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February 2008

Forsk 7 rue des Briquetiers 31700 Blagnac France


Technical White Paper

WiMAX Modelling in Atoll 2.7.0








WiMAX, OFDM,
and SOFDMA
Modelling in
Atoll






This white paper describes how WiMAX (IEEE 802.16d and IEEE 802.16e) is
modelled in the Atoll WiMAX BWA module.
www.forsk.com

Table of Contents

1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................... 3
1.1 WiMAX..................................................................................................................................................... 3
1.2 WiMAX Forum......................................................................................................................................... 3
1.3 Atoll WiMAX BWA Module....................................................................................................................... 3
2 WiMAX Modelling in Atoll ............................................................................................................................. 4
2.1 OFDM and SOFDMA: Concepts and System Parameters ...................................................................... 4
2.2 WiMAX Features...................................................................................................................................... 7
2.2.1 Frequency Bands and Channel Bandwidths.................................................................................... 7
2.2.2 Quality of Service and Scheduling................................................................................................... 8
2.2.3 Adaptive Modulation and Coding..................................................................................................... 9
2.2.4 Mobility Management....................................................................................................................... 9
2.2.5 WiMAX Base Stations...................................................................................................................... 9
2.2.6 Propagation Models for WiMAX..................................................................................................... 10
3 Atoll WiMAX Traffic Model .......................................................................................................................... 11
3.1 Bearers: Adaptive Modulation and Coding............................................................................................ 11
3.2 Services................................................................................................................................................. 13
3.3 Terminals............................................................................................................................................... 13
3.4 User Profiles.......................................................................................................................................... 14
3.5 Traffic Data............................................................................................................................................ 14
3.5.1 Subscriber Database..................................................................................................................... 14
3.5.2 Raster, Vector, and Live Traffic Maps............................................................................................ 15
3.6 WiMAX Monte Carlo Simulations........................................................................................................... 16
4 WiMAX Network Analysis Features in Atoll .............................................................................................. 17
4.1 Preliminary Analysis .............................................................................................................................. 17
4.2 Network Analysis Under Traffic Conditions............................................................................................ 18
4.3 Point Analysis Tool ................................................................................................................................ 20
4.4 Advanced WiMAX Features................................................................................................................... 20
4.4.1 Smart Antenna Systems................................................................................................................ 20
4.4.1.1 Modelling in Monte Carlo Simulations........................................................................................ 21
4.4.1.2 Modelling in Coverage Predictions ............................................................................................ 22
4.4.2 Multiple Input Multiple Output Systems.......................................................................................... 23
4.4.3 Frequency Planning....................................................................................................................... 26
4.4.3.1 Fractional Frequency Reuse (Segmentation) ............................................................................ 26
4.4.4 Neighbour Planning....................................................................................................................... 27
5 WiMAX Network Planning Process in Atoll ............................................................................................... 28
6 References ................................................................................................................................................... 29
7 Glossary of Terms ....................................................................................................................................... 29

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1 Introduction
This white paper describes WiMAX and how its various features are modelled in Atoll. The document
starts with introductions to WiMAX and to the Atoll WiMAX BWA module, and, in the following sections,
explains how the Atoll WiMAX BWA module implements the different WiMAX features and performs
calculations.
1.1 WiMAX
WiMAX, or Worldwide Interoperability For Microwave Access, is the name given by the WiMAX Forum
to a set of IEEE 802.16 standards. The WiMAX MAC and PHY layers are described in the IEEE
802.16d and the IEEE 802.16e standards, which use OFDM and SOFDMA techniques respectively.
The 802.16d standard is the complete specification for fixed broadband wireless access networks
using OFDM-TDMA in downlink and OFDMA in uplink, and the 802.16e specifications describe mobile
broadband wireless access networks which use SOFDMA, and support handovers and user terminal
speeds of up to 100 km/hr.

Several names are used to refer to WiMAX, such as IEEE 802.16, WirelessMAN, WirelessHUMAN,
etc. Similar European (ETSI HiperMAN) and Korean (WiBro) standards also exist. The goal of all these
standards is the same: provide broadband wireless access (BWA) for fixed and mobile users.

As a highly flexible broadband wireless standard, WiMAX is able to provide a large variety of services,
such as TV broadcast, cellular telephony using VoIP, wireless DSL or xDSL high speed internet, etc. It
is also possible to do backhaul using the WiMAX air interface.
1.2 WiMAX Forum
The WiMAX Forum is a worldwide consortium of companies that are interested in WiMAX and join
efforts in developing the technology. The forum has more than a dozen board member companies,
more than 100 principal members, and around 400 regular members including Forsk.

The mission of the forum is to promote deployment of BWA network by using a global standard and
certifying interoperability of products and technologies. It has principally supported the IEEE 802.16
standards and proposes standard profiles for manufacturers and operators who are interested in
WiMAX, thus guaranteeing interoperability. The forum also supports development and specification
teams.

The following figure summarizes important information about the standards approved and released by
the IEEE 802.16 working group.

Figure 1 Interoperable subset of the IEEE 802.16 standards
1.3 Atoll WiMAX BWA Module
The Atoll WiMAX BWA module enables you to design IEEE 802.16d and IEEE 802.16e broadband
wireless access networks. You can use Atoll to accurately predict the networks coverage and
behaviour in simple (coverage-limited) as well as in advanced (traffic-limited) planning scenarios. Atoll
also includes support for advanced antenna diversity techniques such as AAS and MIMO.
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Atolls highly flexible traffic model lets you create, import, and easily manage mobile and fixed traffic
data. You can work with fixed and mobile users in WiMAX environments. You can carry out
calculations on fixed subscribers as well as base your calculations on combinations of fixed and mobile
user scenarios. Calculations include interference prediction, resource allocation and scheduling, and
throughput calculations.
2 WiMAX Modelling in Atoll
2.1 OFDM and SOFDMA: Concepts and System Parameters
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing works by dividing the carrier bandwidth into a large
number of orthogonal subcarriers. The subcarrier waveforms, generated using Fast Fourier Transform,
are said to be orthogonal because the peak of each subcarrier is located at the nulls of its adjacent
subcarriers as shown in Figure 2.

Orthogonal subcarriers mean that there is nearly no inter-(sub)carrier interference (ICI) in an OFDM
system. In case of an OFDM-based cellular network, this means that there is almost no intra-cell
interference. This is an important benefit of OFDM over conventional FDM (Frequency Division
Multiplexing) in which each pair of carriers require filters and guard bands between them to reduce the
adjacent channel interference. The spectrum usage is also better in OFDM than in FDM.

Figure 2 OFDM carrier and subcarriers
Dividing a wideband carrier into a large number of narrowband subcarriers increases the duration of
each data symbol, which in turn makes the system more robust against multipath and inter-symbol
interference (ISI). ISI is almost completely eliminated by adding a cyclic prefix to each symbol.
However, the addition of a cyclic prefix to each symbol reduces the throughput as a trade-off to
eliminating ISI. Therefore, cyclic prefix has to be considered as a time-domain overhead when
calculating throughput.

Figure 3 Symbol duration for wideband carrier
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Figure 4 Symbol duration for narrowband subcarriers

Figure 5 OFDM symbol and cyclic prefix
The carrier is composed of different types of subcarriers as shown in Figure 6. Guard subcarriers on
the left and right are not used in order to avoid interfering the adjacent carriers, the centre subcarrier
(DC subcarrier) is not used either, the remaining subcarriers (used subcarriers) comprise pilot and data
subcarriers. In WiMAX 802.16d networks in Atoll, you can set these values for the network.

Figure 6 Subcarriers in a carrier
Subcarriers in the frequency domain and symbols durations in the time domain together form what is
known as a frame, as shown in Figure 7.

Figure 7 OFDM frame
A WiMAX frame starts with a preamble over which all the base stations transmit their identification
information, and mobiles use the preambles to recognize their serving cells and to synchronize their
frames with those of the cells. Other important signalling messages follow the preamble. These
messages include the frame control header (FCH), the downlink and uplink channel descriptors (DCD
and UCD), and the downlink and uplink maps (DL-MAP and UL-MAP). All these signalling messages
constitute additional time-domain overheads, i.e., these parts of the frame are not used for user data
transfer. The downlink and uplink maps list the locations of the data regions (bursts) allocated to each
mobile.
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Figure 8 WiMAX frame
Figure 8 shows a TDD frame. The transmit time guard (TTG) and the receive time guard (RTG) are
only valid for TDD frames, with a downlink and an uplink subframe at the same carrier frequency. The
division of the frame into downlink and uplink subframes is also an important parameter. For FDD
systems, the TTG and RTG do not exist, and the lengths of the downlink and uplink subframes are the
same as the frame itself.

The smallest resource unit in the frequency domain that can be allocated to a user is a subchannel. A
subchannel is a group of subcarriers.

The frame structure (for both 802.16d and 802.16e) and the channel configuration for 802.16d
(indicated with the red rectangle in Figure 9) can be set up in Atoll as shown below.

Figure 9 Network parameters dialogue
In 802.16e, the subcarriers used in each subchannel can be either physically adjacent or distributed
over the channel depending on the subchannel allocation mode. In IEEE 802.16e, there are various
subchannel allocation modes which can be used in different sections of the frame. Each section is
called a permutation zone, as shown in Figure 10.

Figure 10 Permutation zones

The numbers of subcarriers of different types (total, pilot, traffic) and the numbers of subchannels per
channel vary for each subchannel allocation mode. Each frame can have as many as 8 permutation
zones in downlink and 3 in uplink, with each permutation zone using different numbers of these
parameters. This highly flexible aspect of the 802.16e standard is modelled in Atoll by frame
configurations.

Figure 11 Frame configurations and permutation zones
Each frame configuration is a set of permutation zones with the OFDMA and calculation parameters of
each permutation zone defined separately as shown in Figure 11. The permutation zones are defined
by their subchannel allocation modes, the numbers of subcarriers and subchannels, and the antenna
diversity technique that they support. Apart from these parameters, there are also some radio
parameters which characterize the permutation zone and are used during calculations for allocating
traffic to the zones, such as the minimum required quality, maximum coverage distance, and maximum
vehicular speed supported by the zones.

It is possible to modify any of the parameters of existing frame configurations, and to create as many
frame configurations as needed.

The resources are allocated to users in a WiMAX frame as bursts, shown in Figure 8. In Atoll, these
bursts are automatically assigned to users during Monte Carlo simulations, and dynamically formed
according to the traffic demands of the users.
2.2 WiMAX Features
WiMAX is a very flexible technology. All of the RF and system parameters, such as carrier bandwidths,
frequency spectrum, frequency reuse, frame structures, etc., can vary from one equipment
manufacturer to the other, or from one network operator to the other. As shown in the sections below,
this highly flexible nature of WiMAX is fully modelled in Atoll.
2.2.1 Frequency Bands and Channel Bandwidths
The WiMAX Forum is the certification and regulation authority for all aspects of WiMAX. However, the
ITU and the telecommunications regulatory authorities of each region and country also play their roles
in their respective fields. For example, different frequency bands are, and will be in the future, available
in different regions of the world for deploying WiMAX networks, as shown in Figure 12. The figure also
shows the initial and future profiles to be used for WiMAX deployment.
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Figure 12 Frequency spectrum allocation worldwide and
frequency bands for initial and future WiMAX profiles
Moreover, the WiMAX standards offer flexibility to the equipment manufacturers by allowing them to
make equipment working with different channel bandwidths. Atoll offers an easy-to-use method for
defining different frequency bands using different channel bandwidths.

Figure 13 Frequency bands and channels in Atoll
As you can see in Figure 13, different frequency bands supporting TDD and FDD can be created and
used in the same document. Atoll fully considers the effects of co-existence of TDD and FDD networks.
2.2.2 Quality of Service and Scheduling
WiMAX networks can offer a number of services using different quality of service classes. The WiMAX
QoS classes include, in the order of resource allocation priority, the following:
Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS)
Extended Real-Time Polling Service (ErtPS)
Real-Time Polling Service (rtPS)
Non-Real-Time Polling Service (nrtPS)
Best Effort Service (BE)

The scheduler, or the radio resource management algorithm, is available in each base station, and
performs resource allocation to users for each WiMAX frame in accordance with the QoS classes
assigned to the service being accessed by each user. The Atoll WiMAX BWA module includes a
number of scheduling and RRM algorithms such as Proportional Fair, QoS Class Biased, Max
Aggregate Throughput, and Proportional Demand.


For more information on how the WiMAX QoS classes are modelled in Atoll, please refer to 3.2
Services. And, for more information on how the radio resource management is performed in Atoll,
please refer to 3.6 WiMAX Monte Carlo Simulations.
2.2.3 Adaptive Modulation and Coding
WiMAX systems use AMC for optimizing the usage of channel resources. Different modulation and
coding schemes are assigned to users under different radio conditions. If a users radio conditions
allow him to access the network using a less robust MCS providing a high spectral efficiency, he will be
assigned that MCS. Under bad radio conditions, the user will have to use a more robust MCS, which
provides lower throughput.

For more information on how adaptive modulation and coding is modelled in Atoll, please refer to 3.1
Bearers: Adaptive Modulation and Coding.

Figure 14 Adapti ve modulation and coding
2.2.4 Mobility Management
IEEE 802.16e networks support mobile users. Users can be handed over to neighbouring cells as they
move from one cells coverage area to the next ones. Neighbour management is an important feature
available in Atoll. For more information on neighbour planning in Atoll, please refer to 4.4.4 Neighbour
Planning.

Apart from handovers, different subchannel allocation modes are suited for different user speeds. For
example, the obligatory PUSC zone usually covers the handover regions, and is well suited for users
moving at higher speeds. AMC zones are suited for fixed or pedestrian users. This aspect is fully
modelled through defining user speed limitations for each permutation zone in the frame configurations
(see Figure 11.)

Moreover, user speeds have significant influence on the channel characteristics between the base
station and the user. In Atoll WiMAX, you can define different channel characteristics, i.e., channel
models, by assigning different values for different user speeds to the related parameters.
2.2.5 WiMAX Base Stations
Detailed modelling of WiMAX base stations is available in Atoll. A base station in Atoll is a site with one
or more transmitters. You can create a network by placing base stations, single or in groups, based on
station templates. This allows you to build your network quickly with consistent parameters. Atoll
comes with default station templates, which you can modify or you can create new ones as required. It
is also possible to import or paste existing data into your document to create base stations.

Each site can have a number of transmitters. For each transmitter, you can define a number of
transmission and reception parameters. Base stations can be simple or use advanced antenna
diversity techniques such as smart antenna systems or multiple-input-multiple-output systems. All the
RF parameters of the base station are modelled in cells associated to transmitters.
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Figure 15 Base station parameters
2.2.6 Propagation Models for WiMAX
Many propagation models have been proposed for use in WiMAX. The propagation model adopted by
the IEEE 802.16 group is the Stanford University Interim model. It is an empirical model based on
measurement data collected and proposed by Vinko Erceg and others [9]. The measurements were
taken at 1900 MHz with the receiver at a height of 2 m in different cities of the USA. This propagation
model is particularly suitable for suburban areas. A few correction factors were then introduced in the
equation to extend the propagation model to other frequencies and other receiver heights. This model
is available in the default propagation models library in Atoll.

Figure 16 Erceg-Greenstein (SUI) propagation model
Another propagation model available in Atoll, which is highly recommended for use with WiMAX, is the
Standard Propagation Model. This model can be automatically calibrated using measurement data,
and gives highly accurate results in all types of environments.

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Figure 17 Measurements and Model Calibration
Apart from the propagation models available in Atolls library, it is also possible to work with 3
rd
party
propagation models, such as ray-tracing models like Volcano from Siradel, WaveSight from WaveCall,
and WinProp from AWE Communications.
3 Atoll WiMAX Traffic Model
The traffic model available in Atoll is based on the definition of bearers, services, and terminal
equipment and speed. It is possible to create as many services and user equipment as required, and to
create and import traffic data in many different formats.

Atoll lets you create and import raster, vector, as well as live traffic data in the form of maps. The Atoll
WiMAX BWA module has introduced the concept of fixed subscriber databases in order to model the
FWA traffic that the IEEE 802.16d and 802.16e networks support. It is possible to study the behaviour
of the network for fixed subscribers and traffic maps separately as well as together.
3.1 Bearers: Adaptive Modulation and Coding
Bearers in Atoll define the modulation and coding schemes and their respective properties. Bearers
support data transfer for all the different services that the network might offer. Bearers can be modified
and created as required.

Figure 18 WiMAX bearers
The most important parameter of a bearer is its efficiency, which is the number of useful data bits that
the bearer can transfer in one symbol of the WiMAX frame.


Figure 19 A symbol
WiMAX reception equipment, available at the base stations and terminals, model the RF aspects of the
bearers. You can modify and create different reception equipment as required. Reception equipment
list the CINR requirements for selecting the bearers and various CQI characteristics.

Figure 20 Reception equipment: WiMAX bearer characteristics
Coverage predictions can be easily created to analyse the coverage of different modulation and coding
schemes as shown in Figure 21.

Figure 21 Coverage by WiMAX bearers and
histogram of a throughput coverage prediction showing the effect of adaptive modulation and
coding
Forsk 2008 WiMAX Modelling in Atoll 12

3.2 Services
Different services that a WiMAX network offers to its subscribers can be modelled, modified, and
created as required. For each service, you can define the WiMAX QoS class and its throughput
requirements.

Figure 22 Service properties dialogue
You can also model services that use different VoIP codecs (G.711, G.729, etc.)
3.3 Terminals
User equipment, referred to as terminals, can be modified or created as required. Each terminal groups
all the necessary radio parameters, such as the transmission power range for uplink power control, the
noise figure, reception capabilities, the type of antenna diversity supported, etc. Moreover, some
terminals may also be equipped with a directional antenna. This is most often the case with fixed
terminals on subscriber rooftops, for example. These cases are fully supported in the subscriber
database, Monte Carlo simulations, as well as in raster coverage predictions. Directional antennas
have the benefit of providing a gain in the direction of the serving base station and attenuating
considerably the interference from other cells.

Figure 23 Terminal properties dialogue
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Figure 24 Downlink CINR coverage predictions for a frequency plan of N = 1
With an isotropic recei ver (top left)
With a recei ver with a directional antenna (bottom right)
3.4 User Profiles
User profiles model the behaviour of different types of users. For example, a business user would
connect to the internet, have videoconference sessions, and use VoIP telephony, and a home user
would connect to the internet to download media or files. These characteristics are modelled in Atoll
using user profiles.

Figure 25 User profile
3.5 Traffic Data
Network traffic data can be input in Atoll in various forms. You can then choose which data to consider
in calculations to study the network behaviour under traffic.
3.5.1 Subscriber Database
Subscribers with fixed locations and specific CPEs can be modelled in Atoll using the subscriber
database. You can add subscribers to the subscriber database using the mouse (clicking on the map),
importing the data from external files, and by simply copying and pasting the information in Atoll.

Each subscriber can have different service usage characteristics which are used as inputs to the
simulations.
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You can carry out calculations on the subscriber database directly without having to carry out
simulations. Subscribers may have directional antennas which can be automatically pointed towards
their serving base stations by Atoll.

Figure 26 A subscribers list from a subscribers database
3.5.2 Raster, Vector, and Live Traffic Maps
The different types of traffic data sources are:
The OMC (Operations and Maintenance Centre)
Marketing statistics
Population statistics
2G network traffic statistics

Figure 27 Multi-layer traffic
Atoll provides four types of traffic maps for WiMAX projects. These maps can be used for the different
types of traffic data sources as follows:
Live traffic data from the OMC: Traffic maps per transmitter and per service where traffic is
spread over the cell's coverage area and each coverage area is assigned either the total
throughput demand or the number of users. The OMC (Operations and Maintenance Centre)
collects data from all the cells in a network. This includes, for example, the number of active
users in each cell and the traffic characteristics related to different services. You can use this
data to create traffic maps containing the number of active users in each cell or the data transfer
characteristics of all the services in each cell.
Marketing-based traffic data: Traffic vector maps based on user profiles where each vector
(polygon or line) carries densities of user profiles. The marketing department can provide
information which can be used to create traffic maps. This information describes the behaviour
of different types of users. In other words, it describes which type of user accesses which
Forsk 2008 WiMAX Modelling in Atoll 15

services and for how long. There may also be information about the type of terminal devices
they use to access different services.
Population-based traffic data: Traffic raster maps based on user densities where each pixel has
an actual user density assigned. Population-based traffic data can be based on population
statistics and user densities can be deduced from the density of inhabitants. In the traffic maps
based on population statistics, you can enter the number of active or potential users per unit
surface area, i.e., the density of users.
2G network statistics: Cumulated traffic maps. Atoll can cumulate the traffic of the traffic maps
that you select and export it to a file. The information exported is the number of active users per
km for a particular service. This allows you to export your 2G network traffic and then import
these maps as traffic density maps into your WiMAX document. These maps can then be used
in traffic simulations like any other type of map.
3.6 WiMAX Monte Carlo Simulations
WiMAX simulations are used to study the network behaviour under different traffic conditions. Traffic
data is taken as input to generate user distributions on the map and then to carry out calculations
based on this traffic scenario.

The calculations performed during a Monte Carlo simulation include determining the serving cells for
each mobile, allocating permutation zones to mobiles, performing power control and subchannelization,
calculating CINR radio conditions, determining the best available bearers for mobiles, calculating
channel throughputs at mobile locations, allocating resources to mobiles and calculating user
throughputs.

The accurate calculation of CINR includes conversing channel numbers into absolute frequency values
for determining co- and adjacent channels, determining co- and adjacent channel overlaps for different
carrier bandwidths, and full consideration of TDD and FDD coexistence in the same network as well. It
also takes into account the effect of fractional frequency reuse by considering which segments are
being used by different cells. In this case the interference depends on the preamble indexes defined for
each cell, as well as on the secondary subchannel groups being used.

The amount of resources available in each cell in the uplink and in the downlink are calculated taking
into account the number of data subcarriers for each permutation zone, the number of symbols
available, and by excluding the time and frequency domain overheads, such as the parts reserved for
Preamble and the MAPs, and the guard subcarriers.

The radio resource allocation algorithm takes into consideration the different QoS classes assigned to
services being accessed by the users. For example, UGS-type services are first allocated the required
resources before allocating resources to other services. Similarly, the best effort services are only
allocated resources if there are remaining resources available after allocation to service of all the other
QoS types. Different cells can use different schedulers.

Apart from these calculations, comprehensive modelling of AAS and MIMO algorithms is also part of
the simulation. Aggregate throughputs are also determined in the end for each cell.

Figure 28 Displaying simulation results using tooltips
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Coverage predictions can then be carried out based on the simulation results to display the network
behaviour in the form of raster plots. For examples of coverage predictions based on results of a traffic
analysis, see 4.2 Network Analysis Under Traffic Conditions.

Monte Carlo simulation results are available in the map window and can be displayed based on
different parameters. It is also possible to display detailed information about any mobile generated
during the simulations in the form of a tooltip as shown Figure 29.

Figure 29 Monte Carlo Simulation results display
By acti vity status (top left)
By throughput (top right)
By service (centre)
By uplink transmission power (bottom left)
By number of used subchannels (bottom right)
4 WiMAX Network Analysis Features in Atoll
There are various network analysis features available in Atoll for studying a WiMAX network in detail.
The following sections describe these features briefly and show sample analysis results that can be
easily obtained using these features.
4.1 Preliminary Analysis
A preliminary analysis of a network can be done easily by carrying out coverage predictions that do not
depend on traffic data. These coverage predictions represent the areas of preamble, traffic, and pilot
coverage. Signal level analysis results are represented in the figures below.
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Figure 30 Best server preamble coverage (top left)
Coverage by preamble signal level (right)
Coverage by number of serving cells per pixel (bottom)
4.2 Network Analysis Under Traffic Conditions
You can study your WiMAX network under different traffic conditions by creating coverage predictions
based on simulation results. The coverage predictions that depend on traffic conditions include all the
coverage predictions that are based on the calculation of interference, i.e., CINR, bearer, and
throughput coverage predictions.

The calculations performed during coverage predictions include determining the serving cells for each
pixel, allocating permutation zones to pixels, performing power control and subchannelization,
calculating CINR radio conditions, determining the best available bearers and calculating the
throughput depending on the available bearer.

The accurate calculation of CINR includes conversion of channel numbers into absolute frequency
values for determining co- and adjacent channels, determination of co- and adjacent channel overlaps
for different carrier bandwidths, and full consideration of TDD and FDD coexistence in the same
network as well. It also takes into account the effect of fractional frequency reuse by considering which
segments are being used at different cells. In this case the interference depends on the preamble
indexes defined for each cell, as well as the secondary subchannel groups being used. Apart from
these calculations, comprehensive modelling of AAS and MIMO algorithms is also part of the
calculation.

Various coverage prediction examples are shown in Figure 31, Figure 32.

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Figure 31 CINR coverage predictions: DL (top), UL (bottom)

Figure 32 Throughput coverage predictions: DL (top), UL (bottom)

4.3 Point Analysis Tool
The Point Analysis tool can be used for real-time prediction analysis. The tool window is dynamically
linked to the map window. The displayed information is updated as the probe mobile is moved on the
map. Figure 33 shows the Point Analysis tool.

Figure 33 Point analysis tool
4.4 Advanced WiMAX Features
Atoll combines comprehensive and accurate calculations with a highly flexible modelling approach in
order to provide a powerful platform for WiMAX network planning. One of the many strengths of Atoll in
terms of WiMAX is its capability of managing all sorts of combinations of the advanced features
available in WiMAX.

You can easily create and study a WiMAX network with simple base stations, base stations using
smart antennas, and MIMO-capable base stations. Moreover, your network can also have traffic
mixtures of simple, AAS-capable, and MIMO-capable user equipment.

Atoll supports full as well as fractional frequency reuse cases. You can allocate channels as well as
segments and preamble indexes easily to different cells. You can also manage the numbers of
secondary subchannel groups used by the segmented PUSC zones. Atoll also uses the information
from allocated preamble indexes during calculations.

The following sections describe how smart antennas, and MIMO are modelled in Atoll, and how
segmentation can be easily implemented in a WiMAX network in Atoll.
4.4.1 Smart Antenna Systems
WiMAX supports adaptive antenna systems. TDD networks are more suitable for smart antennas
compared to FDD because the uplink and downlink channel characteristics are similar, and information
gathered from a mobile in the uplink can be directly used for downlink transmission by the base station.

Smart antenna systems use digital signal processing with more than one antenna element in order to
locate and track various types of signals to dynamically minimize interference and maximize wanted
signal reception. Different types of smart antenna techniques exist, including beam-switching, beam-
steering, beam-forming, etc. Adaptive antenna systems are capable of using adaptive algorithms to
cancel out interfering signals.

Atoll includes an advanced adaptive antenna systems model that performs beamforming in downlink
and interference cancellation in the uplink using an MMSE (Minimum Mean Square Error) algorithm.
The adaptive antenna system in Atoll represents a system that, in downlink, calculates and applies
dynamic weighting to each antenna element in order to create beam patterns in real-time in the
directions of wanted users. In uplink, the Minimum Mean Square Error algorithm models the effect of
null steering towards interfering mobiles.

The antenna patterns created for downlink transmission have a main beam pointed in the direction of
the wanted signal. In the uplink, in addition to the main beam pointed in the direction of the wanted
signal, there can also be one or more nulls in the direction of the interfering signals. If the adaptive
Forsk 2008 WiMAX Modelling in Atoll 20

antenna system is using L antenna elements, it is possible to create L-1 nulls and, thereby, cancel L-1
interfering signals.

In a mobile environment where the interference is not stationary but moving, the antenna patterns are
adjusted so that the nulls remain in the direction of the moving interference. A system using adaptive
antennas adjusts the weighting on each antenna element so as to achieve such a pattern. Atolls
MMSE smart antenna model supports linear adaptive array systems, such as shown in Figure 34.

Figure 34 Linear adaptive array system (top)
(a) Downlink beamforming
(b) Uplink adaptive algorithm
In Figure 34 is the angle of arrival for the wanted signal, is the angle at which we want to calculate
the smart antenna gain, and d is the distance between two adjacent antenna elements.
4.4.1.1 Modelling in Monte Carlo Simulations
During Monte Carlo simulations, the smart antenna model is used to calculate the downlink and uplink
CINR accurately.

In downlink, the smart antenna gain, for calculating the received carrier power (C), is calculated for the
victim cell in the direction of the wanted user by determining the antenna element weights in that
direction. Similarly, to calculate the interference (I) from any interfering cell, the smart antenna gain is
calculated in the direction of the user being served by the interfering cell. This method is depicted in
Figure 35.

Figure 35 Downlink CINR calculation in simulations
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In uplink, an inverse noise correlation matrix is calculated and interference cancellation is modelled
using an MMSE adaptive algorithm. For each pair of victim and interfering users, the interference
received and its direction is stored at the end of each simulation. The result is the angular distribution
of the uplink noise rise which is calculated from the inverse noise correlation matrix obtained at the end
of the simulation.

The smart antenna simulation results include the geographical distribution of transmitted cell power
(downlink) and noise rise (uplink) for each cell. These results are then used to carry out CINR-based
coverage predictions for smart antenna base stations. The following figure shows some Monte Carlo
simulation results with AAS.

Figure 36 Monte Carlo simulation results with AAS
4.4.1.2 Modelling in Coverage Predictions
The simulation results shown in Figure 36 are used in coverage predictions. The behaviour of the
network in different traffic and network scenarios, for example a mix of simple, AAS-capable, and
MIMO-capable base stations and mobiles, can be easily studied in raster coverage plots.

In downlink, the smart antenna gain, for calculating the received carrier power (C), is calculated for the
victim cell in the direction of the wanted user by determining the antenna element weights in that
direction. To calculate the interference (I), the simulation results for the angular distributions of
downlink transmitted power are used in order to determine the power transmitted by an interfering cell
in the direction of the wanted user, as shown in Figure 37.

Figure 37 Downlink CINR calculation in coverage predictions
In uplink, the simulation results of the geographical distribution of the uplink noise rise for each cell
represent the values and the directions of noise rise (interference with respect to thermal noise)
received by the cell itself. Uplink interference for each cell is therefore easily calculated by taking out
the thermal noise from the noise rise in any direction. The CINR is also readily calculated from the
calculated carrier power (C), interference (I), and thermal noise (N).

The following figures show comparisons of downlink and uplink CINR coverage predictions with and
without smart antennas. The improvement in CINR brought about by the smart antennas is quite clear,
i.e., there is a significant improvement in the coverage of higher CINR values.
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Figure 38 Downlink CINR without (top) and with (bottom) smart antennas

Figure 39 Uplink CINR without (top) and with (bottom) smart antennas
4.4.2 Multiple Input Multiple Output Systems
Various Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) techniques are available in WiMAX and modelled in
Atoll.
STTD (Space-Time Transmit Diversity) uses more than one transmission antenna to send the
same data. The signals are combined by the receiver before extracting the data. As the receiver

gets more than one copy of the useful signal, STTD improves the CINR. STTD is often used for
the regions that have bad CINR conditions. It is also referred to as STC (space-time coding)
and Matrix A MIMO.
During calculations, a MIMO-capable user connected to a cell that supports STTD, benefits
from the STTD CINR gain defined for the numbers of transmission and reception antennas, and
the clutter class where it is located.
SM (Spatial Multiplexing) uses more than one transmission antenna to send different data
streams on each antenna. The receiver can also have more than one antenna. SM using M
transmission and N reception antennas can theoretically increase the throughput over the
transmitter-receiver link by M or N times, whichever is smaller. SM improves the throughput
(channel capacity) for given CINR and is used for the regions where CINR is sufficient. It is also
referred to as Matrix B MIMO.
During calculations, a MIMO-capable user connected to a cell that supports SM benefits from
the SM gain in its throughput depending on its CINR, number of transmission and reception
antennas, mobility, and its clutter class. The channel capacity gains are based on the increase
in channel capacity, with respect to the SISO (1x1) capacity provided by SM for each MIMO
configuration (2x2, 4x2, etc.). SM requires a rich multipath environment, without which the gains
are reduced. In the worst case, there is no gain. This dependence of SM on the type of clutter
where the user is located is also fully modelled. Uplink collaborative SM increases the system
capacity in the uplink by receiving separate simultaneous data streams from different users at
each antenna of the base station.

Figure 40 Spatial multiplexing gains
AMS (Adaptive MIMO Switch) is a technique for switching from spatial multiplexing to space-
time transmit diversity as the CINR conditions get worse than a given CINR value.

Figure 41 Adapti ve MIMO switching
AMS can be used in cells to provide spatial multiplexing gains to users under good CINR
conditions and space-time transmit diversity gains to users in bad CINR conditions. AMS
provides the optimum solution using both MIMO techniques to their best.
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Figure 42 SISO, MIMO (SM), and MIMO (AMS) throughput coverages
The following figures depict the effect of spatial multiplexing gain. The histograms show the increase in
throughput when using 4x2 MIMO compared to the SISO case.

Figure 43 Effect of spatial multiplexing (Matrix B MIMO)

4.4.3 Frequency Planning
WiMAX networks can be single or multi-carrier networks. In single-carrier, or single-frequency,
networks, the frequency plan would be an N=1 reuse, with all the cells using the same carrier. In multi-
carrier networks, however, different frequency plans can be exist, such as N=3 reuse for example.

WiMAX 802.16e provides another level of frequency planning using fractional frequency reuse, or
segmentation. The principle of fractional frequency reuse is to divide the carrier bandwidth into
segments that can be allocated to different cells that are using the same carrier. This type of frequency
plan is also referred to as a pseudo-N=3 reuse. The next section describes how segmentation is
modelled in Atoll.

Figure 44 CINR coverage predictions with N = 1 (top) and N = 3 (bottom) reuse patterns
4.4.3.1 Fractional Frequency Reuse (Segmentation)
Permutation zones in a WiMAX frame can be segmented in order to use a fraction of the channel
bandwidth. The advantage of this feature is that each permutation zone of a cell can cover different
regions. For example, an FUSC zone (not segmented) can cover an inner zone using the entire
channel bandwidth, supporting users that are close to the base station. The power spectral density of
the transmitted power in the FUSC zone will be low, and the transmissions from this zone will interfere
other cells less. A segmented PUSC zone in the base station, which uses a fraction of the channel
bandwidth, would have a higher power spectral density and would cover the inner coverage of the
FUSC zone as well as an outer coverage area. A segmented PUSC zone would interfere other cells
only over the fraction of the channel bandwidth used.

Atoll supports all the different possible scenarios, i.e., non-segmented coverage, segmented coverage,
and a mix of segmented PUSC zone and non-segmented FUSC zone.

The following figures show sample coverage predictions with and without segmentation. In case of
segmentation, the first PUSC DL permutation zone is segmented and each cell of the same site uses 1
primary and 1 secondary subchannel group, i.e., 1/3
rd
channel bandwidth in each segment. The
Preamble Indexes have been so allocated to each cell that the cells of the same site use mutually
exclusive sets of subcarriers. In other words, each cell of the same site uses a different segment, but
the same external permutation seed (ID_Cell).
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Figure 45 CINR coverage predictions
Non-segmented FUSC zone (top) (Frequency reuse: N = 1)
Segmented PUSC zone (centre) (Frequency reuse: fractional-N = 3)
Segmented PUSC + non-segmented FUSC zone (bottom) (Frequency reuse: pseudo-N = 3)
4.4.4 Neighbour Planning
Neighbour relations are important in WiMAX 802.16e networks that support handovers. Neighbour
plans can be easily created, edited, and interactively displayed in Atoll. Clicking a transmitter displays
all the neighbour links on the map window. Any type of links (outwards, inwards, or symmetrical) can
be created and edited, or deleted using the mouse. In addition, you can also import existing neighbour
plans easily into documents.

Figure 46 Graphically creating neighbour relations

5 WiMAX Network Planning Process in Atoll
The network planning process for an RF planning engineer working with Atoll is summarized in Figure
47. The planning process starts by creating the network, importing geographic data (DTM, clutter
maps, etc.), and setting up all the network parameters and elements, such as base stations and other
equipment. The initial positioning of the base stations can be studied by carrying out basic preamble
coverage predictions that predict the cell coverage areas. Once the positioning of the base stations has
been validated according to the coverage requirements, you can proceed to studying the behaviour of
the network under different traffic load conditions.

Figure 47 WiMAX network planning process in Atoll
To study the network under different load conditions, you can either define the network loads yourself,
from statistics collected in the OMC, or use Atolls powerful Monte Carlo simulation engine to create
realistic network traffic scenarios and let Atoll calculate the simulated network loads for you.

Atolls calculation engine performs detailed and accurate calculations for all types of scenarios. In case
of AAS-capable base stations, beamforming and MMSE interference cancellation is performed during
Monte Carlo simulations and coverage predictions. Similarly, simulations as well as coverage
predictions support all types of MIMO with an easy-to-use yet comprehensive modelling approach
based on space-time transmit diversity (Matrix A) CINR gains and spatial multiplexing (Matrix B)
throughput gains. Any MIMO configuration (2x2, 4x2, 4x4, etc.) can be set up and used in Atoll. The
dependency of MIMO gains on different types of environments is also fully modelled.

A number of tools are available for studying the network in detail. Among others, these tools include
detailed simulation results, easy-to-generate and exportable reports on coverage predictions, and
profile and point analysis tools. Coverage prediction reports can be based on different geographic data
such as population maps.

Apart from studying the behaviour of the network under different traffic conditions, you can also study
the effects of different frequency plans (full or fractional), and carry out simulations and coverage
predictions to study the network in various frequency planning scenarios.

Moreover, other tools are also available for studying and verifying your WiMAX network. You can use
the frequency search tool to verify the frequency allocation of your network. Using this tool you can
search for channels, segments, and preamble indexes. You can also carry out measurement
campaigns and import test mobile data into Atoll for comparison with predicted results, and other
verifications.
Forsk 2008 WiMAX Modelling in Atoll 28

6 References
[1] Atoll User Manual 2.7.0, February 2008.
[2] Atoll Technical Reference Guide 2.7.0, February 2008.
[3] IEEE 802.16: Standard for local and metropolitan area networks Part 16 (IEEE 802.16e-2005)
[4] Nuaymi, Lutfi, WiMAX Technology for Broadband Wireless Access, J ohn Wiley & Sons, 2007.
[5] Andrew, J . G., Ghosh, A., Muhamed, R., Fundamentals of WiMAX, Prentice Hall, 2007.
[6] Liu, H., Li, G., OFDM-Based Broadband Wireless Networks, J ohn Wiley & Sons, 2005.
[7] The WiMAX Forum website
[8] The IEEE 802.16 Working Group website
[9] Erceg, V., et al., An Empirically Based Path Loss Model for Wireless Channels in Suburban
Environments, IEEE J ournal on Selected Areas in Communications, 1999.
7 Glossary of Terms
AAS adaptive antenna systems
AMC adaptive modulation and coding
AMS adaptive MIMO switch
BE best effort
BER bit error rate
BLER block error rate
bps bits per second
BPSK binary phase shift keying
CINR carrier-power-to-interference-plus-noise ratio
CNR carrier-power-to-noise ratio
CP cyclic prefix
CPE customer premises equipment
CQI channel quality indicator
ErtPS extended real-time packet service
FBSS fast base station switching
FCH frame control header
FDD / TDD frequency division duplexing / time division duplexing
FEC forward error correction
FER frame error rate
FFR fractional frequency reuse (segmentation)
FFT fast Fourier transform
FUSC full usage of subcarriers
ICI inter-carrier interference
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IP Internet protocol
ISI inter-symbol interference
MAC / MAP media access control / media access protocol
MCS modulation and coding scheme
MDHO macro-diversity handover
MIMO multiple input/multiple output
MMSE minimum mean square error
nrtPS nonreal-time polling service
OFDM orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
OFDMA orthogonal frequency division multiple access
PUSC partial usage of subcarriers
QAM quadrature amplitude modulation
QoS quality of service
QPSK quadrature phase shift keying
RLC radio link control
RRM radio resource management
RTG / TTG receive time guard / transmit time guard
rtPS real-time polling service
SISO single input/single output
SM spatial multiplexing
SOFDMA scalable OFDMA
STTD space/time transmit diversity
SUI Stanford University Interim
TUSC tile usage of subcarriers
UGS unsolicited grant services
VoIP voice over Internet protocol
WiMAX worldwide interoperability for microwave access
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