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GSM

An O & M overview

Manish Das
Deputy General Manager (CMTS)
Calcutta Telephones

Dimapur 10-07-2006
10-07-2006 Manish Das, DGM(CMTS), Kolkata
GSM GPRS Network Architecture
NSS … Network & Switching Subsystem
VLR … Visitor Location Register
BSS … Base Station Subsystem HLR … Home Location Register
BSC … Base Station Controller AUC … Authentication Center
BTS … Base Transceiver Stations EIR … Equipment Identity Center
MSC … Mobile Switching Center
BTS
BSS VLR
NSS HLR

Backhaul AUC
EIR
BSC Internet

MSC GGSN

BTS
MSC Transit
Net

BSC SGSN
Transit
Net GSN … GPRS Support Node
SGSN … Serving GSN
GGSN … Gateway GSN
BASE STATION SUB-SYSTEM
Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
/ Base Station
 Responsible for communication to and from
Mobile sets via air interface
 BTS comprises radio transmission and reception
devices
 BTS separates the speech and control signaling
associated with a Mobile set and sends them to
the BSC on separate channels
Base Station Controller (BSC)

 Monitor and Control several base stations


 Frequency administration, control of BTSs
 Responsible for all the radio interface
management
 Channel allocation and release, handover
management
 BSC is the interface between MSC and BTS
 BSC is connected on one side to several BTSs
and on the other side to the MSC
RF Interface

Also known as Air Interface

10-07-2006 Manish Das, DGM(CMTS), Kolkata


Air Interface

 Radio Transmission Techniques


 FDMA
 TDMA
 CDMA
FDMA

Frequency

Channel

Time
TDMA

Frequency Time Slot

Channel

Time
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
CDMA

Frequency

Code

Time
Code 1
Code 2
Code 3
Frequency Spectrum in GSM
The Frequency Spectrum
960MHz Time Slot
959.8MHz Down Link
124
123
… 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

200KHz …
TDMA Frame

2
1
935.2MHz Data Burst, 156.25 bit periods = 15/26 msec = 576.9µsec
935MHz

915MHz
914.8MHz
124 Up Link
123 Delay
45MHz
Separation …
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
200KHz …
… TDMA Frame
2
1
890.2MHz
890MHz

FDMA
UP / Down-Link

 Down-link: the transmission path from Base


Station to Mobile Station

 Up-link: the transmission path from Mobile


Station to Base Station
Channels
 Physical Channels
 Associated with frequency bands, time slots, codes
 Physical channels transfer bits from one network element
to another
 Logical Channels
 Distinguished by the nature of carried information and the
way to assemble bits into data units
 Three types
 one-to-one: traffic channels between a BTS and a MS
 one-to-many: synchronization signals from BTS to MSs in a
cell
 many-to-one: from MSs to the same BTS
Logical Channel List

Traffic TCH/F: Full-rate Traffic Channel Two-way


channels TCH/H: Half-rate Traffic Channel
(TCH)
FCCH: Frequency correction
BCH SCH: Synchronization
BCCH: Broadcast control
Base-to-
Signaling PCH: Paging mobile
CCCH
channel AGCH: Access grant
RACH: Random access
SDCCH: Stand-alone dedicated control
DCCH
SACCH: Slow associated control
Two-way
FACCH: Fast associated control
Control Channels
 Broadcast Channels (BCH)
 Frequency Correction Channel (FCCH)
 Synchronization Channel (SCH)
 Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)
 Common Control Channels (CCCH)
 Paging Channel (PCH)
 Random Access Channel (RACH)
 Access Grant Channel (AGCH)
 Dedicated Control Channels (DCCH)
 Stand alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH)
 Cell Broadcast Channel (CBCH)
 Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH)
 Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH)
Broadcast Channels (BCH)

 To help the Mobile set (Mobile Handset)


measures
 to turn to a BTS
 to listen for the cell information
 to start roaming, waiting for calls to arrive, making calls
 Because BTSs are not synchronized with each
other, every time a Mobile set decides to camp to
another cell, its FCCH, SCH, and BCCH must be
read.
Frequency Correction Channel
(FCCH)
 Provide Mobile set with the frequency
reference of the system
 To enable the Mobile Handset (Mobile set) to
synchronize with the frequency
 Transmission properties
 Transmit on the down-link
 Point to multi-point.
Synchronization Channel (SCH)
 Mobile set synchronize with the structure within
the located cell
 Mobile set can receive information from the proper time
slots on the TDMA structure
 To ensure a GSM BTS is chose
 The Base Station Identity Code (BSIC) can only be
decoded by a GSM BTS
 Transmission properties
 Transmit on down-link
 Point to multi-point.
Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)
 BTS broadcast cell information to Mobile
set
 LAI ( Location Area Identity), to start roaming,
waiting for calls to arrive, making calls
 maximum output power allowed in the cell
 information about BCCH carriers for the
neighboring cells
 Mobile set will perform measurement to BTS
 Transmission properties
 Transmit on down-link
 Point to multi-point
Common Control Channels (CCCH)

 CCCH support the establishment of a


dedicated communication path (dedicated
channel) between the Mobile set and the BTS
 Three types of CCCH
 Paging Channel (PCH)
 Random Access Channel (RACH)
 Access Grant Channel (AGCH)
Paging Channel (PCH)
 Used by BTS to page particular Mobile set in
the cell
 Mobile set actively listen to PCH to check contact
info within certain time
 Contact could be incoming call or short message
 Contact info on PCH include
 IMSI (Mobile set’s identity number), or
 TMSI (temporary number)
 Transmission properties
 Transmit on down-link
 point to point
Random Access Channel (RACH)
 Used by Mobile set to request a dedicated
channel for call setup
 Shared by any Mobile set attempts to access
the network
 Channel request message contains the reason
for the access attempt
 Transmission properties
 Transmit on up-link
 Point to pint.
Access Grant Channel (AGCH)
 The network assigns a signaling channel
via AGCH
 A Stand alone Dedicated Control Channel
(SDCCH) is assigned
 Transmission properties
 Transmit on down-link
 Point to point
Dedicated Control Channels (DCCH)

 DCCH are used for transferring nonuser


information between the network and the Mobile
set
 Messages on DCCH Including
 channel maintenance
 mobility management
 radio resource management
 Four kinds of DCCH
 Stand alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH)
 Cell Broadcast Channel (CBCH)
 Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH)
 Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH)
Stand alone Dedicated Control
Channel (SDCCH)
 Transfer signaling information between the
BTS and the Mobile set
 Typically used for location updating prior to
use of a traffic channel
 Transmission properties
 Bidirectional channel, transmit on both up and
down-link
 Point to point.
Cell Broadcast Channel (CBCH)
 To carry Short Message Service Cell
Broadcast (SMSCB)
 Use the same physical channel as SDCCH
 Transmission properties
 Transmit on down-link
 Point to multi-point
Slow Associated Control Channel
(SACCH)
 Carries control and measurement parameters
along with routine data necessary to maintain a
radio link between the Mobile set and the BTS
 On the uplink, MS sends averaged measurements
(signal strength and quality) of current and neighboring
BCCH
 On downlink, MS receives information about
transmitting power to use and an instruction with time
advance/retard
 Transmission properties
 Bidirection channel, transmit on both up and down link
 Point to point
Fast Associated Control Channel
(FACCH)
 An FACCH is used over a TCH where it
steals time slots from a TCH
 a 20 ms segment of speech is stolen to carry
handover signaling information
 Appears on demand
Traffic Channels (TCH)

 TCH transport user information (speech/data)


 TCH are bidirectional dedicated channels
between the network and the Mobile set
Geographical Network Structure

 Location Units
 Cell
 Location Area (LA)
 MSC/VLR Service Area
 PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network) Service Area
 GSM Service Area
Location Information --
GSM Service Area Hierarchy
GSM Service Area

PLMN Service Area


(one per operator)

MSC/VLR

Location Area

Cell
Cell Characteristics

 The Basic Union In The System


 defined as the area where radio coverage is given
by one base station.
 Addressed by Cell Global Identity (CGI)
 A cell has one or several frequencies,
depending on traffic load.
 Frequencies are reused, but not used in
neighboring cells due to interference.
ID-Numbers
 CGI = MCC + MNC + LAC + CI
 CGI Cell Global Identity
 CI Cell Identity
 BSIC = NCC + BCC
 BSIC Base Station Identity Code
 NCC Network Color Code (3bits)
 BCC Base Station Color Code (3bits)
Location Registry

 Registration Message Flow


 Inter-LA movement
 In the same MSC
 Inter-MSC movement
 In the same GSM Operator
 Inter-VLR movement
Mobile call scenario….

Mobile terminating call

10-07-2006 Manish Das, DGM(CMTS), Kolkata


GPRS

10-07-2006 Manish Das, DGM(CMTS), Kolkata


VLR LEGEND
PLMN
PSTN MSC
Existing GSM Core Network elements
ISDN A New GPRS elements and interfaces
User data & signaling
Gs Signaling only
SGSN
of a HLR EIR SMSC
different SIM
PLMN Gp Ater Mobile
Gc Gr Gf TCU BSC BTS Station
Gd Base Abis Base
Station Transceiver Mobile
Controller Station Eqpm’t
PSPDN PCUSN
GGSN Gn SGSN Gb Agprs
Gi
FRAME RELAY Um
IP or X.25 Interface

 Gb between SGSN-PCUSN uses Frame Relay protocols


 Gn between SGSN-GGSN uses IP routing, GPRS Tunnel
Protocol
 Gr between SGSN-HLR is an extension of MAP
 Gi between GGSN and PDNs uses IP and X.25
 Gd between SGSN-SMSC delivers SMS messages using MAP
 Gc between GGSN-HLR is optional, uses MAP
 Gs between SGSN-MSC/VLR is optional, uses BSSMAP
GPRS Architecture - Components

 New components introduced for GPRS services:


 SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node)
 GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node)
 IP-based backbone network
 Old components in GSM upgraded for GPRS
services:
 HLR
 MSC/VLR
 Mobile Station
Salient Features

 High Data Rates up to 172 kpbs – an order of


magnitude higher than GSM
 The setup time is negligible – less than a
second
 Resource utilization as per requirements – air
interface is assigned temporarily on per-
packet basis
 Hosts can remain “always on”
GPRS Coding Schemes
 GPRS defines four coding
schemes
 Only CS-1 is mandatory for the RLC
CS-1 RLC Data
BTS Header

≤ 160 Data Bits (depends on size RLC header)


 All coding schemes are
RLC
mandatory for the MS CS-2 Header
RLC Data

 The higher the coding scheme, ≤ 240 Data Bits (depends on size RLC header)
the higher the throughput RLC
RLC Data
CS-3 Header
 The higher the throughput, the
≤ 288 Data Bits (depends on size RLC header)
lower protection against errors RLC
CS-4 RLC Data
 Encoded 456 bits interleaved Header

over 4 TDMA bursts ≤ 400 Data Bits (depends on size RLC header)

1 TS 2 TS 3 TS 4 TS 8 TS
CS-1 9.05 kbps 18.1 kbps 27.15 kbps 36.2 kbps 72.4 kbps
CS-2 13.4 kbps 26.8 kbps 40.2 kbps 53.6 kbps 107.2 kbps
CS-3 15.6 kbps 31.2 kbps 46.8 kbps 62.4 kbps 124.8 kbps
CS-4 21.4 kbps 42.8 kbps 64.2 kbps 85.6 kbps 171.2 kbps
Typical Data Call Scenario

BTS BSC MSC

SGSN GPRS
Register

GGSN
PSPDN

User LAN
Router
GPRS Mobile Station Classes
Class GSM and GPRS GSM or GPRS GSM Only
Type Simultaneously Sequentially GPRS Only
Class A Yes Yes Yes
Class B No Yes Yes
Class C No No Yes

 Class A supports simultaneous circuit and packet switched


 Class B supports packet and circuit switched sequentially
 Currently only Class B mobiles being developed
 Class C does not support parallel operation
 Operates in either packet or circuit mode only
 Low cost unit available for mass market deployment
EDGE

 Enhanced Data rate for Global Evolution


 GSM/GPRS-Network Enhancement
 Data rate comparable to UMTS Network
(384 kBit/s and more)
 Based on GSM Multiplexmethod (TDMA/FDMA)
 Changing GSM Modulation from GPSK to 8PSK
EDGE Features
Introduce new methods at the physical layer
 new form of modulation: 8PSK(phrase Shift Keying)
 introduced as a complement to GMSK (Gaussian Filter
Minimum Shift Keying)
 8PSK: use 8 phrases to carry signals
 High radio interface data rates (up to 384kbps)
EDGE Features cont.

Provides an evolutionary migration path from


GPRS to UMTS
 Only one EDGE transceiver unit need to be added to
each cell.
 Software upgrades to BSC and Base Stations can
be carried out remotely.
 Higher layer protocols (GGSN, SGSN) stay the
same
 Can be introduced smoothly in GPRS(doesn’t
require any new elements)
Applications….
 Web browsing
 Email
 File Transfer
 Banking Transactions
 Stock Market Updates
 News
 Online Video clips/ sports clippings
 Gaming
 Multimedia Greetings card exchange
 Polyphonic ring tone download
 Weather & Traffic reports
Network Monitoring
and
Troubleshooting
Network monitoring

 Routine HW check
 Call test
 Customers complaints
 Traffic report study
 Drive test and remedial actions
Common Problems and Causes
•BTS Power Settings
No Coverage •Antenna Problem
•BTS Site

•RF Coverage
•Interference
Poor Speech Quality - Co, Adjacent and Multipath
& Drop Calls •Transcoder and Switching Equipment's
•Handover Discrepancies
•Link Imbalance

•RF Coverage
•Resource Unavailability
Blocked Calls •Cell Traffic Loading
•RF Coverage
•Interference
•Link Imbalance
Troubleshooting Problems

• Blocked Calls
• Poor Quality and Drop calls
• Abnormal Handovers
• Interference
Blocked Call
Troubleshooting
Blocked Call Analysis
1 3

Channel Request Channel Request


RACH .
: Imm Assignment
RACH
max_retrans Service Request
NO RESPONSE FROM N/W
ACCESS FAILURE ! Signalling
:
Signalling
2
NO TCH ASSIGNMENT
Channel Request Mobile Returns To Idle
RACH TCH BLOCKED !
Imm Assign Reject

SDCCH BLOCKED !
Blocked Call – Cause troubleshooting

Access Failures
- CCCH Overload at the Base Station
- Uplink Interference at the Base Station
- Low Rxlev at the Base Station
- Base Station TRX decoder malfunctioning
- Downlink Low Rxlev ( Coverage Hole )
- Downlink Interference
- Excess Cell Range
Blocked Call Analysis
SDCCH Congestion Cause

Location Updates
- Use OMC Statistics
- Drive Test of optimizing Location Areas

Interference
- OMC statistics for “Idle Channel Interference”
- Uplink Interference Measurements

Heavy Traffic
- OMC traffic statistics
- Call Setup time verification
- CCCH control parameters
Blocked Call
TCH Blocked - Causes
•Interference
-- Idle Channel Interference reports from OMC
--Uplink Interference measurements

•Heavy Traffic
-- TCH Holding time and attempts traffic statistics
-- Time Slot testing.

Solutions To Blocked Calls


Optimize coverage
Optimize Cell loading
Interference management
Channel configurations
Optimize neighbors
Dropped Call
Troubleshooting
Drop Calls Analysis
1 2

Channel Request Channel Request

Imm Assignment Imm Assignment

Service Request Service Request

Signalling SDCCH Signalling


: :
Signalling Speech
TCH
RLT = 0 ; DROPS RLT = 0 ; DROPS
SDCCH DROP ! TCH DROP !

3 SDCCH / TCH

Handover Command

Hand Access

Handover Failure

HANDOVER FAILURE DROP !


Dropped Call Analysis
 SDCCH Drops - Causes
 Coverage
 Interference & Multipath
 BTS performance

 TCH Drops - Causes


 Coverage
 Interference & Multipath
 BTS performance

 Handover Failure - Causes


 Threshold parameters
 Missing neighbors
Poor Quality
•Poor Speech Quality could be due to
•Patchy Coverage ( holes)
•No Target cell for Handover
•Echo , Audio holes, Voice Clipping
•Interference ---:
•Co-channel
•Adjacent channel
•External
•Multipath
•Noise
Speech Quality Parameters
RxQUAL

FER

Echo and distortion

Audio holes

Voice Clipping
Traffic report analysis
Any Question ? ?
Thank You