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Physics 2212 Fall 2010 Lab 11 Quiz 6 Key

Name: Section Score:


Show all work clearly and in order, and box your nal answers. By writing your name on
this quiz you agree that this quiz was taken in accordance with the Georgia Tech Honor Code.
A room contains some large lab equipment which has big current-carrying coils that generate
large magnetic elds. You know the direction of the magnetic eld near the coils, and you
want to measure its magnitude. You have a bar of a conducting material whose mobile charges
are known to be electrons. In the bar there are 4 10
24
mobile electrons per cubic meter.
The electron mobility is 9 10
4
m/s
V/m
. Using thick copper connecting wires, you connect the
ceramic bar to a 9 V power supply as shown in the diagram. You also connect an ammeter
and a voltmeter to the circuit, as shown Remember that an ammeter gives a positive reading if
conventional current ows into the positive terminal, and a voltmeter gives a positive reading if
the positive lead is connected to the higher potential location.
Voltmeter
Ammeter
B
B
23 cm
5

m
m
1
.
3

c
m
Power Supply
9 V
1. (40 points) What is the reading on the ammeter, both magnitude and sign? Show all steps
in your work.
Solution: The current can be obtained from the given data.
I = qnAE

where E

=
|emf|
L
I =
qnA|emf|
L
I =
_
1.6 10
19
C
_ _
4 10
24 1
m
3
_ _
1.3 10
2
m
_ _
5 10
3
m
_
_
9 10
4
m/s
V/m
_
(9V)
(23 10
2
m)
= 1.47A
The ammeter will give a positive reading because the convential current ows into the positive
terminal.
2. (20 points) The absolute value of the voltmeter reading is 0.023 mV = 2.3 10
5
V. What
is the sign of this reading? Explain your reasoning in detail.
Solution: The mobile charges are electrons. If there were no magnetic eld they would move
to the right in the cermaic bar. That is their velocity is directed in the +x direction using our
standard xyz coordinate system (v = v
0
x). With the applied magnetic eld in the z direction
(

B = |B
0
| z), the charges will experience a force in the y direction (

F = |e|v
0
B
0
y).
Thus electrons will collect on the lower surface of the bar that is connected to the positive (+)
lead. This leads to a negative measurement in the voltmeter, because the lead is expecting a
higher potential
3. (40 points) Find the magnitude of the magnetic eld in the region of the bar. Show all
work clearly. Start only from equations on the attached formula sheet.
Solution: After some time has elasped, the net force acting on electrons that travel through the
bar is zero, F
net
=

0. The net force is the result of two forces that act on the moving electrons
simulataneously, the magnetic force due the applied magnetic eld,

F
B
and the electric force
that results from the charge separation,

F
E
.
F
net
=

F
B
+

F
E
=

F
B
=

F
E
qv

B = q

v

B =

|v|

|v|

=
|V |
h
and |v| =

=
emf
L

|v|
=
|V |
h
L
emf
=
2.3 10
5
V
5 10
3
m
23 10
2
m
9 10
4
m/s
V/m
9V
= 1.31 10
1
T
Things you must know
Relationship between electric eld and electric force Conservation of charge
Electric eld of a point charge The Superposition Principle
Relationship between magnetic eld and magnetic force
Magnetic eld of a moving point charge
Other Fundamental Concepts
a =
dv
dt
d p
dt
=

F
net
and
d p
dt
ma if v << c
U
el
= qV V =
_
f
i

E d

(E
x
x + E
y
y + E
z
z)

el
=
_

E ndA
mag
=
_

B ndA
_

E ndA =

q
inside

0
_

B ndA = 0
|emf| =
_

E
NC
d

l =

d
mag
dt

_

B d

l =
0

I
inside path
|emf| =
_

E
NC
d

l =

d
mag
dt

_

B d

l =
0
_

I
inside path
+
0
d
dt
_

E ndA
_
Specic Results

E
dipole,axis


1
4
0
2qs
r
3
(on axis, r s)

E
dipole,


1
4
0
qs
r
3
(on axis, r s)

E
rod

=
1
4
0
Q
r
_
r
2
+ (L/2)
2
(r from center) electric dipole moment p = qs, p =

E
applied

E
rod

=
1
4
0
Q
r
_
r
2
+ (L/2)
2
(r from center)

E
rod


1
4
0
2Q/L
r
(if r L)

E
ring

=
1
4
0
qz
(z
2
+ R
2
)
3/2
(z along axis)

E
disk

=
Q/A
2
0
_
1
z
(z
2
+ R
2
)
1/2
_
(z along axis)

E
disk


Q/A
2
0
_
1
z
R
_

Q/A
2
0
(if z R)

E
capacitor


Q/A

0
(+Q and Q disks)

E
fringe


Q/A

0
_
s
2R
_
just outside capacitor

B =

0
4
I

l r
r
2
(short wire)

F = I

l

B

B
wire

=

0
4
LI
r
_
r
2
+ (L/2)
2


0
4
2I
r
(r L)

B
wire

B
earth

tan

B
loop

=

0
4
2IR
2
(z
2
+ R
2
)
3/2


0
4
2IR
2
z
3
(on axis, z R) = IA = IR
2

B
dipole,axis



0
4
2
r
3
(on axis, r s)

B
dipole,



0
4

r
3
(on axis, r s)

E
rad
=
1
4
0
qa

c
2
r
v =

E
rad


B
rad

B
rad

E
rad

c
i = nA v I = |q| nA v v = uE
= |q| nu J =
I
A
= E R =
L
A
E
dielectric
=
E
applied
K
V =
q
4
0
_
1
r
f

1
r
i
_
due to a point charge
I =
|V |
R
for an ohmic resistor (R independent of V ); power = IV
Q = C |V |
Q = C |V | Power = IV I =
|V |
R
(ohmic resistor)
K
1
2
mv
2
if v c circular motion:

d p
dt

=
|v|
R
|p|
mv
2
R
Math Help
a

b = a
x
, a
y
, a
z
b
x
, b
y
, b
z

= (a
y
b
z
a
z
b
y
) x (a
x
b
z
a
z
b
x
) y + (a
x
b
y
a
y
b
x
) z
_
dx
x + a
= ln (a + x) + c
_
dx
(x + a)
2
=
1
a + x
+ c
_
dx
(a + x)
3
=
1
2(a + x)
2
+ c
_
a dx = ax + c
_
ax dx =
a
2
x
2
+ c
_
ax
2
dx =
a
3
x
3
+ c
Constant Symbol Approximate Value
Speed of light c 3 10
8
m/s
Gravitational constant G 6.7 10
11
N m
2
/kg
2
Approx. grav eld near Earths surface g 9.8 N/kg
Electron mass m
e
9 10
31
kg
Proton mass m
p
1.7 10
27
kg
Neutron mass m
n
1.7 10
27
kg
Electric constant
1
4
0
9 10
9
N m
2
/C
2
Epsilon-zero
0
8.85 10
12
(N m
2
/C
2
)
1
Magnetic constant

0
4
1 10
7
T m/A
Mu-zero
0
4 10
7
T m/A
Proton charge e 1.6 10
19
C
Electron volt 1 eV 1.6 10
19
J
Avogadros number N
A
6.02 10
23
molecules/mole
Atomic radius R
a
1 10
10
m
Proton radius R
p
1 10
15
m
E to ionize air E
ionize
3 10
6
V/m
B
Earth
(horizontal component) B
Earth
2 10
5
T