain circumstances but not in others. Talk about some things that your student can and can't do. List them and ask him to talk about each one. Example: Can you jump rope? (Yes) Start with I and tell me this. Can you drive a car? (No) Start with I and tell me this. This man can drive a car, can't he? (Yes) Start with this man and tell me this. Jenny can't drive a car, can she? (No) Start with Jenny and tell me this. Sam can't drive a car, can he? (No) Start with Sam and tell me this. Here is Maria. She can walk on a street. Start with Maria and tell me what she can do. Todd can walk on a street. Start with Todd and tell me what he can do. Todd can't walk on a tightrope, can he? (No) Start with Todd and tell me this. Maria can't walk on a tightrope, can she? (No) Start with Maria and tell me this. The bricklayer can build a brick wall, can't he? (Yes) Start with the bricklayer and tell me what he can build.

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Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

'

W h o is this? W h a t d o e s he h a v e ? W h o s e (object) is this? W h o s e (objects)

Target:

This is (name). He has (object/objects). This is his (object). These are his (objects).

Introduction: Here is Jude. He has many things. Here are some of his things. He has a bike and a bike helmet. He has a suit, bathrobe, swim trunks, shoes and a baseball cap. He has a baseball bat, too. He has a trumpet. He has a towel, a toothbrush and a bed. He has a backpack and some crayons. He has a pair of sunglasses. Jude likes baseball. He uses his baseball bat and he wears his baseball cap and his sunglasses when he plays baseball. He wears his suit and his new shoes when he goes to special places. He uses his toothbrush and his towel when he gets ready for bed. He wears his bathrobe after his bath. Jude likes music. He is learning to play his trumpet. He likes to listen to music on his radio, too. He puts his pencils and his notebook in his backpack before he goes to school.

Listen and respond:


Jude has something to wear on his head when he plays outside. Point to it. Jude has something to play music on. Find this. Jude has something to wear when he goes to the beach. Jude has something to ride. Find this. Show me these.

Talk about the things that Jude has. Point to the picture to which you want your student to respond. (Point to the bike.) Start with Jude and tell me what he has. (helmet) Start with Jude and tell me what he has. (suit) Start with Jude and tell me what he has. (radio) Start with Jude and tell me what he has. (bathrobe) Start with Jude and tell me what he has. (backpack) Start with Jude and tell me what he has. (baseball and bat) Start with Jude and tell me what he has. . . . and . . (baseball cap) Start with this and tell me whose baseball cap this is. (bed) Start with this and tell me whose bed this is. (sunglasses) Start with this and tell me whose sunglasses these are. (shoes) Start with these and tell me whose shoes these are. (swim trunks) Start with these and tell me whose swim trunks these are. (toothbrush) Start with this and tell me whose toothbrush this is. (notebook and pencil) Start with these and tell me whose notebook and pencil these are. . and wears his . (crayons) Start with these and tell me whose crayons these are.

Jude has something to put his books and homework in. Find this. Jude has something to hit a ball with. Point to this. Jude has something to protect his eyes from the sun. Find this. Finish these sentences: Jude goes to sleep in his He plays music on his Jude listens to his .

When Jude rides his bike, he wears his When Jude brushes his teeth, he needs his When Jude gets dressed up, he wears his Jude listens to music on his Jude colors pictures with his When it snows, Jude wears his . .

After Jude's bath, he drys himself with his

Let's talk about some things that you have. Ask your student to tell you about some of his things. List these and ask him to tell you about each one. Example: Do you have a pillow? Start with I and tell me this. Ask him to tell you about some things that belong to a male family member or friend. List these and ask him to talk about each one. Example: Does your brother have a football? Start with he and tell me this.

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Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

Target:

This is (name). She has (object/objects). This is her (object). These are her (objects).

Introduction: Here is Tonya. She has many things. Here are some of her things. She has a bike and a bike helmet. She has a baseball and a baseball mitt. She likes to play catch. She likes to kick her soccer ball, too. Tonya has ice skates too. She uses her ice skates in the winter. She has a backpack. She puts her notebook and her markers in her backpack when she gets ready for school. She has a pretty party dress and pretty dress-up shoes. Her bed has a lace ruffle on the bottom and a canopy on top. She uses her toothbrush and her towel and wears her bathrobe when she's getting ready for bed. She uses her jump rope when she plays outside. She plays with her doll inside. She wears her warm coat and her mittens when it's cold outside. Tonya is learning to play her piano. She has a piano in her house.

Listen and respond:


Tonya has something to play music on. Point to this. She has some things to wear when it's cold outside. Show me these. Tonya has some things to use at school. Point to them. She has something to wear when she rides her bike. Show me this. Show me what Tonya needs when she's getting ready for bed. Show me what Tonya wears when she's going to a special place. Tonya has something soft and cuddly that she plays with. Point to this. Finish these sentences: Tonya brushes her teeth with her Tonya likes to ride her . . . .

Talk about the things that Tonya has. Point to the picture to which you want your student to respond.

(Point to the notebook.) Start with Tonya and tell me what she has. (backpack) Point to Tonya and tell me what she has. (bike) Point to Tonya and tell me what she has. (baseball and mitt) Start with Tonya and tell me what she has. (ice skates) Start with Tonya and tell me what she has. (dress) Start with this and tell me whose dress this is. (shoes) Start with these and tell me whose shoes these are. (bed) Start with this and tell me whose bed this is. (bathrobe) Start with this and tell me whose bathrobe this is. (jump rope) Start with Tonya and tell me what she has.

Tonya has something to jump with outside. It's a When it's cold, Tonya keeps her hands warm with her Tonya likes to kick her Tonya dries her hair with her Tonya sleeps in her . and . . Tonya likes to play catch with her . . . Tonya draws pretty pictures with her

(doll) Start with Tonya and tell me what she has. (mittens) Start with Tonya and tell me what she has. (piano) Start with Tonya and tell me what she has. (soccer ball) Start with Tonya and tell me what she has.

Tonya puts her markers and notebook in her

Let's talk about Tonya's things. Ask your student to tell you some things that she has. List some of these and ask her to tell you about each one. Example: Do you have a doll house? Start with / and tell me. Ask her to tell you about some things that a female relative or friend has. List these and ask her to tell you about each one. Example: Does your sister have a tennis racquet? Start with she and tell me this.

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Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

J >

J ]

) ) ) ) ) ] ) }

) ) ]

) ) ) ) ) ) }

))

W h a t d o Kathy a n d J e r o m e h a v e i n t h e i r t o w n ?

Circuit Publications

Talking in Sentences

20

(
Target:

Here are (name) and (name). They have a (place) in their town.

Introduction: Jerome and Kathy live in the same town. They have many nice things and nice places in their town. They have a fire station in their town. Kathy and Jerome have a grocery store in their town. Their families can buy all their groceries at this store. Jerome and Kathy have an office building in their town. Their dentist has an office in this building. Their doctor's office is in this building too. Kathy and Jerome have an ice cream shop in their town. They like to go to the ice cream shop and have special treats. Kathy and Jerome have a hardware store in their town. Their families can buy many useful things at the hardware store. They have a toy store in their town. The toy store is their favorite store. Jerome and Kathy have a park in their town. Their friends and families can have picnics at the park.

Listen and respond:

Talk about the special places that Kathy and Jerome have in their town. What do they have in their town?

Jerome and Kathy have a place to buy tools in their town. Point to this place. They have an office building in their town. Show me this building. Kathy and Jerome have a place to have picnics in their town. Point to this place. They have a place to buy food in their town. Show me this place. Kathy and Jerome have a place to run and play. Where is this place? Jerome and Kathy see their doctor in her office. Where is their doctor's office? Kathy or Jerome have a place to buy games and puzzles in their town. Where is this place? Jerome and Kathy feel safe because they have a fire station in their town. They can call their fire fighters if there is an emergency.

Do Kathy and Jerome have a grocery in their town. (Yes) Start with they and tell me this. Do they have a hardware store in their town? (Yes) Start with they and tell me. Do Jerome and Kathy have a park in their town? (Yes) Start with they and tell me. Do they have a fire station in their town? (Yes) Start with they and tell me this. Do Kathy and Jerome have a toy store in their town? (Yes) Start with they and tell me. Do they have a doctor in their town? (Yes) Start with they and tell me. Do they have a dentist? (Yes) Start with they and tell me. Do Kathy and Jerome have an ice cream shop in their town? (Yes) Start with they and tell me. Do Kathy and Jerome have picnic tables in their park? (Yes) Start with Kathy and Jerome and tell me.

Let's talk about the special places in our town! Discuss places or special things in your and your student's school, town, city, or neighborhood. Ask your student to tell you about each of them. Example: Do we have a grocery store in our town? (Yes) Start with we and tell me this.

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Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

] ) )

W h i c h is t h e a n i m a l w i t h (unique f e a t u r e s ) ?

Circuit Publications

Talking in Sentences

22

Target:

A (animal) has (a unique feature). A (animal) is an animal with (unique feature).

Introduction: Each of these animals is different from the others. The animals are different from each other because they have special body parts or marks that other animals do not have. A fish has fins. A fish moves its fins as it swims. A kangaroo has a pouch. A mother kangaroo carries its babies in its pouch. A pig is an animal with a curly tail. A rabbit has long ears. A cat has long whiskers and says "meow." Look at the deer. The deer has antlers on top of its head. A bird is an animal with wings. A bird spreads its wings when it flies. A zebra has stripes all over its body! An alligator has lots of teeth! A turtle has a hard shell. The turtle lives in its shell. A squirrel has a bushy tail. A spider has eight legs.

Listen and respond:

Talk about these animals Tell me what is special about each one. Point to the picture to which you want your student to respond.

Point to an animal that has stripes. Find an animal that has a curly tail. Show me an animal that has a pouch. Where is an animal that has long ears? Point to an animal that has long whiskers and says "meow.' Show me an animal that has wings. Where is an animal that has fins? Point to an animal that has antlers. Show me an animal that has a bushy tail. Where is an animal that has eight legs? Point to an animal with a hard shell. Which animal has lots of teeth? Point to the small animal with the very long tail. Which animal has stripes? (zebra) Start with a and tell me. Which animal has a pouch? (kangaroo) Start with a and tell me. Which animal has eight legs? (spider) Start with a and tell me. Which animal has fins? (fish) Start with a and tell me. Which animal has a bushy tail? (squirrel) Start with a and tell me. Which animal has long ears? (rabbit) Start with a and tell me. Which animal has wings? (bird) Start with a and tell me. Which animal has a hard shell? (turtle) Start with a and tell me. Which animal has a curly tail? (pig) Start with a and tell me. Which animal has antlers? (deer) Start with a and tell me. Which animal has lots of teeth? (alligator) Start with an and tell me. Which animal has a very long tail? (mouse) Start with a and tell me. Which animal has long whiskers and says "meow?" (cat) Start with a and tell me. Let's talk about animals and what makes them special. Discuss various animals and their unique characteristics. List some animals familiar to your student. Ask him to tell you about each one and what makes each one special. Encourage him to talk about classes of animals or individuals. Example: Does a monkey have a long tail? (Yes) Start with a monkey and tell me. Example: Does your friend s cat have white paws? (Yes) Start with mx and tell me.

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Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

I ) ) ] ) ) ]

II

W h i c h animals have ( u n i q u e f e a t u r e s ) ?

Talking in Sentences

Target:

(Animals) have (unique features). (Animals) are animals with (unique features).

Introduction: Different kinds of animals have features that make them special from other animals. Zebras have stripes. Squirrels have bushy tails. Pigs have curly tails. Birds have wings. Turtles have hard shells. Spiders have eight legs. Kangaroos have pouches. Alligators have lots of teeth. Rabbits have long ears. Cats have very long whiskers.

Listen and respond:

Find the animals that have stripes. Which animals have bushy tails? Point to animals that have curly tails. Show me the animals that have wings. Point to the animals that have hard shells. Show me the animals that have eight legs. Point to the animals that have pouches. Which animals have lots of teeth? Which animals have very long whiskers? Which animals do not like cats? Point to animals that have bushy tails and collect nuts to eat during the winter?

Talk about these animals. Tell me what is special about them. Ask your student to identify each animal by name. Then ask her to use the name of this animal in a sentence telling you what these animals have. Focus on plurals and the verb have.

Which animals have stripes? (zebras) Start with zebras and tell me this. Which animals have curly tails? (pigs) Start with pigs and tell me. Which animals have pouches? (kangaroos) Start with kangaroos and tell me. Which animals have hard shells? (turtles) Start with turtles and tell me. Which animals have eight legs? (spiders) Start with spiders and tell me. Which animals have wings? (birds) Start with birds and tell me. Which animals have long ears? (rabbits) Start with rabbits and tell me. Which animals have lots of teeth? (alligators) Start with alligators and tell me. Which animals have bushy tails? (squirrels) Start with squirrels and tell me. Which animals have very long whiskers? (cats) Start with cats and tell me.

Let's talk Discuss various classes of animals with your student. List some classes of animals that are familiar to your student or look at books with pictures of different animals. Use pictures to help visualize animals and their characteristics. Ask your student to tell you what makes groups or classes of animals special. Example: Do leopards have spots? (Yes) Start with leopards and tell me.

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Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

1 1 1

] ) ) ) ) ] )

) ) ] ) ) )

W h a t d o e s Kevin like? W h a t d o e s n ' t J e n n y like? W h a t d o t h e y like? W h a t d o n ' t they like?

Circuit Publications

Talking in Sentences

26

Target:

(Name) likes (object). (Name) doesn't like (object). He/she likes/doesn't like (object). They like (object). They don't like (object).

Introduction: Kevin likes many things. He likes ice cream and pizza. He likes his baseball cap. He likes his football. He likes his guitar. There are some things that Kevin does not like. Kevin doesn't like rain. He doesn't like medicine. Jenny likes many things, too. She likes ice cream. She likes tacos. Jenny likes her bike. She likes her ice skates and her jump rope. There are some things that she does not like. She doesn't like mice. She doesn't like medicine.

Listen and respond:


Point to someone who likes tacos. Show me someone who likes a football. Point to something that Kevin likes to eat. Show me something that Jenny doesn't like. Show me something else that Jenny doesn't like. Show me something that Kevin likes to play with. Show me something that Jenny likes to wear on her feet. Point to something that Kevin likes to wear on his head. Who likes pizza? Who likes ice cream? Who else likes ice cream? Find something to play music on. Who likes this? Show me something that Kevin doesn't like. Point to something else that Kevin doesn't like. Show me something that Jenny and Kevin both like. Point to something than Kevin and Jenny don't like.

Talk about Kevin and Jenny. Talk about things that they like. Talk about things that they don't like. Point to each item that you wish your student to include in her sentence.

Start with Jenny and tell me what she likes. Start with Kevin and tell me what he likes. Repeat these stimulus requests for each item that each child likes.

Start with Kevin and tell me what he doesn't like. Start with Jenny and tell me what she doesn't like. Repeat this stimulus request for each item that each child doesn't like.

Start with Kevin and Jenny and tell me something that they like (ice cream). Start with Jenny and Kevin and tell me something that they don't like (medicine).

Let's talk about some things that you like and some things that you don't like. Ask your student to tell you some things that she likes and some things that she doesn't like. List several objects like food items, toys, clothing items or animals that she likes. Then list items that she doesn't like. Ask her to tell you about each one. Example: Do you like ice cream? (Yes) Start with land tell me this. Example: Do you like medicine? (No) Start with [and tell me this. Ask your student to tell you some things that she and a sibling or a friend like and things that they don't like. Ask her to tell you about each one. Do you like parties? (Yes) Start with we and tell me this. Do you like thunderstorms? Start with we and tell me this. Example:

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Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

II

1 1 ) 1 1 1 ) 1 1 1 ) )

W h a t d o e s J e n n y like t o do? W h a t d o e s n ' t Kevin like t o d o ? W h a t d o J e n n y a n d K e v i n like t o do? W h a t d o n ' t t h e y like t o d o ?

Target: (Name) likes to (action). (Name) doesn't like to (action). He/she likes/doesn't like to (action). (Name and name) like to/don't like to (action). They like to/don't like to (action).

Introduction: Kevin likes to do some things. There are many things that he does not like to do. Kevin likes to play football. He likes to use the computer. He likes to listen to music. He likes to go fishing. Kevin doesn't like to get sick! Jenny likes to do many things. Jenny likes to play soccer. She likes to plant flowers. She likes to use the computer and listen to music, just like Kevin. There are some things that she does not like to do. Jenny doesn't like to change the litter in her cat's litter box! Jenny does not like to go to the dentist! Kevin doesn't like to go the dentist either.

Listen and respond:

Talk about things that Jenny and Kevin like to do. Talk about things that they don't like to do. Point to the picture to which you want your student to respond.

Someone likes to play a sport. Who? Which sport? Someone else likes to play a sport. Who? Which sport? Someone likes to go fishing. Who likes to go fishing? Show me something that Jenny likes to do. Show me something else that she likes to do. Point to something that Jenny and Kevin like to do. What else do Jenny and Kevin like to do? What doesn't Jenny like to do? What doesn't Kevin like to do? Point to Kevin and to Jenny. Find two things that they both like to do. Find something that Jenny and Kevin don't like to do. Start with Kevin and Jenny and tell me what they like to do. Start with Jenny and Kevin and tell me what they don't like to do. Repeat these sentences for things that both children like/don't like to do. Start with Kevin and tell me what he doesn't like to do. Start with Jenny and tell me what she doesn't like to do. Repeat these sentences for each thing that each child doesn't like to do. Start with Jenny and tell me what she likes to do. Start with Kevin and tell me what he likes to do. Repeat these stimulus requests for each item that each child likes.

Let's talk about things that you like to do. Discuss things that your student likes to do and things that he doesn't like to do. List some of these things. Ask him to tell you about each one. Example: Do you like to ride your bike? (Yes) Start with I and tell me that you like to do this. Example: Do you like to fall off your bike? (No) Start with I and tell me that you don't like to do this. List some things that your student and a sibling and a friend don't like to do. Ask him to tell you about each one of these things. Example: Do you and your sister like to play tag? (Yes) Start with we and tell me that you like to do this. Do you and your sister like to clean up spilled milk? (No) Start with we and tell me that you don't like to do this.

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Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

I ) ) ) ] ) ) ) ] ] ) ) ]

W h a t is s o m e o n e doing? W h a t else is she/he doing?

Circuit Publications

Talking in Sentences

30

Target:

The (person) is (action) and (action)

Introduction: Look at these people. They are doing different things at the same time. We are doing different things at the same time, too. I'm sitting down and talking to you! You're sitting down and talking to me! A boy is running and wearing a baseball cap. A girl is sitting on a stool and holding a kitten. A girl is holding a balloon and looking up. A boy is wearing sunglasses and walking his dog. The baker is holding a bowl and mixing batter. The builder is holding a nail and swinging a hammer. A man is looking at papers and talking. A woman is kneeling down and digging a hole. Listen and respond: Think about each of these people and two things that each one is doing. Talk about these people. Tell me two things that each one is doing. As you present the stimulus request, point to the section of each picture associated with the particular action.

Someone is wearing a baseball cap and running. Who is this? Someone is holding a balloon and looking up. Point to her. Someone is holding her kitten and sitting on the stool. Who? Someone is looking at papers and talking. Point to him. Someone is wearing sunglasses and walking his dog. Who is this? Someone is holding a bowl and mixing the batter. Who is this? Someone is standing up and eating a hot-dog. Point to him. Someone is holding a nail and swinging a hammer. Who is doing these things? Someone is kneeling down and digging a hole. Point to her. (boy wearing sunglasses, walking his dog) This boy is doing two things. Start with he, tell me what he's doing and what else he's doing. (baker holding bowl, mixing batter) This baker is doing two things. Start with she, tell me what she's doing and what else she's doing. (builder holding nail, swinging hammer) This builder is doing two things. Start with she, tell me what she's doing and what else she's doing. (man looking at papers, talking) This man is doing two things. Start with he, tell me what he's doing and what else he's doing. (woman kneeling down, digging hole) This woman is doing two things. Start with she, tell me what she's doing and what else she's doing. (boy running, wearing a baseball cap) This boy is doing two things. Start with he, tell me what he's doing and what else he's doing. (girl sitting, holding a kitten) This girl is doing two things. Start with she, tell me what she's doing and what else she's doing. (girl holding balloon, looking up) This girl is doing two things. Start with she, tell me what she's doing and what else she's doing.

Let's talk about people who do different things at the same time. Encourage your student to focus on two things that he is doing at once. Model sentences by telling him two things that you are doing. Structure this by asking him to stand up and hold something or look at and touch something. Then ask him to sit down and do the same things. Ask him to tell about the two things that he is doing. Present stimulus request: Start with / and tell me what you 're doing and what else you 're doing. Look at pictures in magazines or books and note people doing two things at once such as talking and pointing, listening and writing, etc.

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Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

I)

I I

) ) I

) J ] I

I ] ]

) J

I ) I I j )

I ) j

W h e r e i s t h e (object)? W h e r e a r e t h e (objects)?

Circuit Publications

Talking in Sentences

32

Target: The (object) is in the (location). The (object) is on the (location). The (object is under) the location. I put a/an (object) in (container), on (surface), under (furniture). Introduction: Look at the things in the basket, on the table and under the table. There are many delicious fruits in the basket. There is a banana in the basket. There is an apple and a pear in the basket. There is an orange, a plum and a peach in the basket. There are some grapes in the basket. Look at all the things on the table. There is a pineapple on the table. There is some peanut butter on the table. There is a cake on the table. There is a jar of mustard and a bottle of catsup on the table. There is a plate of cookies on the table. There is a jar of pickles on the table. There is a hot dog on the table. There are some things under the table. There is a watermelon under the table. There is a hammer under the table. There is a shoe and a pencil under the table. There is a baseball and a football under the table. There is a soccer ball under the table.

Listen and respond:


Point to something in the basket that has a thick yellow skin. Find something on the table that is a fruit with a rough brown skin. Show me something under the table that you wear on your foot. Find something on the table that is made from peanuts. Find two fruits in the basket that have big seeds inside. Point to something on the table that has icing on top. Show me something under the table that you hit with a bat. Point to something in the basket that has red skin, is crunchy and juicy. Find some things on the table that are green and sour. Show me something to pound a nail with. It's under the table. Find something under the table that you kick. It's black and white. Find something else under the table that you're supposed to kick. Find two things on the table that you put on a hot-dog. Find a hot-dog, too! Find a large delicious fruit under the table. Find some things in the basket that come in bunches. Point to something to write with. It's under the table.

Talk about the things in the basket, on the table or under the table. Point to the item to which you want your student to respond. Talk about the things in the basket. Start with the and tell me where the banana is. Repeat this sentence for the other fruits in the basket (peach, plum, grapes, orange, apple, pear). Talk about the things on the table. Start with some and tell me where the peanut butter is. Repeat this sentence for other things on the table (pineapple, catsup, mustard, hot-dog, pickles, cookies, cake). Talk about some things under the table. Start with the and tell me where the watermelon is. Repeat this sentence for the baseball, football, soccer ball, pencils, shoe, hammer.

Let's talk about where some things are. Encourage your students to talk about objects that are in familiar containers, on surfaces or under pieces of furniture. Use the stimulus request as above. Instruct your student to place objects in containers, on surfaces or under furniture and tell you what she did. Example: Instruct her to put a pencil in the box. Then ask her to tell you what she did. Present stimulus request: Start with I and tell me where you put the pencil; or: Start with I and tell me what you did.

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Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

) ) ] ] ] ) ) ]

I ) ] ) ) ) ) ) ) )

] ] ] ) ) ]

W h o is b e h i n d ( n a m e ) ? W h o is on (object)? W h o is next to ( n a m e ) ? W h o is in f r o n t of ( n a m e ) ? W h o is b e t w e e n ( n a m e ) a n d ( n a m e ) ?

Target: (Name) is (standing) behind (name), (Name) is (sitting) on a stool. (Name) is (standing) next to (name). (Name) is (lying) in front of (name). (Name) is (crawling) between (name) and (name).

introduction: Talk about the location of each of these people or animals in relation to others. Use the sentence, (Name) is (location), or (Name) is (action) (location), depending on your student's ability. Look at Jude. He is sitting on the stool. Bruce is standing behind Jude. Kathy is standing next to him. Muffin, the cat, is lying in front of Jude. Look at Tonya. She is on the stool Niki is behind her. Todd is next to her. Fargo, the dog, is in front of her. Fargo is lying down. See the baby. His name is Jimmy. Jimmy is between Jude and Tonya. Jimmy is crawling.

Listen and respond:


Point to someone who is standing behind Jude. Show me a pet that is lying in front of Tonya. Find someone who is next to Tonya. Show me a pet that is lying in front of Jude. Point to someone who is sitting on a stool. Who else is sitting on a stool? Show me a pet that is in front of Jude. Who is standing next to Jude? Who is behind Tonya? Point to someone who is between Tonya and Jude.

Talk about where these people and animals are. Start with Jude and tell me where he is. Someone is behind Jude. Start with Bruce and tell me where he is. Start with Tonya and tell me where she is. Someone is behind Tonya. Start with Niki and tell me where she is. Someone is next to Tonya. Start with Todd and tell me where he is. Someone is next to Jude. Start with Kathy and tell me where she is. Someone is in front of Jude. Start with Muffin and tell me where she is. Start with Fargo and tell me where he is. Someone is between Tonya and Jude. Start with Jimmy and tell me where he is.

Note; insert verbs standing, lying to these requests if you wish.

Let's talk about where someone is. Encourage your student to talk about people located in different relationships to others. provide opportunities to practice these sentences:

Here is an activity that will

Ask a student (Student A) to sit on a chair. Ask another student (Student B) to stand behind Student A. Instruct both students to talk about this relationship. Example: Ask Student B to tell you where he is. Start with Vm and tell me where you are. Ask Student B to tell you where Student A is. Start with (Student Aname) and tell me where he is. Reverse students 'positions and repeat the activity. For students seated in rows in their classrooms, ask their classroom teacher for a seating chart and repeat this activity referring to where students sit in relation to other students in class. Example: Find your student's place in class and those surrounding him. Present stimulus request: Start with (Name) and tell me who sits next to (behind, in front of) you. Repeat this, talking about a different student.

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Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

W h e r e is t h e a n i m a l with (descriptive c h a r a c t e r i s t i c )

Target:

The animal with (descriptive characteristic) is in the (shape).

Introduction: This activity is presented so students can practice using the above-mentioned sentence form. Look at these animals. Each one is special in some way. The alligator has lots of teeth. The spider has eight legs. The turtle has a hard shell. The bird has wings. The zebra has stripes. The deer has antlers. The cat has long whiskers. The pig has a curly tail. The elephant has a trunk. The peacock has beautiful feathers. The fish has fins. The squirrel has a bushy tail. The butterfly has beautiful colorful wings. The kangaroo has a pouch. The rabbit has long ears. The mouse has a very long thin tail. Each of these animals is inside a shape.

Listen and respond:


Find the animal with lots of teeth. It's in a rectangle. Point to the animal with eight legs. It's in a circle. Point to an animal with a hard shell. It's in a triangle. Find an animal with wings. It's in a rectangle. Point to an animal with stripes. It's in a diamond. Find an animal with antlers. It's in a diamond too. Point to an animal with long whiskers. It's in a square. Point to an animal with a curly tail. It's in a circle. Find an animal with a trunk. It's in a circle. Point to the animal with beautiful feathers. It's in a circle. Find an animal with fins. It's in a triangle. Find an animal with a bushy tail. It's in a triangle. Find an animal with beautiful colorful wings. It's in a circle. Find an animal with a pouch. It's in a diamond. Point to an animal with long ears. It's in a triangle. Find the animal with a long thin tail. It's in a triangle too.

Talk about these animals. Tell me where each one is. Your student should be able to easily identify shapes by name before he does this activity. Point to each animal as you present the stimulus request. Start with the animal and tell me where the animal with lots of teeth is. (alligator) animal with sharp teeth, rectangle Repeat this stimulus request asking your student to find all the animals. (spider) animal with eight legs, circle (turtle) animal with a hard shell, square (bird) animal with wings, rectangle (zebra) animal with stripes, diamond (deer) animal with antlers, diamond (cat) animal with long whiskers, square (pig) animal with curly tail, circle (elephant) animal with trunk, circle (peacock) animal with beautiful feathers, circle (fish) animal with fins, triangle (squirrel) animal with bushy tail, triangle (butterfly) animal with beautiful colorful wings, circle (kangaroo) animal with pouch, diamond (rabbit) animal with long ears, triangle (mouse) animal with very long thin tail, triangle

Let's talk about these animals. On the next two pages, you will find eight rows of shapes with pictures of animals inside them. There are four shapes in each row. Instruct your student to continue talking about animals with different characteristics inside different shapes. Each of the four shapes is represented in each row. Ask your student to tell you about the animals, either by name or by characteristic, row by row. Example: Which shape is each animal in the first row in? He should respond: The fish is in (or inside) the triangle. The cat is in the diamond. The butterfly is in the circle. The turtle is in the square. Example: Where is the animal with whiskers? (Point to the cat in the diamond.) Start with the and tell me.

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Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

) ) ) ) ) ) ]
W h e r e is e a c h o n e of t h e a n i m a l s ?

) ] ) ) ] ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ]

Circuit Publications

Talking in Sentences

40

Target:

The girl/boy with the (animal or object) is (action).

Introduction: Look at these people. Everyone is doing something. The girl with the teddy bear is reading a book. The woman with the hammer is hitting a nail. The boy with binoculars is looking at birds. The girl with the bandage is holding a kitten. The boy with sunglasses is walking his dog. The girl with the backpack is walking. The boy with black shoes is eating a hot-dog. The girl with the birthday crown is opening a present.

Listen and respond:

T a l k a b o u t these children. Tell how we know which child you're talking about. Tell what that child is doing.

What is the girl with the teddy bear doing? What is the woman with the hammer doing? What is the boy with binoculars doing? What is the girl with the bandage doing? What is the boy with sunglasses doing? What is the girl with the backpack doing? What is the boy with black shoes doing? What is the girl with the birthday crown doing? Start with the girl and tell me what the girl with the teddy bear is doing. Start with the woman and tell me what the woman with the hammer is doing. Start with the boy and tell me what the boy with the binoculars is doing. Start with the girl and tell me what the girl with the bandage is doing. Start with the boy and tell me what the boy with sunglasses is doing. Start with the girl and tell me what the girl with the backpack is doing. Start with the boy and tell me what the boy with the black shoes is doing. Start with the girl and tell me what the girl with the birthday crown is doing.

L e t ' s t a l k Let's talk about what some people are doing. Give your listener some clues so he knows who you mean to talk about. Say some things that will help your listener know whom you are talking about. Then say what that person is doing. Encourage your student to identify people using these target forms. Look at a group of children or at pictures of groups of people doing different things. The children might have different color shirts on. They might have different color eyes or hair. Use a variety of sentences including descriptive phrases referring to what these children are doing. For example, The bov with the yellow shirt is talking. The girl with blond hair is listening.

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Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

W h e r e is e a c h o n e of t h e a n i m a l s ?

Circuit Publications

Talking in Sentences

42

Target:

The (animal) is (spatial relationship) the big/small ball

Introduction: Look at these animals. Each one is near a big or a small ball The cat is on a big ball. The fish is under a small ball The elephant is on a big ball The squirrel is next to a big ball. The tiger is on a big ball. The bear is next to a small ball The turkey is on a big ball The cow is under a big ball The rabbit is next to a big ball The sheep is between two balls. The goat is under a big ball. The squirrel is next to a big ball The mouse is between a big ball and a small ball.

Listen and respond:

Talk about these animals. Tell where each one is. Start with the and tell me where the cat is. Start with the and tell me and tell me where the fish is. Start with the and tell me where the elephant is. Start with the and tell me where the squirrel is. Start with the and tell me where the bear is. Start with the and tell me where the tiger is. Start with the and tell me where the lion is. Start with the and tell me where the turkey is. Start with the and tell me where the rabbit is. Start with the and tell me where the sheep is. Start with the and tell me where the cow is. Start with the and tell me where the goat is.

Which animal is next to a big ball? What other animal is next to a big ball? Which animals are on big balls? Which animal is on a small ball? Which animal is under a big ball? Which other animal is under a big ball? Which animals are next to big balls? Which animal is next to a small ball? Which animal is between two big balls? Which animal is between two small balls? Which other animal is between two balls? What size are these balls?

For an extra challenge try these: Start with the and tell me where the animal with stripes is. Start with the and tell me where the animal with long ears is. Start with the and tell me where the animal with a very long tail is. Start with the and tell me where the animal with fins is. Start with the and tell me where the animal with a trunk is. Start with the and tell me where the animal with feathers is.

Let's talk about where something is. You can do activities like this one using objects and placing them next to, on, under or between other objects (such as big/small boxes, long/short pencils, etc.).

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! I ) J
W h o is the w o r k e r w i t h s o m e t h i n g special?

1 ) 1

I I I ! ) ]

Circuit Publications

Talking in Sentences

44

Target:

The worker with the (tool) is a (name of occupation).

Introduction: Each of these workers is near one of the things that she or he uses to do their job. The worker with the computer is a teacher. The worker with the wrench is a mechanic. The worker with the hammer is a carpenter. The worker with the stethoscope is a doctor. The worker with the badge is a police officer. The worker with the hydrant is a firefighter. The worker with the trowel is a bricklayer. The worker with the make-up and funny hat is a clown. The worker with the microphone is a broadcaster The worker with the bowl and spoon is a baker. The worker with bare feet is a tightrope walker. Listen and respond: Give your student many opportunities to learn to identify and pronounce the words denoting all workers and tools. Ask her to complete each of these sentences or answer the questions telling you either the name of a worker or tool. Talk about these workers. They are near the tools that they need for their jobs. Point to the picture to which you want your student to respond.

Start with the worker and tell me who the worker with the microphone is The worker with the make-up and funny hat is a The worker with the computer is a The worker with the wrench is a Who is the worker with the hydrant? The broadcaster is the worker with the _ The carpenter is the worker with the Who is the worker with the badge? The worker with the stethoscope is a The worker with the trowel is a The worker with bare feet is a . . . Start with the worker and tell me who the worker with the computer is. Start with the worker and tell me who the worker with the trowel is. Start with the worker and tell me who the worker with the badge is. Start with the worker and tell me who the worker with the hydrant is. Start with the worker and tell me who the worker with the hammer is. Start with the worker and tell me who the worker with the stethoscope is. Start with the worker and tell me who the worker with the wrench is. Start with the worker and tell me who the worker with the silly make-up is. Start with the worker and tell me who the worker with the bowl and spoon is. Start with the worker and tell me who the worker with bare feet is.

The worker with a bowl and spoon is a

Let's talk about workers and their tools. Expand these ideas by encouraging students to name other items needed by each of these workers for their jobs. Or, encourage students to think of other workers and tools needed for their jobs. List some tools and workers discussed. Ask your student to tell you about each worker and tool that this worker has. Example: Does a dentist have a drill? (Yes) Start with a dentist and tell me what she has (needs or uses). Also, discuss workers around school, the neighborhood or the nation, and associate workers with objects used for jobs. Ask your student to ask family members or friends about their jobs and what kind of tools they have (need or use). These activities are excellent for building vocabulary.

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Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

I l l )

1 ) 1 ) 1 1 ] ]
D o y o u k n o w w h e r e t o p u t a ( a n ) (object)?

I ) 1 i I I I I I I I i

Circuit Publications

Talking in Sentences

46

Target:

I know where to put the (object).

Introduction: Look at this picture of a kitchen. Look at all the things that belong in different places in the kitchen. Some of these things belong in the refrigerator. Some of them belong in the cabinets. Some belong in a drawer. Do you know where to put the things on this page? Do you know where to put the things that need to stay cold? Do you know where to put the snacks when you're finished with them? Do you know where to put the dishes, silverware, pots and pans? Do you know where to put the things to use to keep things clean? Could you help your mom and dad put away the groceries when they bring them home from the store?

Listen and respond:


The milk, eggs and yogurt must stay cold. Do you know where to put them? Where? Do you know where to put the box of pasta or macaroni? Where? Do you know where to put the cereal when you're finished with it? Where? Do you know where to put the pretzels and crackers when you're finished with them? Where? Do you know where to put the silverware when it's clean? Where? Do you know where to put the dishes and cups when they're clean? Where? Do you know where to pots and pans and silverware when they're dirty? Where? Do you know where to put the soap and other things for washing the dishes? Where? Do you know where to put things for cleaning the floor? Where? I know where to put the things for cleaning the floor. Where?

Talk about these things. Do you know where to put them? Point to each object that you want your student to respond to. Repeat this sentence, pointing to each of these items.

Ask your student to tell you where she puts each of these objects: cereal pretzels grapes ice cream scoop knife broom crackers eggs yogurt pot fork dust pan pasta or macaroni lettuce pizza slicer bowl spoon liquid soap

Example: Where do you put the cereal? Start with / and tell me. Children s responses will reflect their home practices. might be kept in different places in various homes. Now ask her if she knows where to put each object. Example: Do you know where to put the cereal? (Yes) Tell me this. Start with / and tell me that you know where to put the cereal. Some of these items

Let's talk about things in your classroom or your house. Discuss places where different things belong. List some objects and places familiar to your student. Ask her to tell you about each one. Example: Do you know where to put the peanut butter? (Yes) Start with I and tell me that you know where to put it. Where do you put it? (Your student should be encouraged to answer these questions using simple locative phrases: in the drawer, in the cabinet, etc.)

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II

II

W h e r e d o e s M a r y Ellen p u t / k e e p h e r (object)? Does M a r y Ellen k n o w w h e r e t o find h e r (object)?

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48

Target: Mary Ellen knows where to put (object). Mary Ellen knows where to find (object). Mary Ellen puts/keeps her (object) in/on (location). She can find (object) in/on (location), (object) belongs in/on (location).

Introduction: Mary Ellen knows where to put her books, her trophy, her radio and her music box. She puts them on the shelf. She puts her doll house, her picture album and her plant on the shelf, too. She puts her things where they belong. When she needs something she knows where to find it. She finds her things in the places where they belong. Some of her things belong in her drawers. Her pencil, scissors and tape belong in her desk drawer. Her coat, her dress and her jeans belong in her closet. Her shoes and her ice skates belong in her closet too.

Listen and respond:

Talk about Mary Ellen. Does she know where to put her things? Point to the picture to which you want your student to respond. Ask your students where Mary Ellen puts her things: coat party dress robe jeans shoes ice skates trophy plant radio eraser books games jewelry box doll house crayons pencil scissors photograph album tape

Does Mary Ellen know where to find something to write with? Where? Does she know where to put her championship trophy? Where? Does she know where to find her ice skates? Where? Does she know where to put something to read? Where? Does she know where to find something to wear outside when it's cold? Where? Does she know where to find something to listen to? Where? Does she know where to find something to put jewelry in? Where? Does she know where to find things to wear on her feet? Where? Does she know where to put her games? Where? Does she know where to find something to cut with? Where? Does she know where to find something to write with? Where? Does she know where to keep her doll house? Where?

Example: Where does Mary Ellen put her coat? (in the closet) Start with she and tell me. Repeat this stimulus request asking where she keeps or finds each of her things. Now ask her if Mary Ellen knows where to find each of her things. Example: Does Mary Ellen know where to put her scissors? (Yes, in her desk) Start with Mary Ellen (or with she) and tell me that she knows where to put them.

Let's talk about where you put your things. Ask your student where some of his things belong. If he puts his things where they belong he will find them when he needs them. List some things that he tells you about. Ask him to tell you about each one. Example: Do you know where to put your baseball glove? Start with I and tell me that you know this. Example: Do you know where to find your boots? Start with I and tell me where to find your boots when you need them. Example: Where do you put (keep) your books? Start with I and tell me. Use these various patterns to stimulate your student to tell you about the things listed. Discuss the relationship between putting things in their places and being able to find them. Discuss what happens when something you need is not in the place where it belongs.

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Talking in Sentences

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11

) ) ) ] ) ) ] ) ) ] )

D o e s J u d e k n o w w h e r e t o find his (object)? C a n J u d e find his (object)?

Circuit Publications

Talking in Sentences

50

f
Target:

Jude doesn't know where to find (object). Jude can't find (object)

Introduction: Look at Jude. He is confused. He doesn't know where to find his things. He doesn't know where they are! Jude can't find his backpack. He can't find his football. He can't find his cap or his shoes. He doesn't know where his radio is. He doesn't know where to find his notebook or his pencil. Jude can't find his yoyo. He can't find his new toy car either. He can't find his brush or comb. He can't find his Frisbee. Now Jude wants to look at something that's far away, but he can't find his binoculars!

Listen and respond:


Can Jude find his football? Can Jude find his brush? What else would he use for keeping his hair neat? Can he find either of them? Can Jude find his backpack? What does Jude need when he wants to listen to music? Does he know where it is? Does Jude know where to find his yoyo? Jude wants to teach his dog to catch a Frisbee. Does he know where to find it? Jude has a new toy car. He likes to play with it. Does he know where it is? Can he find it? When Jude goes to school he needs something for writing and keeping notes. What does he need? Can he find them? Can Jude find his shoes or his cap? Jude wants to look at something that's far away. He needs his binoculars. Can he find them?

Talk about Jude and his things. He doesn't know where to find some of his things. He can't find them! Start with Jude and tell me if he knows where to find his backpack. Start with he and tell me if he can find his football. Start with he and tell me if he knows where to find his yo-yo. Start with Jude and tell me if he knows where to find his radio. Start with Jude and tell me if he can find his brush. Start with he and tell me if he knows where to find his cap. Start with Jude and tell me if he can find his notebook and his pencil. Start with he and tell me if he can find his comb. Start with Jude and tell me if he knows where to find his shoes. Start with Jude and tell me if he can find his binoculars. Start with he and tell me if he knows where to find his Frisbee. Start with Jude and tell me if he knows where to find his toy car.

Let's talk about times when we can't find something. Talk about times when your student or someone she knows lost something. When the object was lost someone couldn't find it List some of her responses and ask her to tell you about each one. Example: Did your dad lose his keys? (Yes) Did he know where they were? (No) Could he find them? (No) Dad couldn't find his keys, could he? (No) Start with Dad and tell me this. Discuss the relationship between putting things in their places and being able to find them when these things are needed. Ask your student if she ever lost something and never found it. Ask her if she ever lost something, then found it later.

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Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

'

! ! !

, |

t ]

I I

D o e s Kevin k n o w w h e n t o d o s o m e t h i n g ?

Circuit Publications

Talking in Sentences

52

Target:

Kevin knows when to do (action or verb phrase).

Introduction: Kevin must get up at seven o'clock so he can be ready to get the bus for school. He knows when to get up in the morning. The bus comes at eight o'clock. Kevin knows when to go out and get the bus. He knows when to go out for recess. His class goes out for recess at ten o'clock. Kevin knows when to go to lunch. His class goes to lunch at twelve o'clock. Kevin knows when to get on the bus and go home from school. School ends at three o'clock. Students walk home or get on the bus to go home. Kevin's family has dinner at five thirty. Kevin knows when to be home so he will be ready for dinner. He comes home at five o'clock so he can wash his hands and help set the table. He knows when to turn on the TV so he can watch his favorite show. His favorite show is on at eight o'clock.

Listen and respond:


What time does Kevin get up in the morning? When does he get on the school bus? When does Kevin's class have recess? When does his class have lunch? When does Kevin get on the school bus to go home? When does he come in and help get ready for dinner? When does he watch his favorite TV show? Does Kevin know when he must get up to get ready for school? When? Does Kevin know when he must be at the bus stop? When? Does he know when his class has recess? When? Does he know when his class has lunch? When? Does he know when he goes home from school? When? Does he know when to come in and help with dinner? When? Does he know when his favorite TV show is on? When?

Talk about Kevin. Does he know when to do these things? Point to each picture to which you want your student to respond.

Ask your student to tell you when Kevin does each of these things: wake up get to the bus go out for recess have lunch come home from school get ready for dinner watch his favorite TV show

Example: When does Kevin wake up? (seven o'clock) Start with Kevin and tell me when he wakes up.

Now ask your student to tell you if Kevin knows when to do each of these things. Example: Does Kevin know when to get to the bus stop? (Yes, eight o'clock) Start with he and tell me that he knows this.

Let's talk about when you do things. Discuss some things that your student knows when to do. Ask questions such as: Do you know when to get up in the morning so you won't be late for school? When? Do you know when your school bus comes? When? Do you know when your class has recess? When? What are some other important things that happen during the day at school? Do you know when they happen? When? Do you know when to have lunch? When? Do you know when school is over? When? Do you know when to get ready for dinner? When? Do you have a favorite TV show? Do you know when your favorite show is on? When? List some of her responses indicating that she knows when to do these thing. Ask her to tell you about each one: Example: Do you know when to watch (favorite TV show)? (Yes) Start with [and tell me that you know this.

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Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

'

'

i!

I,

D o e s ( s o m e o n e ) k n o w h o w t o (do s o m e t h i n g ) ?

Circuit Publications

Talking in Sentences

54

Target:

(Someone) knows how to (do something).

Introduction: Kevin knows how to play the guitar. Each of these workers knows how to do some special things. The mechanic knows how to check the oil in a car's engine. The teacher knows how to use a computer. A veterinarian knows how to set a dog's broken leg. A police officer knows how to direct traffic. A scientist knows how to make new chemicals. A clown knows how to do many tricks in the circus. This clown knows how to juggle five balls at one time!

Listen and respond:

Talk about these people and tell me what each one knows how to do.

Kevin can do something special. He knows how to play a musical instrument. Which instrument can he play? Which worker knows how to check the oil in a car's engine? Which worker knows how to use a computer and to teach children how to use a computer? Which worker knows how to set a dog's broken leg? Which worker knows how to juggle many balls at one time? Which worker knows how to give a traffic ticket? Which worker knows how to make new chemicals?

Kevin knows how to do something special. Start with Kevin and tell me what he knows how to do. Start with a mechanic and tell what she knows how to do. Start with a teacher and tell me what she knows how to do. Start with a veterinarian and tell me what she knows how to do. Start with a police officer and tell me what he knows how to do. Start with a scientist and tell me what he knows how to do. Start with a clown and tell me what she knows how to do.

Let's talk about things that people know how to do. Ask your student to tell you some things that he knows how to do. List them and ask him to tell you about each one. Example: Do you know how to toss a Frisbee? (Yes) Start with I and tell me this. Ask your student to tell you about things that family members or friends know how to do. List these and ask him to tell you about each one. Example: Does your dad know how to ride a motorcycle? (Yes) Start with mv dad and tell me this.

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Talking in Sentences

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'

'

D o e s ( s o m e o n e ) k n o w h o w t o (do s o m e t h i n g ) ?

Circuit Publications

Talking in Sentences

56

Target:

(Someone) knows how to (activity).

Introduction: Maria knows how to fly a kite. The firefighter knows how to open a fire hydrant. The broadcaster knows how to tell what's happening during a special event. He uses a microphone so his voice can be carried by electricity to people far away. People can hear the broadcaster on their radios. The bricklayer knows how to build a brick wall. The doctor knows how to help you get well. The tightrope walker knows how to walk on a tightrope. She knows how to balance on the tightrope so she doesn't fall. The baker knows how to bake bread and cakes. The artist knows how to paint beautifiil pictures. The carpenter knows how to build a stool out of wood.

Listen and respond:

Talk about these people and what each one knows how to do. Point to the picture to which you want your student to respond.

Maria knows how do something outside. It's lots of fun, if you know how to do this. What does Maria know how to do? Which worker knows how to bake bread and cakes? Which worker knows how to talk in a microphone so many people can hear him? Which worker knows how to build a wall from bricks? Which worker knows how to balance herself very high up? Which worker knows how to paint beautiful pictures? Which worker knows how to open a fire hydrant? Which worker knows how to help you get well? Which worker knows how to build a wooden stool? Which worker knows how to bake cakes and bread?

Start with Maria and tell me what she knows how to do. Start with the doctor and tell me what he knows how to do. Start with the broadcaster and tell me what he knows how to do. Start with the firefighter and tell me what she knows how to do. Start with the bricklayer and tell me what he knows how to do. Start with the tightrope walker and tell me what she knows how to do. Start with the artist and tell me what she knows how to do. Start with the baker and tell me what she knows how to do. Start with the carpenter and tell me what he knows how to do.

Let's talk about special things that people know how to do. Ask your student to tell you about things that other workers know how to do. Possibly discuss careers of his family members or friends, and discuss some things that each one knows how to do. List these things and ask him to tell you about each one. Example: Does your mom know how to send an e-mail? Start with my mom and tell me this.

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Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

) )

) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

) ) )

W h a t is (child) looking at?

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Talking in Sentences

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Target:

(Child) is looking at (object or animal).

Introduction: Miko and Todd are looking at something far away. They are using binoculars so they can see these animals. Miko is looking at a deer. She is looking at a big bird flying above. She's looking at a rabbit and a giraffe, too. Todd is also looking at something. He's looking at a peacock, a bird with beautiful feathers. He's looking at a kangaroo. He's looking at a tiger and an alligator, too.

Listen and respond:

Talk about the animals that Miko and Jeff are looking at. Point to the picture to which you want your student to respond.

Todd is looking at an animal with big beautiful feathers. This animal is very proud of its feathers. Which animal is this? Todd is looking at an animal that carries her babies in her pouch. Which animal is he looking at? Miko is looking at an animal flying high above. Which animal is she looking at? Todd is looking at an animal that lives near the water. This animal has lots of teeth. Which animal is this? Miko is looking at an animal with a very long neck. Which animal is this? Miko is looking at an animal with antlers. Which animal is this? Miko is looking at an animal with long ears. This animal hops across the field. Which animal is this? Todd is looking at an animal with stripes. Which animal is this? Miko is looking at an animal with antlers. Which animal is this?

(giraffe) Start with Miko and tell me what she's looking at. (rabbit) Start with Miko and tell me what she's looking at. (deer) Start with Miko and tell me what she's looking at. (bird) Start with Miko and tell me what she's looking at.

(peacock) Start with Todd and tell me what he's looking at. (kangaroo) Start with Todd and tell me what he's looking at. (tiger) Start with Todd and tell me what he's looking at. (alligator) Start with Todd and tell me what he's looking at.

Let's talk about some things that you can look at. List some items in this room that you can look at and identify. Ask your student to select one at a time and tell you what she's looking at. Start with Ljn and tell me what you 're looking at. Then suggest that both of you look at the same item and talk about it. Example: "Lets look at the calendar and let's talk about this. We '11 start with we're and say what we 're looking at." You also might look at pictures of people looking out windows and ask your student to tell you what the person in the picture is looking at.

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) ) ) ] ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

What is (child) talking about? What is (child) thinking about? What does (child) want to talk about?

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Target:

(Child) is talking about (object or animal). (Child's) thinking about (object or animal). (Child) wants to talk about (object or animal).

Introduction: Alan is talking about something. He is talking about something he likes to eat. He's telling us that he likes to eat tacos. He's telling us that a taco has a crunchy shell outside and meat or cheese and vegetables inside. Abby is thinking about some things. She's thinking about things that she wants to talk about. She wants to talk about her cat. She wants to talk about ice cream. She likes to eat ice cream. She's thinking about her bike. She wants to talk about her bike. She's thinking about a castle. Abby is talking about something. She's telling us about something she likes to ride in. She's telling us about an airplane. She's telling us that an airplane is something to ride in. You can fly across the sky in an airplane. Alan is thinking about some things that he wants to talk about. He wants to talk about his dog. He wants to talk about a tow truck. He wants to talk about his baseball cap, and he wants to talk about rabbits.

Listen and respond:


What is Alan talking about? Alan is thinking about some things. He's thinking about an animal that has long ears. This animal likes to eat carrots. Which animal is this? Alan is thinking about an animal that wags its tail and barks. What is it? Alan is thinking about a vehicle that tows cars when the cars break down. What is it? He is thinking about something to wear on his head to keep the sun out of his eyes. What's this? Alan wants to tell about a rabbit, a dog, a tow truck and his baseball cap. What is Abby talking about? Abby is thinking about some things. She's thinking about something cold that's good to eat. What is it? She's thinking about an animal that purrs and says "meow." Which animal is it? She's thinking of a place where kings and queens live. It's big and has many rooms. What is it? She's thinking about something that has two wheels and is fun to ride. What is it?

Talk about Alan and Abby. Tell me what they're talking about. Tell me what they're thinking about. Tell me what they want to talk about. Point to each picture to which you want your student to respond, (taco) Start with Alan and tell me what he's talking about. (airplane) Start with Abby and tell me what she's talking about. Abby is thinking about some things. (bike) Start with she and tell me what she's thinking about. Repeat this stimulus request for (cat), (castle) and (ice cream). Abby wants to talk about the things that she's thinking about. (bike) Start with Abby and tell me what she wants to talk about. Repeat this stimulus request for (cat), (castle) and (ice cream). Alan is thinking about some things. (dog) Start with Alan and tell me what he's thinking about. Repeat this stimulus request for (tow truck), (baseball cap) and (rabbit). Alan wants to talk about the things that he's thinking about, (dog) Start with Alan and tell me what he wants to talk about. Repeat this stimulus request for (tow truck), (baseball cap) and (rabbit).

Let's talk about things and animals that you want to talk about. Use the items on the next two pages and ask your student to select one at a time and tell you what he wants to talk about. When he's made his selection, encourage him to say two things about the object or animal.
Before asking him to do this, discuss each object, presenting at least two facts about each of these objects (classification, use, descriptive characteristics). Give him enough manageable information from which to generate his own comments. Example; (Present stimulus request) Start with I and tell me what you want to talk about. He should point to his choice and tell you that he wants to talk about a particular animal or object. Then encourage him to tell you two things about his choice. (Present stimulus request) Start with a/an {object or animal of choice) and tell me something about (object or animal of choice). You can help him further by presenting more structured stimulus requests such as; Tell me what a (choice) has, does, eats, says/ where a (choice) goes/ what a (choice) looks like, etc.

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W h a t d o y o u w a n t t o talk a b o u t ?

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Talking in Sentences

62

.
(Child) (action or verb phrase) in the

Target: (Child) (action or verb phrase) in the morning. In the morning, (child) (action or verb phrase). afternoon. In the afternoon, (child) (action or verb phrase).

Introduction: Kevin does some things in the morning. In the morning, Kevin wakes up and stretches. He eats breakfast and gets dressed for school. He rides the bus to school. Kevin works hard at school in the morning. In the afternoon, Kevin has lunch. He works hard at school in the afternoon, too. He rides the bus home from school. Kevin does his homework and plays outside in the afternoon.

Listen and respond:

Talk about things that Kevin does in the morning and in the afternoon. Point to the picture to which you want your student to respond.

What's the first thing Kevin does in the morning? What are two things that Kevin does in the morning before he gets on the school bus? How does Kevin get to school in the morning? In the morning, what does he do at school? When does Kevin eat his lunch? In the afternoon, what does Kevin do at school? How does Kevin get home from school in the afternoon? What does Kevin do after school in the afternoon? In the afternoon, what does Kevin do outside? (Point to lunch) Start with Kevin and tell me what he does in the afternoon (school work) Start with Kevin and tell me what he does in the afternoon, (school bus) Start with Kevin and tell me what he does in the afternoon, (homework) Start with in and tell me what Kevin does in the afternoon, (outdoor play) Start with in and tell me what Kevin does in the afternoon. (Point to stretching) morning. Start with Kevin and tell me what he does in the

(breakfast) Start with Kevin and tell me what he does in the morning, (gets dressed) Start with Kevin and tell me what he does in the morning, (school bus) Start with in and tell me what Kevin does in the morning, (school work) Start with in and tell me what Kevin does in the morning.

Let's talk about what you do in the morning and in the afternoon. List several activities that your student does in the morning and in the afternoon. Ask your student to tell you about each of them. Example: Do you brush your teeth in the morning? (Yes) Start with I and tell me this. Example: Do you play outside in the afternoon? (Yes) Start with I and tell me this.

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Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

J i l l ]
What happens during the day? W h a t h a p p e n s d u r i n g the night?

Talking in Sentences

Target: (Occurrence) takes place during the day. During the day (occurrence) takes place. (Occurrence) takes place during the night. During the night (occurrence) takes place.

Introduction: During the day, many things are happening. Children go to school during the day. Birds fly around during the day. The zoo is open. Anyone can go to the zoo and see the animals. People can work outside. They can take care of their yards and plant flowers. During the day, children can play outside. Different things are happening during the night. During the night, the moon and stars are out. Owls are awake during the night. During the night, the zoo is closed. People are asleep during the night.

Listen and respond:

Talk about what happens during the day and during the night.

Do children go to school during the day or the night? Are owls awake during the day or the night? When is the zoo closed-during the day or during the night? When are most of the animals at the zoo awake-during the day or during the night? When are most of the animals at the zoo asleep? When can people plant flowers-during the day or at night? Why don't people plant flowers during the night? When are the moon and stars out-during the day or at night? When do birds fly around-during the day or night? When do children play outside? Why don't children play outside during the night?

Start with the and tell me if the zoo is open during the day. Start with the and tell me if the zoo is closed during the night. Do people plant flowers during the day or night? (Day) Start with people and tell me this. Do children go to school during the day or during the night? (Day) Start with children and tell me this. Is school opened during the day? (Yes) Start with during and tell me this. Are the moon and stars out during the day or during the night? (night) Start with the moon and stars and tell me this. Are owls awake during the day or at night? (Night) Start with owls and tell me this. Do children play outside during the day? (Yes) Start with children and tell me this. Do birds fly around during the day? (Yes) Start with birds and tell me this.

Let's talk about things that happen during the day and during the night. List some things that your student experiences during the day and during the night. Ask your student to tell you about each of them. Example: Is it dark outside during the night? (Yes) Start with it and tell me about this. Example: During the night is it dark? (Yes) Start with during and tell me about this.

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Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

W h a t d o e s ( n a m e ) d o w h e n s h e ' s (state o f b e i n g ) ? W h a t d o e s ( n a m e ) d o w h e n h e ' s (state o f b e i n g ) ?

Circuit Publications

Talking in Sentences

68

r r r i

Target:

(Child) (action) when (circumstance).

Introduction: Kevin is sick. He stays in bed when he's sick. He takes his temperature when he's sick. He takes medicine when he's sick. Kathy is thirsty. Kathy drinks something when she's thirsty. Maria is happy. When Maria is happy, she smiles. Jerome is hungry. Jerome eats something when he's hungry. Matt is running fast. He's in a hurry to get somewhere. When Matt's in a hurry, he runs fast. Mary Ellen is confused. She doesn't understand something. When Mary Ellen is confused, she asks questions.

Listen and respond:

Answer the questions.

Talk about these children. Tell me when they do certain things.

What does Kevin do when he's sick? When does Kathy drink something? What does Maria do when she's happy? When does Jerome eat something? What does Matt do when he's in a hurry? When does Kevin stay in bed and rest? When does Maria smile? When does Matt run fast?

Does Kevin take medicine when he's sick? (Yes) Start with Kevin and tell me this. Does Kathy drink something when she's thirsty? (Yes) Start with Kathy and tell me this. Does Maria smile when she's happy? (Yes) Start with Maria and tell me this. Does Jerome eat something when he's hungry? (Yes) Start with Jerome and tell me this. Does Matt run fast when he's in a hurry? (Yes) Start with Matt and tell me this. What does Kevin do when he's sick? Start with when and tell me.

What does Kathy do when she's thirsty? What does Kathy do when she's thirsty? Start with when and tell me. What does Jerome do when he's hungry? What does Maria do when she's happy? Start with Maria and tell me. What does Mary Ellen do when she's confused? What does Jerome do when he's hungry? Start with Jerome and tell me. What does Matt do when he's in a hurry? Start with Matt and tell me. What does Mary Ellen do when she's confused? Start with Mary Ellen and tell me. Let's talk about what you do sometimes. Ask your student what she does when she's sick, hungry, thirsty, happy, in a hurry, sad, scared, surprised, etc. List some things that she tells you she does in certain circumstances. Ask her to tell you about each one. Example: Do you cry when you 're sad? (Yes) Start with / and tell me.

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Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

I J

Who knows how to do something? W h o doesn't know how to do something? Who ,s showmg someone how to do something? W h o is watching? Who is learning how to do something?

Target: Someone knows how to (action or verb phrase). Someone doesn't know how to (action or verb phrase). Someone is watching someone. Someone is showing someone how to (action or verb phrase). Someone is learning to (how to) (action or verb phrase). Introduction: Maria knows how to fly a kite. Alan doesn't know how to fly a kite. Alan is watching Maria. Maria is showing Alan how to fly a kite. Alan is learning how to fly a kite. These workers know how to do some special things for their jobs. These children don't know how to do the things that the workers can do. The baker knows how to bake bread and cakes. Tonya doesn't know how to bake cakes or bread. Tonya is watching the baker. The baker is showing her how to bake bread. The mechanic knows how to check the oil in a car's engine. Matt doesn't know how to check the car's oil. Matt is watching the mechanic. She is showing Matt how to check the car's oil. The clown knows how to juggle five balls. Jerome and Abby don't know how to juggle five balls. They are watching the clown. He is showing them how to juggle five balls. These children are watching the workers and learning to do these special things.

Listen and respond:


Does Maria know how to fly a kite? Does Alan know how to fly a kite? What is Maria showing Alan how to do? Who is Alan watching? What is Alan learning to do? What does the baker know how to do? Does Tonya know how to bake cakes or bread? What is the baker showing Tonya how to do? What is Tonya doing? What is Tonya learning to do? What does the mechanic know how to do? Does Matt know how to check the oil in a car's engine? What is the mechanic showing Matt how to do? What is Matt doing? What is Matt learning to do? What does the clown know how to do? Do Abby or Jerome know how to juggle five balls at one time? What is the clown showing Abby and Jerome how to do? What are Jerome and Abby doing? What are they learning to do?

Talk about these children and these workers. Talk about what someone knows how to do. Talk about someone who doesn't know how to do something. Tell me about someone who showing someone how to do something. Talk about someone learning to do something, someone who is watching and learning. Start with Maria and tell me what she knows how to do. Alan doesn't know how to fly a kite, does he? (No) Start with Alan and tell me this. Is Maria showing Alan how to fly a kite? (Yes) Start with Maria and tell me this. Is Alan watching Maria? (Or, is Alan watching Maria fly a kite?) (Yes) Start with Alan and tell me this. Is Alan learning to fly a kite? (Yes) Start with Alan and tell me this. Does Tonya know how to bake cakes and bread? (No) Start with Tonya and tell me. Is the baker showing Tonya how to bake bread? (Yes) Start with the and tell me. Does Matt know how to check the car's oil? (No) Start with Matt and tell me. Is the mechanic showing Matt how to check the car's oil? (Yes) Start with the and tell me. Do Jerome and Abby know how to juggle? (No) Start with Jerome and Abby and tell me. Is the clown showing them how to juggle? (Yes) Start with the and tell me.

Let's talk about watching and learning. Discuss learning to do things that we don't know how to do. Discuss watching and listening to someone who knows how to do these things. Discuss the result of watching and UsteningAearning to do something new. Ask your student to talk about what he doesn't or didn't know how to do. Talk about how he might learn how to do some of these things.

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Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

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Who knows how to do something? Who doesn't know how to do s o m e t h i n g ' W h o i s showing s o m e o n e h o w t o d o s o m e t h i n g ? W h o i s w a t c h i n g ? W h o i s l e a r n i n g h o w t o d o s o m e t h i n g ?

Target: Someone knows how to do something. Someone doesn't know how to do something. Someone is watching someone do something. Someone is showing someone how to do something. Someone is watching. Someone is learning to (how to) do something. Introduction: Kevin knows how to play the guitar. Abby doesn't know how to play the guitar. Kevin is showing Abby how to play the guitar. Abby is watching Kevin. She is learning to play the guitar. The teacher knows how to use the computer. Jenny and Kevin don't know how to use the computer. The teacher is showing them how to use it. The carpenter is showing Kathy how to build a wooden stool. Maria and Todd don't know how to open a fire hydrant. The firefighter is showing Maria and Todd how to open the hydrant.

Listen and respond:


Does Kevin know how to play the guitar? Does Abby know how to play the guitar? Who is showing Abby how to play the guitar? Who is watching Kevin play the guitar? Who is learning to play the guitar? Does the teacher know how to use the computer? Do Jenny or Kevin know how to use the computer? Who is showing someone to use the computer? Who is watching and learning to use to use the computer? Who knows how to build a wooden stool? Does Kathy know how to build a wooden stool? Who is showing someone how to build a wooden stool? Who is watching and learning to build a wooden stool? Who is opening a fire hydrant? Do Maria or Todd know how to open a fire hydrant? Who is showing Maria and Todd how to open a fire hydrant? Who is watching and learning to open a fire hydrant?

Talk about these children and these workers. Talk about what someone knows how to do. Talk about someone who doesn't know how to do something. Tell me about someone who is showing someone how to do something. Start with Kevin and tell me what he knows how to do. Abby doesn't know how to play the guitar, does she? (No) Start with Abby and tell me this. Is Kevin showing Abby how to play the guitar? (Yes) Start with Kevin and tell me this? Is Abby watching Kevin? (Or, is Abby watching Kevin play the guitar?) (Yes) Start with Abby and tell me this. Is Abby learning to play the guitar? (Yes) Start with Abby and tell me this. Do Kevin or Jenny know how to use the computer? (No) Start with Kevin and Jenny and tell me. Is the teacher showing them how to use the computer? (Yes) Start with the teacher and tell me. Does Kathy know how to build a wooden stool? (No) Start with Kathy and tell me. Is the carpenter showing her how to build a stool? (Yes) Start with the and tell me. Do Maria or Todd know how to open a fire hydrant? (No) Start with Maria and Todd and tell me this. Is the firefighter showing them how to open a fire hydrant? (Yes) Start with the firefighter and tell me.

Let's talk about watching and learning. Discuss learning to do things that we don't know how to do. Discuss watching and listening to someone do these things. Discuss the result of watching and listening-learning to do something new. Ask your student to talk about things she doesn't know how to do. Talk about how she might learn to do some of these things.

73

Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

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What does someone's teacher teach him to do? What does someone's teacher teach her about?

Circuit Publications

Talking in Sentences

74

Target:

Their teacher teaches them to/about (activity). Our teacher teaches us to/about (activity).

Introduction: Todd and Jenny like their teacher, Ms. Banks. Ms. Banks teaches her students many things. She teaches them how to tell stories. She teaches them how to do math problems. She teaches them about different places. She teaches them how to use the computer. She teaches her students how to write letters. She teaches them how to take care of the fish in the aquarium. She teaches them about different plants.

Listen and respond:

Talk about the things that Todd and Jenny's teacher teaches them. Point to each picture to which you want your student to respond.

Do Todd and Jenny like their teacher? What do you think she teaches them about fish? What does their teacher teach them about plants? What does she teach them about telling stories? What does Todd and Jenny's teacher tell them to do with the globe? Does Ms. Banks teach the students how to spell hard words? Does she teach them how to do math problems? Does Ms. Banks teach her students how to write letters? What do you think she teaches them about plants? Does she teach them how to use the computer? (story) Start with she and tell me what she teaches her students how to do. (computer) Start with she and tell me what she teaches them how to do. (spell) Start with she and tell me what she teaches them how to do. (math) Start with she and tell me what she teaches them how to do. (letters) Start with she and tell me what she teaches them how to do. (plants) Start with she and tell me what she teaches her students about, (places) Start with she and tell me what she teaches them about, (fish) Start with she and tell me what she teaches them about.

Let's talk about your teacher and what she (he) teaches you. List several things that your student tells you that her teacher teaches her or her class about or that she teaches them how to do. Ask your student to tell you about each of these. Example: Does your teacher teach you how to read? (Yes) Example: Start with our and tell me about this. Start with our teacher and tell me this.

Does your teacher teach you about dinosaurs? (Yes)

Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

M ) M ) J ) ) ) J I ) ) } ) ) ) } ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )
W h a t d o

J J J

P a r e n t s s h o w their c h i l d r e n how t o do?

W h a t d o p a r e n t s tell their c h i l d r e n not t o do?

Talking in Sentences

76

Target: (Parents) are showing (children) how to (action or verb phrase). (Parents) show children how to (action or verb phrase). (Parents) are telling (children) not to (action or verb phrase). (Parents) tell children not to (action or verb phrase).

Introduction: Look at Sam and Jenny. Their mother and father are showing them how to do some things. Mom is showing Sam how to dial an emergency phone number. Dad is showing Jenny how to set an alarm clock so she can wake up on time. Mom and Dad are telling Jenny and Sam something important. They are telling them not to get in cars with strangers. Parents show children how to do many things. Parents also tell their children not to do some things. Parents want their children to be careful and safe. They tell their children not to do things that could put them in danger.

Listen and respond:

Talk about things that Mom and Dad are telling their children.

Mom is showing Sam what to do if there's an emergency. What is she showing him how to do? Dad is showing Jenny how to do something that will help her wake up in the morning. What is he showing her how to do? Mom and Dad are telling Sam and Jenny not to do something that might put them in danger. What are they telling them not to do?

Mom wants Sam to know how to dial an emergency phone number. She is showing Sam how to dial 911. Start with Mom and tell me what she's showing Sam how to do. Dad wants Jenny to know how to set an alarm clock so that she'll wake up in the morning. He is showing her how to set an alarm clock. Start with Dad and tell me what he's showing Jenny how to do. Mom and Dad want Sam and Jenny to be safe. What are they telling the children to help keep them out of danger? Start with Mom and Dad and tell me what they're telling Sam and Jenny not to do.

Let 's talk about things that parents show children how to do. What are some things that parents tell children not to do? List some things that your student says that her parents teach or show her how to do. List some things that her parents tell her to do or not to do in order to stay out of danger. Suggestions, not to do: talk to strangers, play in the street, go swimming when there s no one else around. Suggestions, to do: wear a seat belt, wear a bike helmet, cross the street at a crosswalk or with a crossing guard, always tell a grown-up where you 're going, find a police officer if you 're lost. Ask your student to tell you about each of these things. Example: Does your dad tell you not to get in a car with a stranger? (Yes) Start with Dad and tell me what Dad tells you not to do. Example: Did your mom show how to use the printer on your computer? (Yes) Start with Mom and tell me what your mom showed you how to do.

77

Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

W h a t d o (child) a n d (child) like t o d o a t t h e p a r k ? W h a t d o ( c h i l d ) , (child) a n d (child) like t o d o a t t h e p a r k ?

Talking in Sentences

78

i
Target:

i :

(Name) and (name) like to (action or verb phrase) at the park. (Name), (name), (name) and (name) like to (action or verb phrase) at the park.

Introduction: Sam and Matt are friends. They like to do many things at the park in their town. Abby and Miko are friends too. They like to have fun at the park. Sam and Matt like to ride their bikes in the park. Abby and Miko like to run on the road at the park. Sam and Matt like to have a picnic at the park. Abby and Miko like to play on the swings at the park. Miko and Abby like to play volleyball in the park. Sam and Matt like to play on the slide at the park. Sam and Matt like to go fishing at the park. Sam and Matt like to play tennis in the park. Miko and Abby like to kick the soccer ball in the park. Sometimes Sam and Matt and Abby and Miko do things together. Sometimes Sam, Matt, Miko and Abby eat a picnic lunch together in the park. Sometimes Sam, Matt, Miko and Abby play baseball in the park. Matt, Abby, Miko and Sam like to play hide-and-seek at the park.

Listen and respond:


What do Sam and Matt like to ride in the park? What do Miko and Abby like to do on the roads in the park? Miko, Abby, Sam and Matt like to pack their lunch and eat it in the park. What is this called? Miko and Abby like to play a game using a big ball and hitting it to each other over a net. What game is this? Matt and Sam like to play a game in which racquets, a net and a ball are used. What game is this? Sam and Matt like to play on something on which they have to climb up and slide down. Which playground toy is this? Miko and Abby like to kick a ball in the park. What kind of ball? Sam and Matt like to do something for which they need a rod, a line, bait and a stream. What is this? Miko, Abby, Matt and Sam like to play a game in which they need a bat and ball. What game is this? Miko, Matt, Abby and Sam like to play a game in which children hide and another child finds them. What game is this?

Talk about these children and what they like to do at the park. Start with Matt and Sam and tell me what they like to do with bikes in the park. Start with Miko and Abby and tell me what they like to do on the road in the park. Start with Miko and Abby and tell me what they like to do with the soccer ball in the park Start with Matt and Sam and tell me what they like to with tennis racquets in the park. Start with Matt and Sam and tell me what they like to do with the slide in the park. Start with Sam and Matt and tell me what they like to do with fishing rods in the park. Start with Abby and Miko and tell me what they like to do with a volleyball in the park. Start with Sam, Matt, Abby and Miko and tell me what they like to do with a picnic lunch in the park. Start with Sam, Matt, Abby and Miko and tell me what they like to do with a baseball bat and ball in the park. Do Sam, Matt, Abby and Miko like to play hide-and-seek at the park? Start with Sam, Matt, Abby and Miko and tell me this.

Let's talk about what you and your friend like to do on the playground, at the park or in some other special place. Ask your student to tell you her best friend s name. Then list some things they like to do at a place where they go to have fun. Ask your student to tell you about each of these things that she and her friend like to do. Example: Do you and (name) like to (jump rope) on the playground? (Yes) Start with (name) and I and tell me what you like to do on the playground.

79

Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

I )

I ]

! ) I

II

W h a t did (child) a n d (child) d o a t t h e p a r k (day)?

Circuit Publications

Talking in Sentences

80

[ [ f i l l
Target:

(Day) (name) and (name) did (action or verb phrase) and (action or verb phrase) at the park.

Introduction: Sam and Matt like to play at the park. Abby and Miko like to play at the park. They went to the park every day last week. Each time they went to the park, they did two things. On Sunday Matt and Sam played football and rode their bikes at the park. Abby and Miko went fishing and kicked a soccer ball. After school on Monday Matt and Sam played on the swings and kicked a soccer ball at the park. Miko and Abby jumped rope and looked at the beautiful butterflies. On Tuesday Sam and Matt collected leaves, then jumped rope at the park. Miko and Abby played on the swings after they ran a race against each other. Wednesday Sam and Matt threw a Frisbee and flew their kites. Miko and Abby collected leaves after they went fishing. Thursday Abby and Miko jumped rope after they played volleyball. Sam and Matt watched the butterflies after they played on the slide at the park. On Friday Sam, Matt, Miko and Abby played volleyball and flew their kites at the park. On Saturday Abby, Miko, Matt and Sam played baseball and had a picnic. Listen and respond: Say each of these sentences and ask your student to repeat each one after you. Point to pictures and prompt as needed to help her do this. Talk about these children and the things that they did at the park on different days last week. Point to the pictures to which you want your student to respond. 1. (Point to soccer ball and fishing rods.) Start with Abby and Miko and tell me two things they did at the park on Sunday. Repeat this stimulus request for the following days and girls'activities: (Monday, jump rope, butterflies) (Tuesday, swings, race) (Wednesday, fishing rods, leaves) (Thursday, jump rope, volleyball) 2. (Point to football and bikes.) Start with Matt and Sam and tell me two things they did at the park on Sunday. Repeat this stimulus request for the following days and boys' activities: (Monday, swings, soccer ball) (Tuesday, leaves, jump rope) (Wednesday, Frisbee, kites) (Thursday, butterflies, slide) 3. (Point to volleyball.) Start with Miko, AbbySam and Matt and tell me what they did at the park on Friday. 4. (Point to kites.) Start with Miko, Abby,Sam and Matt and tell me what else they did at the park on Friday. 5. (Point to baseball and bat) Start with Miko, Abby, Sam and Matt and tell me something they did at the park on Saturday. 6. (Point to picnic table) Start with Sam, Matt, Miko and Abby and tell me something else they did at the park on Saturday.

Sam and Matt played football and rode their bikes in the park on Sunday. Miko and Abby went fishing and kicked a soccer ball on Sunday at the park. Matt and Sam played on the swings and kicked a soccer ball at the park on Monday On Monday Abby and Miko looked at butterflies and jumped rope. Matt and Sam collected leaves and jumped rope on Tuesday at the park. On Tuesday Miko and Abby ran a race and played on the swings. Wednesday Abby and Miko went fishing and collected leaves at the park. Sam and Matt threw a Frisbee and flew their kites on Wednesday. On Thursday Miko and Abby jumped rope and played volleyball at the park. Matt and Sam played on the slide and watched the butterflies on Thursday. On Friday Miko, Abby, Matt and Sam flew kites and played volleyball at the park. Saturday Sam, Miko, Matt and Abby played baseball with their friends and had a picnic.

Let's talk about some things that you and your (family member) or friend did yesterday. Ask your student to tell you of a family member or friend who he might have been with at a time in the past (yesterday, last week, last summer, etc.). List some things that your student and his partner might have done at this time. Then ask him to tell you about this. Example: Did your brother and you read books and watch TV yesterday? (Yes) Start with yesterday and tell me what your brother and you did.

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Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

W h a t d o e s ( n a m e ) like t o d o ? W h a t d o e s ( n a m e ) h a v e t o do? W h a t d o e s ( n a m e ) w a n t t o d o ? W h y d o e s ( n a m e ) n e e d (object)?

Talking in Sentences

82

( ( { . ( (
Target:

(Name) likes to /needs to/wants to (activity). He/she needs a/an (object) so he/she can (activity).

Introduction: Each of these children likes to (action or verb phrase) or needs to (action or verb phrase). Each one needs something special so he or she can do something. Matt likes to color pictures. He needs crayons so he can color his pictures. Jerome likes to play tennis. He needs a tennis racquet and ball so he can play tennis. Jenny needs to cut something. She needs scissors so she can cut. Jude needs to sharpen his pencil. He needs a pencil sharpener so he can sharpen his pencil. Todd wants to see something far away. He needs binoculars so he can see something far away. Tonya needs to measure something. She needs a ruler so she can measure. Maria needs to pack some things for a trip. She needs her suitcase so she can pack her things. Mary Ellen wants to cook something. She needs a pan so she can cook something. Miko wants to listen to music. She needs a radio so she can listen to music. Sam wants to ride his bike. He needs his helmet so he can ride his bike. Kevin wants to cut his meat and eat it. He needs a knife and fork so he can cut his meat and eat it. Kathy wants to ice skate. She needs her ice skates so she can skate. Alan needs a TV so he can watch his favorite program. Abby needs a box so she can put some things away. Listen and respond: Finish these sentences: . Talk about these children and the things that they need. Start with Start with Start with . Start with Start with . . Start with Start with Start with Start with Start with Start with Start with . . Start with Start with

Matt needs his crayons so he can

Jerome needs his tennis racquet and ball so he can Jenny needs her scissors so she can Jude needs a pencil sharpener so he can Todd needs binoculars so he can Mary Ellen needs a pan so she can Tonya needs a ruler so she can Maria needs a suitcase so she can Kevin needs a knife and fork so he can Miko needs a radio so she can Sam needs a helmet so he can Kathy needs ice skates so she can Alan needs a TV so he can Abby needs a box so she can . . . .

Let's talk about why you need some things. List some things that your student tells you she likes or needs to do. Then discuss what might be needed to do each of these things. Ask her to tell you why she needs each object. Example: Do you have to write something? (Yes) Do you need a pencil so you can write? (Yes) Start with I and tell me why you need a pencil.

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Talking in Sentences

Circuit Publications

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II

W h a t d o e s a ( w o r k e r ) do? W h y does he/she n e e d a ( a n ) (object)?

Talking in Sentences

Target:

A (worker) (does a job). He/she needs (object) so he/she can (do a job).

Introduction: A teacher teaches children about people, places and things. She teaches children how to do new things. A teacher needs a chalkboard so she can write things on the board for the class to see. She needs a globe so she can teach children where different places in the world are. She needs a computer and software so she can teach children new information and new skills on the computer. A firefighter puts out fires. She needs a fire hydrant so she can get water. She needs a hose so she can get water from the hydrant to put out the fire. She needs a fire extinguisher so she can put out fires that water won't put out. A carpenter builds things out of wood. He needs a saw to cut the wood. He needs a hammer and nails to fasten pieces of wood together. He needs a tape measure so he can measure. A carpenter needs a drill so he can drill holes in wood. Listen and respond: Answer the questions or finish the sentences: Talk about what these workers need to do their jobs.

What does a firefighter do? What does a firefighter need so she can get water? A firefighter needs a hose so she can get water from the hydrant to the . What does a firefighter need in order to put out fires that water won't put out? What does a teacher do? Why does a teacher need a chalkboard? A teacher needs a globe so she can show children .

Start w th a teacher and tell me what a teacher does. Start w Ith a teacher and tell me why she needs a chalkboard. Start w Ith a teacher and tell me why she needs a computer and software. Start w Ith a teacher and tell me why she needs a globe. Start w Ith a firefighter and tell me what a firefighter does. Start w th a firefighter and tell me why she needs a fire hydrant. Start w th a firefighter and tell me why she needs a hose. Start w th a firefighter and tell me why she needs a fire extinguisher. Start w th a carpenter and tell me what a carpenter does. Start w th a carpenter and tell me why he needs a hammer and nails. Start w th a carpenter and tell me why he needs a tape measure. and _ Start w th a carpenter and tell me why he needs a saw. Start w th a carpenter and tell me why he needs a drill.

What does a teacher use to teach children computer skills? What does a carpenter do? Why does a carpenter need a tape measure? To fasten boards together, a carpenter needs a What does a carpenter do with a saw? Why does a carpenter need a drill?

Let's talk about the things that people need so they can do their jobs. List some workers with whom your student is familiar. Discuss some of his jobs, duties or skills and list some tools that he needs in order to do each of those things. Ask your student to tell you of each worker and each tool needed for a particular task. Ask her to tell you about each one. Example: Does an artist need brushes and paint so he can paint a picture? (Yes) Start with an artist and tell me this.

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i l l )

W h a t d o e s a ( w o r k e r ) d o ? W h y d o e s h e / s h e n e e d a ( a n ) (object)?

Circuit Publications

Talking in

Sentences

Target:

A (worker) (does a job) She/he needs (object) so she/he can (do a job).

Introduction: A mechanic works with machines. She takes care of them so they keep working as they should. She fixes them when they are broken. She needs wrenches to loosen or tighten bolts. She needs a tool box to put her tools in. She needs oil to put into the machines. A clown works to make people laugh. He needs make-up to make himself look like a clown. He needs a silly hat to wear as part of his costume. He needs balloons to give to children to make them smile. A baker bakes bread, cakes, pies and other delicious things. She needs a big bowl to mix the batter in. She needs a spoon to mix the batter with. She needs pans to bake the bread and cakes in.

Listen and respond: sentences. What does a mechanic do?

Answer these questions or finish these

Talk about what these workers need to do their jobs. Start with a and tell me what a mechanic does. Start with a and tell me why a mechanic needs wrenches.

A mechanic needs a wrench to tighten or loosen What does a mechanic need to put her tools in? A mechanic needs oil to put in What does a clown do? Why does a clown need funny make-up? Why does a clown wear a silly hat? A clown needs balloons so he can What does a baker do? What does a baker need to mix the batter in? Why does a baker need pans? A baker needs a big spoon so she can . . .

Start with a and tell me why a mechanic needs a tool box. Start with a and tell me why a mechanic needs oil. Start with a and tell me what a clown does. Start with a and tell me why a clown needs funny make-up. Start with a and tell me why a clown needs a silly hat. Start with a and tell me why a clown needs balloons. Start with a and tell me why a baker needs a big bowl. Start with a and tell me why a baker needs a big spoon. Start with a and tell me why a baker needs baking pans.

Let's talk about the things that people need so they can do their jobs. List some of the workers that your student is familiar with. Discuss some of her jobs, duties or skills and list some tools that she needs in order to do each of these things. Ask your student to tell you about each worker and about each tool needed in order to do a particular job. List some workers, tools and jobs that you discuss with your student. Ask your student to tell you about each one. Example: Does a referee need a whistle so she can tell basketball players to stop playing their game? (Yes) Start with a referee and tell me this.

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W h y d o (animals) h a v e (special body p a r t s ) ?

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Talking in Sentences

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Target:

(Animals) have (special body parts ) so they can (action or verb phrase).

(Animals) have (special body parts) to (action or verb phrase).

Introduction: Animals have special parts of their bodies so they can do things that they need to do. Kangaroos have pouches so they can carry their babies. Birds have wings so they can fly. Crabs have claws so they can gather food in the water. Turtles have hard shells to cover their bodies and protect them from rain. Horses have hooves to protect their feet. Deer have antlers to defend themselves. Fish have fins so they can swim in the water. Cats have whiskers to help them feel things that are close to their faces. Alligators have lots of teeth so they can eat many different things.

Listen and respond:

Talk about these animals and why they need some special parts of their bodies.

Which animals have fins? Do you know why? Some animal have whiskers to help them feel things close to their faces. Which animals are these? Crabs have certain body parts so they can gather food. What are they? Some animals have pouches. Which animals are these? Why do they have pouches? Birds have special body parts so they can fly. What are they? Some large animals that can run fast have hooves to protect their feet. Which animals are these? What do alligators have lots of? Why? Why do turtles have hard shells? Which animals have antlers? Why? Some animals have fins. Which animals are these? Why do they have them? Which animals need antlers so they can defend themselves? Note: Deer and fish are irregular plural nouns. Start with crabs and tell me why they need claws. Start with horses and tell me why they need hooves. Start with birds and tell me why they need wings. Start with kangaroos and tell me why they need pouches. Start with cats and tell me why they need whiskers. Start with turtles and tell me why they need hard shells. Start with alligators and tell me why they need lots of teeth. Start with deer and tell me why they need antlers. Start with fish and tell me why they need fins.

Let's talk about animals and why they have special parts of their bodies. Discuss animals with which your student is familiar. Discuss the concept of finding and eating food. Discuss such things as meat-eating animals needing sharp teeth to chew meat. Animals that don't eat meat have teeth that are not sharp. Notice that this is the same today as is it was for dinosaurs a long time ago. Discuss how dogs use their paws. Talk about how animals protect themselves and certain body parts that help them do this. Ask her to tell you about each one. Example: Do dogs use their paws to dig holes and bury things? (Yes) Start with dogs and tell me this.

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i ,

W h a t should c h i l d r e n do?

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Talking in Sentences

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:
Target: Children should (verb clause).

'

Introduction*. Children should do many things to stay healthy and happy and to be good to people. Children should try to stay healthy. They should eat healthy food like fruits and vegetables to stay healthy. They should get exercise. Children should help their parents. Children should be ready to go to school on time. They should help clean up inside the house and outside. Children should be good to each other. They should share their toys. Children should be good to animals. They should take care of their pets. Children should use their imaginations. They should play and pretend.

Listen and respond:


Why should children eat good healthy food? Why should children get exercise? What are some things that children should do to help people? Why should children be ready for school on time? Talk about some things that children should do to be good to each other. What are some things that children should do to be good to animals? Why should children use their imagination? How can they do this?

Talk about things that children should do. Your students answers should be appropriate but come from his own experience. The pictures presented here should give him ideas. What should children do so their bodies stay strong and healthy? Start with children and tell me what they should do. What else should children do to stay healthy and strong? Start with children and tell me what they should do. What should children do to help people? Start with children and tell me what they should do. What should children do to be good to animals? Start with children and tell me what they should do. What should children do when they try to be good to each other? Start with children and tell me what they should do. What should children do when they use their imaginations? Start with children and tell me. What should children do to be ready for school on time? Start with children and tell me.

Let's talk about things that you should do. Encourage your student to say things that he should do in his own environment and experience. Ask him to tell you what he and his family should do or what he and his friends should do. List several things that he says that he, his family or friends should do. Ask him to tell you about each one. Example: Should you share your markers with your sister? (Yes) Start with I and tell me this. Note that the meanings of the word should and the phrase supposed to are often used interchangeably, but the meanings are different: should conveys advisability, supposed to conveys expectation.

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W h a t are children supposed to do?

] ) ) ) ) ) )

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[(
Target:

Children are supposed to do some things.

Introduction: Children are expected to or supposed to do some things. They must take or share responsibility for some things. Some of these things might well be the same as the things that they say that they should do; the meanings of should and supposed to differ only slightly. This phrase occurs frequently in conversation. It is important to present the phrase supposed to as a focal point. Children are supposed to so some things. They're are responsible for some things. As children grow up, they are responsible for more and more things. People expect children to do more and more. Children are supposed to go to bed early. They must get enough sleep so they will be able to pay attention and get their work done at school. Children are supposed to get to school on time. Children are supposed to listen to their teachers. If they listen to their teachers they will learn about many new things. Teachers are supposed to help children learn. Children are supposed to do their chores. They are supposed to help clean their rooms. Children are supposed to put their things away when they're finished using them. Children are supposed to wear helmets when they ride their bikes. Children are supposed to do their homework. Children are supposed to respect other children. Parents are supposed to take good care of their children. Parents are supposed to love their children.

Listen and respond:


Why are children supposed to go to go to bed early? When are you supposed to get to school? Why are children supposed to listen to their teachers? What kinds of chores are you supposed to do at home? What are you supposed to wear when you ride your bike? Why are you supposed to do your homework? What are you supposed to do when you cross the street? Are children supposed to respect other children? How do you think they do this? Are teachers supposed to help children learn? How do you think they do this? Are parents supposed to take care of their children? How do they do this? What are some things that your teacher is supposed to do?

Talk about some things that grown-ups and children are supposed to do. Instruct your student to begin with I or we when referring to herself or herself along with others.

What time are you supposed to go to bed? Start with I'm and tell me. Are you supposed to get to school on time. (Yes) Start with I'm and tell me this. Are you supposed to do chores at home? (Yes) Start with I'm and tell me this. Start with I'm and tell me what you're supposed to wear when you ride your bike. Are you supposed to listen to your teacher? (Yes) Start with I'm and tell me this. Are you supposed to do your homework? (Yes) Start with I'm and tell me this. Are you supposed to put your things away? (Yes) Start with I'm and tell me this. Are you supposed to respect other children? (Yes) Start with I'm and tell me this. Are teachers supposed to help their children learn? (Yes) Start with teachers and tell me this. Are parents supposed to take care of children? (Yes) Start with parents and tell

Let's talk about things that children are supposed to do. Discuss responsibilities to oneself (health and hygiene ideas), family (helping at home, cooperating with parents, etc), and community (school, environment, etc.). List several things that your student says that she, alone or along with others, is supposed to do. Ask her to tell you about each one. Example: Are we supposed to throw trash in the trash container? (Yes) Start with we and tell me what we re supposed to do. Note that some children who are improving their language skills omit the first syllable of the word suppose: if necessary, model the correct pronunciation of this word for your student until she pronounces it correctly. Do this before she is asked to talk to you using these target sentences.

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Where is Jerome supposed to do some things? Does Jerome know where he's supposed to do some things? Does he know where he's not supposed to do some things?

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Target: (Name) knows where he is supposed to (verb phrase). He knows he's supposed to do some things in his (her) classroom. He knows he's not supposed to do some things in his classroom. He's (She's) supposed to (verb phrase) on the playground. Introduction: Jerome knows where he is supposed to do some things and where he's not supposed to do other things. Jerome knows he's supposed to use the chalkboard in his classroom. He's supposed to do his math papers in the classroom. He knows he's supposed to sharpen his pencil in his classroom. He's supposed to look at the globe in his classroom. He's supposed to feed the fish in the aquarium and use the computer in his classroom. Jerome knows he's not supposed to run and jump in his classroom. He's not supposed to yell and shout in his classroom. He's not supposed to kick a ball in the classroom. He's not supposed to play baseball in his classroom. Jerome knows he's not supposed to jump rope in his classroom.

Listen and respond:

Talk about where Jerome is supposed to do some things. Does he know where he's supposed to do some things? Start with Jerome and tell me where he's supposed to sharpen his pencil. Start with he and tell me where he's supposed to feed the fish. Start with Jerome and tell me where he's not supposed to run and jump. Does Jerome know where he's supposed to run and jump? (Yes) Start with Jerome and tell me that he knows this. Start with Jerome and tell me where he's supposed to use the computer. Start with Jerome and tell me where he's supposed to play baseball. Start with Jerome and tell me where he's supposed to write on the chalkboard. Start with Jerome and tell me where he's not supposed to yell and shout. Does Jerome know where he's not supposed to run and shout? (Yes) Start with he and tell me that he knows this. Does he know where he's not supposed to kick a ball? (Yes) Start with he and tell me. Does he know where he's not supposed to play baseball? (Yes) Start with he and tell me.

Does Jerome know where he's supposed to use the computer? Where? Does he know where he's supposed to do his math papers? Does he know where he's not supposed to run and jump? Does he know where he's supposed to feed the fish in the aquarium? Is Jerome supposed to use the computer on the playground? Does Jerome know where he's supposed to yell and shout? Is Jerome supposed to kick a ball in his classroom? Does he know where he's supposed to play baseball? Where is he supposed to run and jump-in his classroom or on the playground? Does he know where he's supposed to use the chalkboard? Where is he supposed to sharpen his pencil-in his classroom or on the playground?

Let's talk about where you are supposed to do some things and where you're not supposed to do these things. Discuss appropriate indoor and outdoor activities. List some of each. Ask your student to tell you if he s supposed to do each one (in her classroom, inside the house, inside a building or outdoors, on the playground, at the park, etc.). Ask her to tell you about each one. Example: Do you know where you 're supposed to run? (Yes) Start with / and tell me that you know this. Start with Vrn and tell me where you 're supposed to run in the house. Do you know where you 're not supposed to run? Start with I and tell me that you know this.

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Talking in Sentences

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Is a n y o n e (doing s o m e t h i n g ) ?

Target:

Someone (somebody)'s (action). No one's (action).

Introduction: These people are doing many things. Someone is jumping. Someone is sleeping. Someone's driving a car. Someone's stretching. Someone's running. Someone's playing a guitar. Someone's crawling. Someone's eating. Someone's crawling. Someone's juggling. Someone's flying a kite. Someone's sitting on a high stool. Someone's walking.

Listen and respond: Instruct your student to tell you that someone is doing the action that you ask her about. If she doesn't find someone doing what you ask, she should say no or no one is (doing this).

Talk

about these people and the things that they're doing.

Is anyone jumping? (Yes) Start with someone and tell me this. Is anyone running? (Yes) Start with someone and tell me. Is anyone eating? (Yes) Start with someone and tell me.

Is anyone jumping? Is anyone running? Is anyone eating? Is anyone reading? Is anyone driving a car? Is anyone playing the drums? Is anyone drinking? Is anyone swimming? Is anyone hopping?

Is anyone juggling? Is anyone sleeping? Is anyone driving a truck? Is anyone crawling? Is anyone flying a kite? Is anyone stretching? Is anyone sitting on a high stool? Is anyone walking? Is anyone looking at something?

Is anyone reading? (No) Start with no one and tell me this. Is anyone driving a car? (Yes) Start with someone and tell me. Is anyone playing the drums? (No) Start with no one and tell me this. Is anyone drinking? (No) Start with no one and tell me. Is anyone swimming? (No) Start with no one and tell me. Is anyone hopping? (No) Start with no one and tell me this. Is anyone juggling? (Yes) Start with someone and tell me. Is anyone sleeping? (Yes) Start with someone and tell me. Is anyone driving a truck? (No) Start with no one and tell me. Is anyone crawling? (Yes) Start with someone and tell me. Is anyone sitting on a high stool? (Yes) Start with someone and tell me. Is anyone stretching? (Yes) Start with someone and tell me.

Let's t a l k about what someone is doing. Look at pictures in children s books or magazines of events where many people are doing different things. Ask
your student questions as above, referring to the actions in the pictures. Or, walk around your school building, inside or outside noticing people doing things and ask these questions. Example: Is someone sweeping the floor? (Yes) Start with someone and tell me this. Note that children might use indefinite pronouns such as someone/somebody interchangeably. Someone is usually used by young children before somebody. The following two pages show pictures that tell the story of Matts birthday party. Encourage your student to listen as you read him the story. Then ask him to retell the story using the indefinite pronouns that are stressed.

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' I I J ) J ) I ) j j 1 I I ] I I I I

) ) i I I I I I I I

Matt's Birthday Party For Matt's seventh birthday he wanted to have a party with his friends. He sent invitations to his friends. Everyone said that they could come. On the day of the party, everyone came on time. Everyone brought presents for Matt. Someone gave him a football. Someone gave him a toy car. Someone gave him a game. Someone gave him a photo album. Someone gave him a new baseball cap. At the party, everyone had a good time. Matt's mom asked what kind of pizza everyone wanted. Everyone wanted pepperoni and mushrooms on their pizza except Matt. Matt wanted only pepperoni on his pizza. Everyone ate the pizza until they had enough. Then Matt asked, "Does anyone want some birthday cake?" Everyone said, "Yes." Everyone sang "Happy Birthday" to Matt and had some cake. After everyone ate pizza and birthday cake, they watched a movie. Soon it was time for everyone to go home. Matt was happy that his friends came to his birthday party. He knew that everyone had a good time.

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'

'

T h e s e things a r e different.

Compare them.

How a r e they different?

Target:

This (animal/object) is (comparative adjective, adjective phrase or adjective clause) than another (animal/object).

Introduction: Look at each of these pairs of animals or things. We're going to talk about comparing something about each pair. The bear is bigger than the squirrel. The rabbit has longer ears than the cat. The horse can run faster than the pig. The alligator has more teeth than the dog. A hammer is heavier than a hat. A watermelon has more seeds than a peach. A castle has more rooms than a house. A tree is taller than a shrub. A drum makes a louder noise than a harmonica. Discuss the concept of comparing two things to each other. Talk about ways that two things are the same or different from each other.

Listen and respond:

Talk about and compare these animals and these things.

Which one is bigger, the bear or the squirrel? Does the rabbit have longer ears than the cat? Which animal can run faster, the horse or the pig? Does the dog have as many teeth as the alligator? Does the peach have as many seeds as the watermelon? Which one has more rooms, the house or the castle? Is a shrub as tall as a tree? Is the hat as heavy as the hammer? Which one makes more noise, a harmonica or a drum?

Start with the and tell me which one is bigger, the bear or the squirrel. Start with the and tell me which one runs faster, the horse or the pig. Start with the and tell me which one has more teeth, the dog or the alligator. Start with the and tell me which one is heavier, the hammer or the hat. Start with the and tell me which one has more rooms, the house or the castle. Start with the and tell me which one has longer ears, the rabbit or the cat. Start with the and tell me which one is taller, the shrub or the tree. Start with the and tell me which one makes more noise, the drum or the harmonica. Start with the and tell me which one has more seeds, a peach or a watermelon.

Let's talk about these things. Compare heights, hair length, shoe size between two students at a time, or between your student and yourself. Compare size, weight, texture, sound, etc. between familiar objects. Use the word compare as you do this. This term is used in many of the materials your student will encounter in his school curriculum. Ask her to tell you about each one. Example; Whose hand is bigger, yours or mine? (Yours) Start with your and tell me this.

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I I

I ) )

I I I I I

Did (child) do s o m e t h i n g ? Did he/she h a v e any help? Did c h i l d r e n do s o m e t h i n g ? Did they h a v e a n y help?

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Target:

She (past action) (object) by herself. He (past action) (object) by himself. They (past action) (object) by themselves.

Introduction: All of these children did something with no help from anyone. The did these things all by themselves. Kathy built a building from blocks by herself. Jude made a model car by himself. Abby and Alan made a card for their mother all by themselves.

Listen and respond:

Talk about these children and the things that they did by themselves.

Who made a model car? Did somebody help him make his model car? Did he make the model car with someone or by himself? Who made the building from blocks? Did she have any help making the building? Did she make the building with someone or by herself? Who made the card for their mom? Did anyone help them make the card? Did they make the card with somebody else or by themselves?

Did Kathy make a building from blocks herself? (Yes) Start with Kathy and tell me this.

Did Jude make a model car by himself? (Yes) Start with Jude and tell me.

Did Alan and Abby make a card for their mother by themselves? (Yes) Start with Alan and Abby and tell me this.

Let's talk about some things that you can do by yourself. Discuss things that your student can do by herself. Discuss such things as getting dressed, making things with building toys, drawing, coloring, taking care of her things, etc. List some things that she tells you that she can do by herself Ask her to tell you about each one. Example: Can you tie your shoes by yourself? (Yes) Start with I and tell me this.
f

Discuss some things that your student can t do by herself Discuss some things that she needs help doing. do by herself Ask her to tell you about each one. Example: You can't cook something by yourself can you? (No) Start with I and tell me this.
Talking in Sentences

List some things that she tells you that she can't

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W o u l d Kevin like to do s o m e t h i n g ? W h a t w o u l d he like to do?

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Target: (Name) would like to (do something).

r r

r i

Introduction: There are many things that Kevin would like to do. He would like to build a tree house. He would like to roller blade in the park. He would like to go fishing. He would like to learn to play the drums. He would like to have a costume party.

Listen and respond: Encourage your student to answer yes only if she knows that Kevin would like to do something.

Talk about things that Kevin would like to do:

Do we know that Kevin would like to play the drums? Would Kevin like to build a tree house? Do we know that Kevin would like to build a bridge? Do we know if Kevin would like to roller blade in the park? Do we know that he would like to play football in the park? Would Kevin like to go fishing? Do we know if Kevin would like to go shopping? Do we know if Kevin would like to play the trumpet? Do we know if he would like to play the violin? Do we know if Kevin would like to have a costume party?

Would Kevin like to build a tree house? (Yes) Start with Kevin and tell me this. Would Kevin like to go fishing? (Yes) Start with Kevin and tell me . Would Kevin like to roller blade in the park? (Yes) Start with he and tell me this. Would Kevin like to have a costume party? (Yes) Start with Kevin and tell me. Would Kevin like to learn to play the drums? (Yes) Start with he and tell me.

Let's talk about things that you would like to do. Discuss some things that your student would like to do or learn to do. Discuss places that she would like to go, people she would like to know, etc. List some of the things she tells you that she would like to do. Ask her to tell you about each one. Example: Would you like to ride on a big ship? (Yes) Start with I would (or I'd) and tell me you'd like to do this.

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) I j

! ] ) | |

| ) ] ] ) | , | , , ) , , , , , ,

W o u l d K a t h y like t o d o s o m e t h i n g ? W h a t w o u l d she like t o do?

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Target:

(Name) would like to do something.

Introduction: Kathy would like to do some things. She would like to ride on an airplane. She would like to learn to play tennis. She'd like to ride a horse. She'd like to learn to play the guitar. She'd like to win first prize in a contest. She'd like to have a costume party.

Listen and respond: Encourage your student to answer yes only if he knows that Kathy would like to do something.

Talk about things that Kathy would like to do.

Would Kathy like to ride on an airplane? Do we know if she'd like to ride on a bus? Do we know that Kathy would like to learn to play tennis? Do we know that she'd like to learn to play football? Would Kathy like to ride a horse? Do we know if she'd like to ride a camel? Would Kathy like to play the guitar? Do we know if she'd like to learn to play the piano? Would Kathy like to win first prize in a contest? What kind of party would Kathy like to have?

Would Kathy like to ride in an airplane? (Yes) Start with Kathy and tell me this. Would Kathy like to ride a horse? (Yes) Start with she and tell me. Would Kathy like to learn to play the guitar? (Yes) Start with she and tell me. Would Kathy like to learn to play tennis? (Yes) Start with she and tell me. Would Kathy like to win first prize in a contest? (Yes) Start with she and tell me this. Would Kathy like to have a costume party? (Yes) Start with she and tell me this.

Let's talk about things that someone you know would like to do. Talk about a special person in your students life (parent, sibling, relative, friend). Discuss things that this person would probably like to do, things he or she would like to learn, places he or she would like to go, people she or he would like to meet, etc. Ask your student to tell you about each one. Example: Would your sister, Kate, like to ride in a hot air balloon? (Yes) Start with Kate (or my sister, Kate) and tell me this.

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W o u l d M a r i a like to h a v e a kitten? W h a t w o u l d M a r i a do if s h e h a d a kitten?

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Target:

(Name) would do something if (she/he) had something.

Introduction: Maria wishes that she could have a kitten. Maria thinks about all the things she would do for her kitten if she had a kitten. If she had a kitten, she would hold the kitten and pet it. She would feed her kitten special food for kittens and cats. If Maria had a kitten, she would give her kitten a bath. She would brush her kitten's fur. If Maria had a kitten, she would take her kitten to the vet for its shots. If she had a kitten, she would get a nice soft bed for it. If Maria had a kitten, she would clean out its litter box. If Maria had a kitten, she would play with it and love it a lot. If Maria had a kitten, she would be very happy!

Listen and respond:


Would Maria like to have a kitten? If Maria had a kitten, would she pet it? Would Maria buy a special soft cat bed if she had a kitten? Would Maria need some special food for her kitten if she had a kitten? If Maria had a kitten, would she play with it? Would Maria need a special brush if she had a kitten? Why? Would Maria take her kitten to the vet if she had a kitten? Why? Would Maria give her kitten a bath if she had a kitten? Would Maria keep the litter box clean if she had a kitten? Would Maria love her kitten if she had a kitten? If Maria had a kitten, how would she feel?

Talk about things that Maria would do if she had a kitten. Would Maria like to have a kitten? (Yes) Start with Maria and tell me this. If Maria had a kitten, would she pet it? (Yes) Start with //and tell me this. If Maria had a kitten, would she brush it? (Yes) Start with Maria and tell me. If Maria had a kitten, would she give it special food? (Yes) Start with //and tell me this. If Maria had a kitten, would she give it a bath? (Yes) Start with Maria and tell me. If Maria had a kitten, would she take it to the vet? (Yes) Start with if and tell me. If Maria had a kitten, would she play with it? (Yes) Start with Maria and tell me this. If Maria had a kitten, would she love it a lot? (Yes) Start with z/and tell me this. If Maria had a kitten, would she be happy? (Yes) Start with Maria and tell me. If Maria had a kitten, would she keep its litter box clean? (Yes) Start with // and tell me.

Let's talk about what you or your friend would do if you had a pet. Discuss the types of pets your students would like to have. Or talk about someone who your student knows who doesn't have a pet but would like to have one. List some things that she tells you that she or her friend would do if they had a pet. Ask her to tell you about each one. Example: If you had a puppy would you take it for a walk? (Yes) Start with if and tell me what you'd do. or: Would you take your puppy for a walk if you had a puppy? (Yes) Start with Fd and tell me what you'd do.

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W h a t w o u l d T o n y a d o i f she could ( d o / h a v e s o m e t h i n g ) ?

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Target:

(Name) would do something if she/he did/had something.

Introduction: Remember when we talked about Kathy? We said that Kathy would like to do some things. Kathy wanted to ride in an airplane. She thought about riding in an airplane. She thought that if she could ride in an airplane, she would go to many different places. She would go somewhere where she could see the ocean. She would go where she could see old castles and palaces. Kathy and her friend, Kevin, wanted to have a costume party. If they had a costume party Kathy would dress up like a witch. She would bring cupcakes for their friends. Remember when we talked about Kevin? He wanted to build a tree house. He thought about his tree house. He thought if he had a tree house he would go up inside his tree house and watch everyone down below. He would invite some of his friends up in his tree house and they could pretend they lived in the jungle. Kevin and his friend, Kathy, wanted to have a costume party. Kevin thought if they had a costume party, he would dress up as a cowboy. He and Kathy would invite their friends.

Listen and respond:

Talk about what Kevin and Kathy would do if they could have the things they want. Does Kathy want to ride in an airplane? (Yes) Start with Kathy and tell me this. If Kathy could ride in an airplane, would she like to go to see old castles and palaces? (Yes) Start with //and tell me this. If Kathy could ride in an airplane, would she like to go to see the ocean? (Yes) Start with if 'and tell me this. Does Kevin want to build a tree house? (Yes) Start with Kevin and tell me. If Kevin had a tree house, would he look at everyone below? (Yes) Start with if and tell me this. If Kevin had a tree house, would he pretend he lived in a jungle? (Yes) Start with if "and tell me. Do Kathy and Kevin want to have a costume party? (Yes) Start with Kevin and Kathy and tell me this. If they had a costume party, would they invite their friends? (Yes) Start with //and tell me. If they had a costume party, would they have cupcakes for their friends? (Yes) Start with //and tell me this. If they had a costume party, would Kevin dress up like a cowboy? (Yes) Start with //and tell me.

Does Kevin want to build a tree house? If Kevin had a tree house, would he go up in the tree house and watch everyone below? If Kevin had a tree house, what else would he do? Does Kathy want to ride in an airplane? If Kathy could ride in an airplane, where would she go? If Kathy could ride in an airplane, where else would she go? Do Kevin and Kathy want to have a costume party? If they could have a costume party, whom would they invite? If they could have a costume party, what would they have to eat?

Let's talk about what you would do if you had something that you wanted. Talk to your students about things that they would like to do, places they would like to go, people they would like to meet, things they would like to learn, etc. List things they would do if they could do these things. Then ask your student to tell you what she would do if she could do something she wanted. Ask her to tell you about this. Example: If you could meet the President, would you tell him that you want people in our country to like each other more? (Yes) Start with if and tell me this.

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W h a t is s o m e o n e giving s o m e o n e ? W h a t is s o m e o n e doing f o r s o m e o n e ?

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112

Target:

Someone (action) someone something (indirect object).

Introduction: Someone is giving someone something or doing something for someone. Jerome is giving his dog a bone. Tonya is giving Alan a banana. Tommy wrote his mom a note. The cow gave the farmer some milk. Kevin is playing Abby a song on his guitar. Dad bought Todd some popcorn at the movie. Krissy is reading her teddy bear a story. Matt's friends bought Matt some presents.

Listen and respond:

Finish these sentences.

Talk about these people.

Jerome is giving his dog a Tonya is giving Alan a Tommy wrote his mom a Matt's friends brought Matt some Kevin is playing Abby a .

Is Jerome giving his dog a bone? (Yes) Start with Jerome and tell me this. Is Tonya giving Alan a banana? (Yes) Start with Tonya and tell me. Did the cow give the farmer some milk? (Yes) Start with the cow and tell me this. Is Kevin playing Abby a song? (Yes) Start with Kevin and tell me this. Did Dad buy Todd some popcorn at the movie? (Yes) Start with Dad and tell me. . Did Tommy write his mom a note? (Yes) Start with Tommy and tell me. Is Krissy reading her teddy bear a story? (Yes) Start with Krissy and tell me. Did Matt's friends bring him some presents? (Yes) Start with Matts friends and tell me.

At the movie, Dad bought Todd some The cow gave the farmer some Krissy is reading her teddy bear a

Let's talk about what you or someone you know has given people. Discuss things that your student has given her friends, family etc. Discuss things that someone your student knows has given someone. List these things and ask her to talk about them. Example: giving someone a gift, giving parents a kiss, parent giving someone a ride, parent giving a child a haircut, child giving a pet a bath. List some of these experiences. Then ask your student to tell you about each. Example: Did you give your mom a hug? (Yes) Start with I and tell me what you did.

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What is someone giving someone? What is someone doing for someone?

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114

Target:

Someone (action) someone something (indirect object).

Introduction: Someone is giving someone something or doing something for someone. Mom is giving her friend directions to the zoo. The police officer is giving the driver a traffic ticket. Aunt Cassie gave Mom a recipe for soft play clay. Tonya is telling Kathy a secret. Abby and Allen made their mom a card. Sam is giving Jude his soccer ball. Mom sent her partner a fax. Maria will buy her kitten some special food.

Listen and respond:

Finish these sentences.

Talk about these people

The officer is giving the driver a Aunt Cassie gave Mom a recipe for Mom is giving her friend directions to Tonya is telling Kathy a .

Is Mom give her friend directions? (Yes) Start with Mom and tell me this. Is the police officer giving the driver a ticket? (Yes) Start with the police officer and tell me. Did Aunt Cassie give Mom a recipe? (Yes) Start with Aunt Cassie and tell me. Is Tonya telling Kathy a secret? (Yes) Start with Tonya and tell me this. Did Abby and Allan make their mom a card? (Yes) Start with Abby and Allan and tell me. Is Sam giving Jude his soccer ball? (Yes) Start with Sam and tell me. Will Maria buy her kitten some special food? (Yes) Start with Maria and tell me. Did Mom send her partner a fax? (Yes) Start with Mom and tell me.

Abby and Allen made their mom a Sam is giving Jude his Maria will buy her kitten Mom sent her partner a . . .

Let's talk about what you or someone you know has given someone. Discuss things that your student has given his friends, family, etc. someone whom your student knows has given someone. List some of these things, then ask your student to talk about some of them. Example: Did you give your friend a birthday present? (Yes) Start with I and tell me this.

Discuss what

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Does someone expect something? Does it happen as he/she expected?

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116

Target:

(Name) action (object or compliment) but (unexpected result).

Introduction: Tonya saw a beautiful necklace and ring. She thought she could buy the necklace and ring using some money that she had in her bank. When she found out that the necklace and ring each cost ten dollars, she knew that she could not buy them. She did not have enough money. Tonya wanted to buy the necklace and ring, but she didn't have enough money. Kevin's baseball team was supposed to play a game on Saturday. Kevin got ready to go to the game. When he was all ready, it started to rain. Kevin's coach called and said that there would be no baseball game today. Kevin's baseball team was supposed to play a game, but it rained so they didn't play

Listen and respond:

Talk about these children.

Did Tonya want a necklace and ring? Did she plan to buy the necklace and ring? Did she buy them? Did she have enough money to buy the necklace and ring? Was Kevin supposed to have a baseball game on Saturday? Did he put his uniform on? Did he get his bat, ball and glove ready? Was he ready for his baseball game? Did he go to the game? Why? Did Kevin's team play their game? Why?

Did Tonya want a necklace and ring? (Yes) Start with Tonya and tell me. Did Tonya have enough money to buy them? (No) me. Start with Tonya and tell

Tonya wanted the necklace and ring, but she didn't have enough money to buy them, did she? (No) Start with Tonya and tell me this. Did Kevin get ready for his baseball game? (Yes) Start with Kevin and tell me. Did he play his baseball game on Saturday? (No) Start with Kevin and tell me. Kevin was ready to play baseball, but he didn't play, did he? Start with Kevin and tell me this. Kevin's team didn't play the baseball game because it rained, didn't it? (Yes) Start with Kevin s team and tell me.

Let's talk about things that you wanted or expected to happen but didn't happen. Discuss events with unexpected outcomes (a picnic was planned but it rained, a trip was planned but the car broke down, an event was scheduled but someone was late, etc.) List some events that your student might have experienced. Encourage him to tell you about each one. Example: Was your cousin supposed to spend the night last Friday? Did he come to spend the night? Did he get sick? the night last Friday but he got sick, didn't he? Start with my and tell me this. Your cousin was supposed to spend

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1 1 1 ) 1 1 ) 1

The Missing Story Book

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118

The Missing Story Book

Maria likes her story book.

One day Maria couldn't find her story book. She felt very sad.

Maria looked for her story book under the bed. She looked in her backpack. She looked in the car.

She didn't find her story book in any of those places.

Then Maria saw her story book. It was behind the desk.

Now Maria feels happy. She hopes she doesn't lose her story book again.

Stimulus Requests

Start with Mary and tell me what she likes.

One day Maria couldn't find her story book, could she? Start with Maria and tell me this. Start with Maria and tell me how she felt.

Start with Maria and tell me where she looked for her story book. Start with she and tell me where else she looked. Start with she and tell me where else she looked.

Start with she and tell me if she found her story book in any of those places.

Start with Maria and tell me what she saw. Start with it and tell me where her book was.

Start with now and tell me how Maria feels now. Start with she and tell me what she hopes.

Read the story. The Missing Story Book, to your student. As you read the lines below each story section on this page, point to the corresponding picture on the picture page, (page 118) Then, ask your student to retell this story. Do this by pointing to the pictures to which you want your student to respond and presenting the corresponding stimulus requests in the lines below the story text.

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1 ) 1 1 1 ) 1

I!

II

Jerome's Ride

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120

Jerome's Ride

Jerome's dad drives a big truck, He drives to many different places.

Jerome's dad carries toys in his truck. He takes toys to toy stores in many cities.

Jerome wanted to ride in the truck with his dad. One day he asked Jerome to ride in the truck with him.

Jerome and his dad went to a city far away.

They brought toys to a toy store in that city.

When Jerome and his dad came back home Jerome saw his friends. He told them about his ride in the big truck.

Stimulus Requests

Start with Jerome s dad and tell me what he does. Start with he and tell me where he drives.

Start with Jerome s dad and tell me what he carries in his truck Start with he and tell me where he takes toys.

Start with Jerome and tell me what he wanted to do. Start with one day and tell me what Jerome's dad asked him to do.

Start with they and tell me where they went.

Start with they and tell me what they brought to a toy store.

Start with when and tell me what Jerome did when he and his dad got home. Start with he and tell me what Jerome told his friends about.

Read the story. Jerome s Ride, to your student. As you read the lines below each story section on this page, point to the corresponding picture on the picture page, (page 120) Then, ask your student to retell this story. Do this by pointing to the pictures to which you want your student to respond and presenting the corresponding stimulus requests in the lines below the story text.

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Kathy's Goldfish
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Kathy's Goldfish
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Kathy loves little goldfish. She wanted her own goldfish.

One day Kathy went to a pet store.

She saw a goldfish in the pet store. The goldfish cost three dollars.

Kathy went back home. She got some money from her piggy bank.

Kathy went back to the pet store. She brought her money. She bought the goldfish at the pet store.

Now Kathy has her own goldfish. She feels very happy.

Stimulus Requests

Start with Kathy and tell me what she loves. Start with she and tell me what she wanted.

Start with one day and tell me where Kathy went one day.

Start with she and tell me what Kathy saw in the pet store. Start with it and tell me how much the goldfish cost.

Start with Kathy and tell me where she went. Start with she and tell me what she got from her piggy bank.

Start with Kathy and tell me where she went. Start with she and tell me what she bought at the pet store.

Start with now and tell me what Kathy has. Start with she and tell me how she feels.

Read the story. Kathy s Goldfish, to your student. As you read the lines below each story section on this page, point to the corresponding picture on the picture page, (page 122) Then, ask your student to retell this story. Do this by pointing to the pictures to which you want your student to respond and presenting the corresponding stimulus requests in the lines below the story text.
123 Talking in Sentences Circuit Publications

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Sharing

Circuit Publications

Talking in Sentences

f f f ( (

Sharing

Abby likes to draw. She had two drawing pads. She didn't have any crayons.

Jenny likes to draw. She had two boxes of crayons. She didn't have any paper for drawing

Abby needed crayons. Jenny needed paper.

Abby gave some paper to Jenny.

Jenny gave some crayons to Abby.

Abby and Jenny both had paper and crayons. They both drew pictures.

Stimulus Requests

Start with Abby and tell me what she likes to do. Start with she and tell me what she had. Start with Abby and tell if she had crayons.

Start with Jenny and tell me what she likes to do. Start with she and tell me what she had. Start with Jenny and tell me if she had paper.

Start with Abby and tell me what she needed. Start with Jenny and tell me what she needed.

Start with Abby and tell me what she gave to Jenny.

Start with Jenny and tell me what she gave to Abby.

Start with Abby and Jenny and tell me what they both had. Start with they and tell me what they drew.

Read the story. Sharing, to your student. (page 124)

As you read the lines below each story section on this page, point to the corresponding picture on the picture page,

Then, ask your student to retell this story. Do this by pointing to the pictures to which you want your student to respond and presenting the corresponding stimulus requests in the lines below the story text.
125 Talking in Sentences Circuit Publications

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I I

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I I I I I I I I

Joe's Important Job

Circuit Publications

Talking in Sentences

Joe's Important Job

Joe works at the zoo.

Joe has an important job. His job is to feed the lions and tigers.

Before dinner the lions and tigers wait for Joe to feed them.

After their dinner the lions and tigers go to sleep.

While the lions and tigers sleep Joe eats his dinner.

Stimulus Requests

Start with Joe and tell me where he works.

Start with Joe and tell me what he has. Start with his and tell me what his job is.

Start with before and tell me what the lions and tigers to before dinner.

Start with after and tell me what the lions and tigers do after dinner.

Start with while and tell me what Joe does while the lions and tigers sleep.

Read the storv. Joes Important Job, to your student. picture page, (page 126)

As you read the lines below each story section on this page, point to the corresponding picture on the which you want your student to respond and presenting the corresponding

Then, ask your student to retell this story. Do this by pointing to the pictures to stimulus requests in the lines below the story text.
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) 1 ) I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I ! !

I I 1 I 1 I I I I I ) | | I

Todd's Birthday Surprise

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128

Todd's Birthday Surprise

Todd didn't know how to play tennis. He wanted to play tennis.

Todd's sister Sarah knows how to play tennis. She plays tennis with her friends.

On Todd's birthday Sarah gave Todd a tennis racquet.

Sarah showed Todd how to play tennis.

Now Todd knows how to play tennis. Now Todd and Sara can play tennis together.

Stimulus Requests

Start with Todd and tell me what he doesn't know how to do. Start with he and tell me what he would like to do.

Start with Sarah and tell me what she knows how to do. Start with she and tell me what she does with her friends.

Start with on and tell me what Sarah did.

Start with Sarah and tell me what she showed Todd how to do.

Start with now and tell me what Todd knows how to do. Start with now and tell me what Todd and Sarah can do.

Read the story. Todd s Birthday Surprise, to your student. As you read the lines below each story section on this page, point to the corresponding picture on the picture page, (page 128) Then, ask your student to retell this story. Do this by pointing to the pictures to which you want your student to respond and presenting the corresponding stimulus requests in the lines below the story text.
129 Talking in Sentences Circuit Publications