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1.

PENGENALAN Kemahiran mengenai teknik asas penggunaan pisau merupakan salah satu komponen penting yang perlu dikuasai oleh seseorang ahli kulinari sama ada yang hanya merancang untuk bekerja sepenuh masa di dapur atau sekadar untuk menghabiskan masa bersama-sama keluarga dan kawan-kawan di dapur. Mempelajari kaedah penggunaan pisau dengan cara yang betul dapat menjimatkan masa dan memberikan kaedah potongan yang pelbagai. Kaedah pemotongan yang pelbagai ini penting unuk menghasilkan keseragaman pada bentuk dan saiz sayuran yang dipotong yang mana ia mampu menghasilkan persembahan hidangan makanan yang menarik dan membuka selera. Di sini, kami akan berikan anda sedikit kefahaman dan pengetahuan asas tentang panduan keselamatan penggunaan pisau, senibina pisau, jenis-jenis pisau yang biasa digunakan di dapur, beberapa kaedah potongan klasik dan beberapa jenis kaedah potongan yang istimewa. Semua kaedah potongan yang dibincangkan ini hanya menggunakan sayur-sayuran dan buah-buahan sahaja. Sebagai tambahan, kami turut membincangkan beberapa perkara mengenai penjagaan pisau dan teknik menajamkan pisau dan teknik penjagaan papan pemotong.

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2. PERALATAN PERALATAN YANG DIPERLUKAN Keperluan paling asas untuk mempelajari teknik asas penggunan pisau dan mempelajari beberapa kaedah pemotongan sayur ialah: Papan pemotong yang kukuh. (Landas) Pisau chef (chefs knife) yang tajam Paring knife yang tajam. Pengupas kulit sayur.(peeling knife) Adalah lebih baik sekiranya anda memiliki steel (alat yang digunakan untuk menajamkan pisau anda dari semasa ke semasa sepanjang penggunaan pisau tersebut).

Bahan-Bahan yang perlu disediakan adalah seperti berikut: 2 biji Kentang 2 biji Lobak 5 biji bawang besar biji kobis / 1 batang leak 2 biji lada benggala (bell peppers) 2 biji mangga 1 biji limau bali 2 biji cendawan butang

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3. PISAU DAN PAPAN PEMOTONG 3.1. PANDUAN KESELAMATAN PENGGUNAAN PISAU Penggunaan pisau dengan cara yang selamat perlu diberikan perhatian oleh semua pekerja yang terlibat dengan kerja-kerja di dapur. Walaupun hanya terdapat beberapa peraturan sahaja tetapi ia amatlah penting untuk dititikberatkan. 1. Pisau yang tajam adalah pisau yang selamat. Menggunakan pisau yang tumpul boleh mengundang tragedi. Contohnya, apabila anda memaksa diri anda memotong daging yang liat, anda kemungkinan akan kehilangan keseimbangan dan keadaan ini boleh menyebabkan kecederaan. Sekiranya anda menggunakan pisau yang tajam, kerja-kerja pemotongan akan menjadi lebih mudah dan kurang tenaga dibazirkan. 2. Jangan menangkap pisau yang sedang jatuh. Cara yang terbaik untuk mengelakkan anda sentiasa memikirkan tentang peraturan ini ialah dengan memastikan pisau-pisau anda telah lengkap dan berada pada kedudukan yang selamat di atas meja supaya tiada pisau yang boleh terjatuh akibat pelanggaran dan sebagainya. Contohnya di bahagian tengah meja atau di bahagian hujung meja yang ada penghadang. 3. Menggunakan pisau yang tertentu untuk jenis-jenis pemotongan yang tertentu. Banyak kemalangan yang berlaku disebabkan kemalasan pengguna untuk menukar pisau apabila menukar objek yang hendak dipotong. Contohnya menggunakan sejenis pisau sahaja untuk memotong sayur, daging, bawang dan sebagainya dengan mudah mengundang kemalangan terjadi. 4. Sentiasa memotong objek ke arah hadapan jangan sekali-kali memotong objek ke arah anda. Kadangkala langkah ini sukar untuk diikuti. Jika objek berada pada http://tangkapgambar.blogspot.com/

kedudukan yang salah, pusingkan objek tersebut atau pusingkan papan pemotong anda. Gunakan papan pemotong yang bergetah di bahagian bawahnya. Sekiranya bahagian bawahnya adalah licin, lapikkan dengan kain tuala yang basah untuk pastikan papan pemotong tidak bergerak semasa kerja-kerja pemotongan dijalankan. 5. Semasa anda memegang pisau, pastikan mata anda sentiasa peka pada mata pisau. Perkara ini perlu diambil berat terutamanya ketika kita sedang memotong sesuatu objek atau sedang membawa pisau semasa berjalan. Ini merupakan antara langkah-langkah keselamatan yang penting bagi mengelakkan sebarang kecederaan dan kecelakaan. 6. Bawa pisau dengan berhati-hati semasa bergerak. Jika anda membawa pisau melalui dapur yang sangat sibuk, pasti ada ramai orang yang bergerak di manamana sahaja dengan keadaan tergesa-gesa untuk menyiapkan tugas masingmasing. Jadi, ketika anda membawa pisau, pastikan tangan anda memegang hulu pisau dimana mata pisau tersebut mestilah lurus ke bawah menghadap lantai. Pastikan kedudukan tangan anda selesa dan mudah diubah gerakkan (flexsible). 7. Jangan sekali-kali memasukkan pisau ke dalam sinki yang penuh dengan air. Merendam pisau boleh menyebabkan kerosakan pada hulu pisau. Meletakkan pisau dalam bekas rendaman terutama yang bersabun boleh mengundang bahaya. Basuh pisau anda yang tajam itu dengan tangan dan bukannya dengan mesin pembasuh pinggan. Kemudian letakkan ia ditempat sepatutnya dengan kadar segera. 8. Sentiasa memotong objek di atas papan pemotong. Jangan memotong di atas kaca, marble dan logam. Ini boleh merosakkan mata pisau.

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3.2. BAHAGIAN-BAHAGIAN PISAU Pisau direkacipta dalam pelbagai rupa. Bahagian-bahagian pisau yang digunakan oleh chef dapat dijelaskan melalui dua gambar dibawah.

Rajah 2 Rajah 1

Pisau yang bagus ialah apabila bahagian tang akan kelihatan memenuhi bahagian atas di sepanjang hulu pisau seperti yang tertera dalam rajah 2 di atas. Ini akan memberi imbangan dan kestabilan pada struktur pisau. Satu lagi ciri-ciri pisau yang berkualiti ialah bahagian bolster adalah sebahagian dari mata pisau, bukan yang dipisahkan. Sekiranya anda mencari pisau untuk kegunaan persendirian, kami mencadangkan agar anda memilih pisau yang berat, kehalusan mata pisau yang seimbang (exquisitely balanced) ataupun pisau German. Berat pada pisau akan membantu memudahkan anda untuk mendapatkan keseimbangan semasa kerja-kerja pemotongan dijalankan.

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3.3. JENIS-JENIS PISAU Terdapat terlalu banyak rekabentuk pisau di pasaran. Setiap set pisau ini direka untuk pelbagai kegunaan serta untuk kaedah pemotongan yang berbeza. Berikut, diberikan beberapa contoh set pisau yang terdapat di pasaran. 5 bilah set Cutlery. Set ini sesuai untuk pemotongan, chopping, peeling, dicing, atau slicing dan juga boleh digunakan bagi mengukir untuk hiasan. Mengandungi 9" Chef knife, 8" Carving knife, Fork, 6" pisau serbaguna dengan mata yang tidak rata dan 3" Paring knife. Anda memerlukan 10 bilah pisau seperti ini yang dipanggil 10pc Chefmaster Knife Set. Set ini mengandungi pisau pemotong daging (cleaver), chef knife, pisau ukir (carving knife), pisau daging (butcher knife), filet knife, utility knife, fruit/vegetable knife dan steak knife. Pisau ini pula mempunyai ciri-ciri yang istimewa iaitu tidak perlu diasah dan hulunya diperbuat daripada bahan polypropylene. Set pisau dengan papan pemotong (landas). Sebagai seorang chef, set ini sesuai untuk dibawa kemana-mana dan sangat lengkap. Set ini tidak perlu ditajamkan, mempunyai mata pisau yang diperbuat daripada stainless steel dan hulu http://tangkapgambar.blogspot.com/ yang diperbuat daripada

polypropylene. Set ini mengandungi 8 steak knives, 3 paring, utility, butcher, chef, fillet, cleaver serta pisau dengan mata yang tidak rata untuk memotong tomato dan ham/roti. Set pemotongan di dapur yang lengkap ini mempunyai semua jenis alat pemotong menghiris, yang kita perlukan dadu, untuk memotong memotong

tulang, mencincang atau membuat ukiran untuk hiasan hidangan. Set ini terdiri daripada 8 set cutlery termasuklah cleaver, chef, slicer, ham, bread, utility, boning, paring knives. Set ini dilengkapkan lagi dengan steel pengasah/penajam, gunting serbaguna (all purpose kitchen scissors), poultry scissors, dan 11-3/8" x 7-3/4" papan pemotong (landas). Baiklah, sekarang kita akan membincangkan beberapa jenis pisau yang biasa digunakan untuk kerja-kerja di dapur.
A

Kiri: steel.
B C

Dari atas: A) 10 chefs knife, B) 9 chefs knife, C) 8 chefs knife, D) Santoku Oriental chefs knife

Rajah 3

Dari atas: E) Serrated slicer or bread knife, F) boning knife, G) paring knife, http://tangkapgambar.blogspot.com/
Rajah 4
F G H

H) birds beak or tourner knife

Semua pisau yang ditunjukkan pada rajah 3 dan rajah 4 di atas adalah chefs knives dan 3 pisau teratas dalam rajah 3 itu kadangkala dirujuk sebagai French knives. Sekiranya anda ingin membeli sebilah pisau, pastikan pisau yang dipilih ialah chefs knife. Untuk menentukan saiz pisau sesuai dengan tangan anda, anda perlu memastikan panjang dan lebar pisau sesuai dengan saiz tangan anda. Gambar A, C, D dalam rajah 3 di atas adalah daripada Wusthofs Culinar. Satu kekurangan pada pisau tersebut ialah tiada tang line dan rivets yang berfungsi sebagai rujukan semasa memotong. Pisau santoku mempunyai dimpled pada mata pisau. Ini memudahkan proses pemotongan dimana ia mudah untuk memisahkan produk yang melekat pada matanya terutamanya produk yang basah. Pisau pada gambar E merupakan pisau yang bermata gergaji. Ia amat sesuai bagi memotong roti terutamanya roti yang rangup dan rapuh tanpa menghancurkannya. Pisau F pula sesuai direka supaya flexsibel dan dapat disesuaikan untuk mengikut ira daging semasa memotong daging. G pula merupakan pisau-pisau yang sesuai untuk kerja-kerja umum seperi memotong bawang, manakala pisau H dan I merupakan birds beak yang digunakan untuk mendapatkan hasil pemotongan yang berbentuk melengkung.

3.4. KAEDAH MENGGUNAKAN PISAU

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Pandangan hadapan kaedah memegang pisau

Pandangan sisi

Kaedah yang sesuai untuk memegang pisau chefs knife ialah dengan mencengkam bahagian pertemuan antara hulu dan mata pisau dengan tetap dengan ibu jari dan jari telunjuk berada dihadapan bolster dengan keseluruhan jari lain menggenggam disekeliling hulu. Cara pegangan sedemikian akan memberikan cengkaman yang kuat. Dan cara memegang pisau yang betul akan memberi hasil yang baik dan cantik pada bahan yang dipotong. Terdapat 2 langkah atau kaedah yang berbeza semasa menggunakan chefs knife. Yang pertama adalah dengan menggunakan bahagian tumit mata pisau (wrist-fulcrum method) iaitu bahagian yang paling hampir dengan bolster. Gunakan pergelangan tangan dan genggam mata pisau di bahagian yang paling hampir dengan bolster. Caranya dengan menggerakkan pergelangan tangan atas dan bawah dan seterusnya mata pisau akan bergerak mengikut rentak pergelangan tangan anda. Kedudukan ini akan menaikkan bahagian hujung mata pisau dan manarik pisau ke arah belakang.

Kaedah i guna tumit mata pisau

Kaedah ii - guna hujung mata pisau

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Kaedah kedua ialah dengan menggunakan bahagian hujung mata pisau pada permukaan papan pemotong. Kaedah ini digalakkan untuk pergerakan yang lembut dan perlahan dengan keadaan lebih dikawal.

Kedudukan tangan yang sesuai ketika memotong.

3.5. TEKNIK PENJAGAAN MATA PISAU Basuh chefs knife anda sebaik saja digunakan dengan air suam yang bersabun, dan keringkan dengan segera. Untuk memelihara hulu pisau, Jangan rendam hulu pisau dalam air terlalu lama atau jangan masukkan pisau ke dalam mesin pembasuh pinggan mangkuk. Simpan pisau di tempat khas yang dijaga rapi (seeloknya gunakan rak pisau yang bersifat magnetik) dan bukannya di dalam laci yang mana ia boleh rosak apabila berlaga dengan peralatan-peralatan lain di dalam laci tersebut. Untuk memastikan ketajaman mata pisau, dicadangkan menggunakan steel pengasah pisau tradisional. 1. Tahan kedudukan steel dengan kemas, tempatkan ia di atas papan pemotong. 2. Pastikan kedudukan mata pisau pada sudut 20 pada steel dengan mata pisau ke bawah mengadap steel. 3. Tolakkan mata pisau ke arah bawah dan bergerak disepanjang steel, tarikkan semula ke arah anda. Teruskan proses tolak dan tarik sehingga anda mendapat mata pisau yang tajam. http://tangkapgambar.blogspot.com/

4. Pusingkan mata pisau pada bahagian sebelahnya. Lakukan proses 3 sekali lagi sehingga kedua-dua permukaan mata pisau halus, nipis dan tajam. 5. Lakukan proses tolak dan tarik itu sebanyak 6 kali atau sehingga anda mendapati mata pisau anda telahpun tajam.

3.6. TEKNIK PENJAGAAN PAPAN PEMOTONG Papan pemotong merupakan pasangan dan kawan baik kepada pisau anda. Sama ada anda memilih papan pemotong daripada plastik atau kayu, katakuncinya ialah papan pemotong ini berperanan besar untuk menahan apa saja yang anda potong supaya tidak melayang atau berserakan di merata tempat. Untuk memastikan papan pemotong anda tidak bergerak semasa proses memotong dijalankan terutama bagi papan pemotong yang ringan, alaskan bahagian bawah papan pemotong dengan kitchen towel yang lembab. Elakkan dari memotong sayur di atas permukaan yang keras seperti marble kerana ia akan merosakkan mata pisau anda. Di pasaran terdapat papan pemotong yang siap dibina bersana kabinet dapur anda, tetapi kami biasanya meletakkan papan pemotong kayu atau plastik di atasnya untuk mengelakkan kerosakan pada permukaannya. Ini kerana, papan pemotong yang kecil ini amat mudah dialihkan kemana saja disamping mudah dibasuh, dikeringkan dan disimpan. Ia amat penting terutamanya apabila anda memotong daging dan ikan di atasnya, di mana ia perlu dibersihkan dengan kadar yang segera. Sesetengah orang menyediakan beberapa papan pemotong di rumah dan mengkhususkan fungsi papan pemotong tersebut untuk memotong pelbagai jenis produk yang berbeza. Kaedah ini sebenarnya dapat memanjangkan riwayat umur papan pemotong anda. Tidak kira apa juga yang anda potong, adalah lebih baik sekiranya anda menggosok papan pemotong anda dengan sabun dan air panas selepas setiap kali penggunaan dan juga sekali-sekala membersihkannya dengan peluntur yang lembut atau baking soda dan air. Cuka dan jus limau juga boleh digunakan untuk membersihkan dan mewangikan papan pemotong. http://tangkapgambar.blogspot.com/

KNIFE HANDLES
French Knife or Chefs Knife Most frequently used in the kitchen For general-purpose chopping,slicing,dicing,and so on Larger knives are for heavy cutting and chopping Small bldes are for more delicaye work

Utility knife or Salad Knife Narrow, pointed knife 6 to 8 inches Used mostly for pantry work,cutting and preparing lettuce , fruits , and so on Also useful to carving roasted chicken and duck

Paring Knife Small pointed blades Used to trimming and paring vegetables and fruits

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Boning Knife

Thin, pointed blade Used to boning raw meats and poultry Stiff blades are used for heavier work Flexible blades are used for lighter work and for filleting fish

Slicer Long,slender,flexible blade up to 14 inches long Used for carving and slicing cooked meats

Serrated Slicer Like a slicer,but with serrated edge Used for cutting breads,cakes,and similar items

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Butcher Knife Heavy, broad , slightly curved blade Used for cutting, sectioning,and trimming raw meat in the butcher shop

Scimitar or Steak Knife Curved,pointed blade Used for accurate cutting of steaks

Cleaver Very heavy, broad blade Used for cutting through bones

Oyster Knife Short, rigid,blunt knife with dull edge Used for opening oyster

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Clam Knife Short, rigid, broad-bladed knife with a slight edge Used for opening clam

Vegetable Peeler Short tool with a slotted, swiveling blade Used for peeling vegetables and fruits

Steel Not a knife but an essential part of knife kit Used for truing and maintaining knife edges

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HAND TOOLS AND SMALL EQUIPMENT


Ball Cutter, Melon Ball Scoop or Parisiene Knife Blade is small, cup shape ,half sphere Used for cutting fruits and vegetables into small balls

Cooks Fork Heavy, two pronged fork with a long handle Used for lifting and turning meats and other items Must be strong enough to hold heavy loads

Straight Spatula or Pallete Knife A long flexible blade with a rounded end Use mostly for spreading icing on cakes and for mixing and bowl scraping

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Sandwich Spreader A short, stubby spatula Used for spreading fillings and spreading sandwich

Offset Spatula Broad blade , bent, to keep hand off hot surface Use for turning lifting eggs, pancakes , and on gridsles , grill , sheet pans , and so on Also used as a scrapper to clean bench or griddle

Rubber spatula or scraper Broad , flexible rubber or plastic tip on long handle Used for scrape bowl and pans Also used for folding in egg foams or whipped cream

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Pie Server A wedge-shaped offset spatula Used for lifting pie wedges from pan

Bench scraper or Dough Knife A broad , shift piece of metal with a wooden handles on one edge Used to cut pieces of dough and to scrape workbenches

Pastry Wheel A round , rotating blade on the handle Used for cutting rolled-out dough and pastry and baked pizza

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Spoon Large stainless steel spoon, holding about 3 ounces Used for stirring , mixing , and serving Slotted and perforated spoon are used when the liquid must be drain from solid

Skimmer Perforated disk, slightly cupped. on long handle Used for skimming froth from liquid and removing solid pieces from soups, stock, and other liquid

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Tongs Spring-types or scissor types Used to pick up and handle foods

Wire whip Loop of stainless steel wire fastened to a handle There are two types of wire 1. heavy whip 2. balloon whip

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China Cap cone-shape strainer used for straining stock, soup, sauce and other liquids pointed shape allow cook to drain liquids through a relatively small opening

Chinois ( shee-nwah) china cap with very fine mesh used when great clarity or smoothness is require in liquid

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Strainer Sieve screen-type mesh up supported in a round metal frame used for shifting flour and other dry ingredients rounded-bottomed, cup-shaped strainer made of screen-type mesh or of perforated metal used for straining pasta, vegetables and so on

Colander large perforated bowl made of stainless steel or aluminum used to drain wash or cooked vegetables, green salad, pasta, and other foods

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Food Mill A tool with a hand-turned blade that force foods through a perforated disk. Interchangeable disk has different coarseness or fineness Used to pureeing foods

Grater http://tangkapgambar.blogspot.com/

A four side metal box with different sized grids Used for shredding and grating vegetables, cheese, citrus rind and other foods

Zester Small hand tool Used for removing colored part of citrus peel in thin strip

Channel knife Small hand tool Used mostly in decorative work

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Pastry bag and tubes Conned shaped cloth or plastic bag with open end that can be fitted with metal tubes or tips of various shape and sizes Used for shaping decorating with items such as cake icing, whipped cream, duchess potatoes and soft icing

Pastry brush Used to brush items with egg wash , glaze and other

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Can opener Heavy duty service type can opener is mounted on the edge of the workbench. They must be carefully cleaned and sanitized every day to prevent contamination on food Replace worn blade which can leave metal shaving on the food

MEASURING DEVICES
Scale http://tangkapgambar.blogspot.com/

Most recipe ingredients are measured by weight, so accurate scale are very important Portion scale are used for measuring ingredient as well as for portion products foe service

Ladles Used for measuring and portioning liquid

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The size in ounce is stamped on the handle

Volume Measure Used for liquids have lips for easy pouring Sizes are pints, quarts, half gallon, and gallons Each sizes is marked off into fourths by ridges on the sides

Scoops http://tangkapgambar.blogspot.com/

Comes in standard sizes and have a lever of mechanical release Used for portioning solid food

POTS AND PANS


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Stock Pot A large , deep , straight-sided pot for preparing stocks and simmering large quantities of liquid There are two types of stock pot 1. normal stock pot 2. spigots stock pot stock pot with spigot allow liquid to be drained off without disturbing the liquid content or lifting the pot sizes 8 to 200 quart

Sauce Pot http://tangkapgambar.blogspot.com/

round pot of medium depth similar to stock pot but shallower, making stirring or mixing easier used for soup, sauce and other liquid sizes 6 to 60 quart

Brazier round, broad, shallow , heavy-duty pot with straight sides used for browning , braising, and stewing meats sizes 11 to 30 quart

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Saucepan similar to a small ,shallow, light sauce pot, but with one long handle instead of two loop handles\may have straight or slant sides used for general range top-cooking sizes 1 to 15 quart

Saut pan, slope sided also frying pan used for generally sauting and frying meat ,fish, vegetable and eggs. Sloping sides allow the cook to flip and toss items without using a spatula , and they make it easier to get the food when a spatula is use Sizes 6 to 14 inches

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Cast Iron Skillet Very heavy thick bottomed fry pan Used for pan frying when very steady even heat is desired

Double boiler Lower section, similar to a stock pot, holds boiling water Upper section holds food that must be cooked at low temperature and cannot be cooked over direct heat Sizes of top section 4 to 36 quart

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Sheet pan or bun pan Shallow rectangular pan Used for baking cakes, rolls, and cookies and for baking or broiling certain meat and fish

Bake pan Rectangular pan about 2 inches deep Used for baking Comes in variety of sizes

Roasting pan Large rectangular pan, deeper and heavier than bake pan Used for roasting meat and poultry

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Hotel pan Also called counter pan, steam table pan or service pan Rectangular pan usually made of stainless steel Used for baking and steaming and foods can be served from the pan Also used to storage Standard sizes 12x20 inches

Bain marie insert Tall , cylindrical stainless steel container Used for storage and for holding foods in bain marie Sizes 1 to 36 quart

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SANITAION AND SAFETY


Good food is safe food. The foodservice managers primary responsibility is to make certain that all are serving safe food to the public. Managers should obtain copies of all federal, state and local sanitary codes and enforce these regulations strictly. FOOD-BORNE DISEASES Foodservice managers can eliminate and control food-borne diseases by using these practices: Building in sanitation in equipment Having proper storage facilities and refrigeration Employing and training healthy and careful workers Maintaining proper temperature controls with hot foods held over 140 F and cold foods under 40 F Cooking alone will not guarantee the destruction of all food-borne bacteria, so it is necessary to start with the safe food and handle it carefully. Following are common food-borne diseases: Botulism. Poisoning by a deadly toxin that results from improper processing or canning Trichiosis. A diseases caused by larvae that are present in animals tissue-most often in pork. It is therefore necessary to cook all pork products thoroughly, to at least 150 F Typhoid fever. A diseases caused by ingestion of contaminated milk or water or exposure to typhoid carriers.

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Salmonellosis. A gastrointestinal infection caused by bacteria found in many animals product such as eggs, meats, dried yeast, and fish. Growth of these bacteria can be prevented by through cooking and proper refrigeration.

NOTE: some Salmonella may even multiply if frozen foods are not properly handled.

Staphylococcal Poisoning. Poisoning caused by bacteria toxin growing in food. These can come from wound or lesions on worker; thus it is absolutely essential to have a healthy, well-trained crew. Staphylococcal bacteria are resistant to heat, so thorough cooking are necessary to destroy them. Hold foods below 40 F and over 140F

Clostridium Perfringens Poisoning. A poisoning come from various fungi and molds that are present in environments. To control their growth, prevent their germination and multiplication by preventing exposure to air and holding foods at proper tempretures

Chemical poisoning. Caused by accidental ingestion of, or exposure to, cleaning products and the like. Take these steps to prevent it: Store all cleaning suppliers,detergents,and insect and rodent poisons away from foods-preferably in a separate storage area Label these products properly Train all worker to read labels and to be sure of correct product to avoid mistakes Keep MSDSs( material safety data sheets) accessible at all times

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HACCP System
HACCP (hazard Analysis Critical Control Points) is proving to be an effective and efficient method for managing and maintaining sanitary conditions in all types of food service operations. Developed in 1971 for NASA to ensure food safety for astronauts It is a similar system adopted by the National Restaurant Association known as Sanitary Assessment of the Food Environment (S.A.F.E.), which is rigorous system of self-inspection The HACCP process begins by identifying the steps and evaluating the type and severity of hazard that can occur. - then identifies what actions can be taken to reduce or prevent each risk of hazard.

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SANITATION RULES
1. Get food hot as quickly as possible and keep hot -140F or over 2. get food cold as quick as possible and keep it cold- 40F or below 3. keep food covered as much as possible; use clean utensils 4. Exercise extreme caution when using leftover. Do not prepare too much food ahead 5. Wash all fresh fruits and vegetables 6. Do not expose food to the danger temperature range (40F to 140F) for more than 3 hours 7. Do not refreeze thawed meat, fish or vegetables. Freezing and refreezing caused cellular breakdown and increases susceptibility to decay 8. Make sure bent cans have not been punctured 9. Check all fish and shellfish for freshness when it is delivered to the property. Fresh fish have firm flesh, bright red gills and clear eyes 10. Cook all pork thoroughly 11. Dispose of all garbage and rubbish promptly 12. If in doubt about any food, throw it away 13. Always sanitize our work area before beginning food production. Use a solution of bleach and water

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DISHWASHING
Machine Dishwashing o Remove all food particles from dishes, using either a scraper or rinse water power arm o Pre-rinse dishes at 80F. Wash at 140F and rinse at 180F. Avoid toweling dishes. o Store dishes in a clean, dry, enclosed storage area. Invert cups and glasses o Any soap or detergents recommended by your supplier is adequate Hand Dishwashing o Use the sink with three compartments-one for washing, a second for rinsing in clean hot water, and a third for sanitizing dishes in some type of sanitizing agents o Avoid towel drying your dishes o Any soap or detergent recommended by our supplier is adequate Safe Pot And Pan Washing o Use a three-compartment sink or a pot-washing machine o Scrape loosened food from dishes, pots, and flatware, then soak in warm water o Wash in clean ,soapy hot water. Use a pot-washing brush, and change water frequently. A detergent may be employed instead of soap o Rinse in clean, hot chlorine solution(sanitizing agent) and drain. Toweling is not necessary if the rinse water is very hot

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KITCHEN SAFETY
Slip and Falls One-fourth of all accidents in the kitchen are slip and falls. Here are ways to prevent such accidents: Clean slippery materials from stairs and floor Use wooden duck board or nonabrasive strips on hard surface floor Use abrasive covering in wet or greasy areas Wipe up all liquid,food,or grease spills immediately Keep all items off the floor. Do not store items on the floor even for a short time Require employees to wear proper footwear Discourage employees from running , walking quickly or engaging in horseplay Provide handrails in stairways Provide adequate lighting in all work areas and stairwells Do not overload serving trays. When loading a tray, be sure the server can see over and round it Watch possible problem spots such as the floor around ice machines. deep fat fryers, and salad preparation areas Cuts And Bruises

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Cuts and bruises are other common problems for foodservice worker. Help to prevent cuts and bruises by taking these measures: Post operation regulations for all equipment. Require strict observance of the regulation. Keep knives sharp, and use use the proper knife for each job. Dull knives require more pressure than sharp ones and cause more cuts. Handle and clean knife properly. Clean with cutting edge away from you. Use paper towel or cloth towel. Never wipe the knife on your apron. If knife a knife or other equipment fall on the floor , step back and allow it to hit the floor. Use a cutting board surface for cutting. Hold the food to be cut in a way that will prevent injury to your fingers. Slice the portion from the bottom of unstable items to make a flatter surface and given you a better hold during the cutting process. Provide side towels so worker san keep their hands and utensils free from grease. Cut away from the body when using cutting tools. Use tempers to push food into choppers and grinding machines. Always use guards on power-driven machines. Sweep up broken glass or other sharp objects before washing the floor.

BURNS Burn presents a serious and constant hazard to foodservices workers in every type of kitchen. They are built-in danger, much like a microwave with the bad seal. But burns are avoidable. Follow these procedures to protect yourself and tour crew: Require preparation employees wear well-fitting uniforms with long sleeves. Expose as little skin as possible Keep the pot holder dry and readily available Keep the handle of pot and pan turn in Never fulfit the container with the hot food

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Water cause pop. Item to be deep frying must thoroughly drain and free of excess water In case of a minor burn or scald, put the injuries under the cold water or apply ice immediately to prevent blistering and relieve pain

CHEF RESPONSIBILITIES
Chefs must be able to do more than prepare and present foods. They should be able to: a) b) c) d) e) understand traditions and factors influence change make sure food served is wholesome and safe to eat make sure those around them work in a safe and efficient manner ensure the food that they served are nutritious or at least offer their customers sufficient selection of menu in order to construct a nutritious meal write menus and produce food in a consistent and cost-effective manner

2. THE PROFESSIONAL CHEF Factors to develop professional chef are: knowledge, skill, taste, judgment, dedication and pride a) Knowledge Chef must be able to: http://tangkapgambar.blogspot.com/

i) identify, purchase, utilize and prepare a wide variety of food ii) train and supervise a safe, skilled and efficient staff iii) possess a body of knowledge, understand and apply a certain scientific and business principles especially through culinary program to provide the students with: a) b) basic knowledge of foods, food style and methodused to prepare foods an understanding of sanitation, nutrition and business procedure such as food costing iii) involve in professional organizations in order to meet his/her peers and exchange ideas

b)

Skills Can be provided through practical or hands-on experience. The skills needed: a) in producing consistent and efficient food quality b) in organizing, training, motivating and supervising a staff

c)

Taste Taste is complex combination of smell, taste, sight, sound and texture. Those senses involve in enjoyment of eating and must be considered in creating/preparing a dish Therefore, chef must be able to develop a memorable taste for both familiar and unfamiliar menus through a) making notes and experimenting flat or combination of cooking method b) considering how flavours, appearances, textures to create a total taste experience

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d)

Judgment Chef should be able to judge in: i. ii. iii. selecting menu items determining how much of what item to order deciding whether and how to combine ingredients and approving finished items for service (skill play a role in developing judgement, second judgment comes only with experience)

e)

Dedication Chef should be: i) ii) iii) Efficient in produce food that properly prepared, seasoned, garnished and presented. dedicated to his/himself and his/her staff dedicated to share goals and positive attitude (if relies on teamwork) to get job done well

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f)

Pride Chef should have: i) a sense of pride in doing well ii) iii) extend to personal appearance and behaviour in and around kitchen well-groomed and in uniform when working

3.

THE FOOD SERVICE OPERATION Staffing of any food service operations depends on the type and complexity of the menu. Those staff are called brigade.

a)

The classic kitchen brigade

No 1

Position Chef du cuisine/ chef

Pronounce Chef de cuisine -

Responsibilities responsible to all kitchen operation develop menu items set kitchens tone and tempo known as second chef (under chef) scheduling personnel and replacing the chef and station chef as necessary often function as the aboyeur (expediter or announcer) who accepts the orders from the dining room then distributes them to the various station chefs and then reviews the dishes before serving

Sous-chef

Su chef

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Chef de 3 partie (station Chef de party -

produce the menu items under the direct supervision of the chef or sous-chef assists cooks in producing needed items (each station chef is assigned a specific task based on either the cooking method and equipment or category of items to be produced)

No 4

Position Saucier/ saut station chef

Pronounce Saucea

Responsibilities Is responsible for all sauted items and most sauces Is responsible for fish and shellfish items and

Poissonier/ Fish station chef Pusonea Grilladi Frituriea

their sauces Is responsible for all grilled items Is responsible for all fried items

6 7

Grillardin Friturier/fry station chef)

Rotisseur/ roast station chef

Rotissea

Is responsible for all roasted items and jus

Potager/ soup station chef

Portagea

Is responsible for soup and stocks

10

Legumier/ vegetable station chef

Legumea

Is responsible for all vegetable and starch items

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11

Grademanager/pantry chef Tournant/ roundsman/ swing cook

Gad mangea

Is responsible for cold food preparation including salad and salad dressing, cold appetizers

12

Tournant Works where needed

13

Patissier (pastry chef)

Patisea

Is responsible for all baked items including breads, pastries and desserts

14

Demi-chefs (assistant) Commis (apprentices)

Demi-chef Commi Work with the station chef or pastry chef to learn the area

b) -

The modern kitchen brigade Is simpler than the classic ones. Executive chef coordinates kitchen activities and directs the kitchen staffs training and work effort plans and creates recipes

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Sets and enforces nutrition, safety and sanitation standards and participates in the preparation and presenting of menu items to maintain quality standard

Purchases food items and equipment In some food service operation, the executive chef assists in designing the menu, dining room and kitchen

Educates the dining room staff to have an understanding of sanitation, nutrition and business procedures such as food costing

c)

The dining room brigade I. dining room manager trains all service personnel, overseas wine selection, works with chef to develop menu , organizes the seating chart and seat the guest

II. wine steward responsible for the wine service such as: purchasing wines

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assisting guests in selecting wines serving the wines

III. Headwaiter responsible for service throughout the dining room or a section of it in small operations, this position is also known as maitre d or a captain

IV. Captains explain menu to guests and taking their orders responsible for any tableside preparation

V Front waiters assure that tables are set properly for each course, food are delivered properly to the proper tables and the needs of guests are met

VI Back waiters also known as dining room attendants or buspersons responsible for clearing plates, refilling water glasses

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NAPKIN FOLDS
Here are a few different types of napkin folds to help make your event really special Bishop's Mitre 1. Fold napkin bringing top to bottom. 2. Fold corners to center line. 3. Turn napkin over and rotate 1/4 turn. 4. Fold bottom edge up to top edge and flip point out from under top fold. 5. Turn left end into pleat at left forming a point on left side. 6. Turn napkin over and turn right end into pleat forming a point on right side. 7. Open base and stand upright.

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Rosebud
1. Fold napkin in half diagonally. 2. Fold corners to meet at top point. 3. Turn napkin over and fold bottom 2/3 way up. 4. Turn napkin around and bring corners together, tucking one into the other. 5. Turn napkin around and stand on base.

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Pyramid
1. Fold napkin in half diagonally. 2. Fold corners to meet top point. 3. Turn napkin over and fold in half. 4. Pick up at center and stand on base of triangle.

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1. Lady's Fan
1. Fold napkin in half. 2. Make 1/2" accordion pleats, starting at bottom. 3. Fold in half with pleating on the outside.

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4. Fold upper right corner diagonally down to folded base of pleats and turn under edge. 5. Place on table and release pleats to form fan .

Clowns Hat
1. Fold napkin in half bringing bottom to top. http://tangkapgambar.blogspot.com/

2. Holding center of bottom with finger, take lower right corner and loosely roll around center, matching corners, until cone is formed. 3. Turn napkin upside down, then turn hem all around. 4. Turn and stand on base.

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1.Goblet Fan
1. Fold napkin in half. 2. Pleat from bottom to top. 3. Turn napkin back 1/3 of the way on right (folded) end and place into goblet. 4. Spread out pleats at top.

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NAPKIN FOLDS

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Bishops Mitre

Rosebub

Pyramid

Pyramid

Clowns Hat

Goblet Fan

CHEF UNIFORM

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Chef jacket

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Chef apron

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Neck ken

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Chefs Hat

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LINENS AND TOWELS


Linens

Linen is a type of cloth material that is made from the flax and it has great demand from the upper class society members. Due its various characteristics linen has become very popular with in short period of time. There are various types of linens that are used in day to day to activities. These linens provide a great look to the personal homes and offices. The other areas where the linens are used widely are the hospitals, restaurants, private offices, government offices and the in the schools. These linens are treated as decorative accessories and gives soft feeling. Linens are costly when compared to the other fabrics and they are considered as a dignity factor and plays crucial role in personal hygiene.

Most of the linen materials are coated with Teflon to get a fine finish and also helps in linens durability. Due to this Teflon coating linen becomes soft and stains free and enables easy maintenance. Most famous and popular linens that are used are the Italian linen and the Antica Linen. Both these linens are quality products and have the longer durability in all the atmospheric conditions. These varieties are readily available in the leading stores or can be purchased with the help of online services. If purchased in more quantity heavy the owners provide discount ranging from 20% to 40%.

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These linen materials can be used as tablecloth, napkins, and banquet cloth, door curtains and as window curtain. The following few lines describes the use of linen in various uses of linens.

Linen napkins
Linen napkins are widely used in hospitals, restaurants and government offices to cater for the needs of special guests. There are fixed sizes of the linen napkins but available in different colors and designs.

Linen tablecloth
While preparing the linen tablecloth maximum care is taken to protect the material and the shine of the linen. These tablecloths are used in various organizations such as hospitals, schools and help in provides a glorious look the offices. Tablecloths are readily available in various attractive colors and different designs. United States of America and the Canada are the two countries that use the maximum linen all over the world.

Restaurant linens
These types of linens are used in decorating the windows and doors. Mainly they are used as a curtain for the windows in the restaurants. To have soft feelings restaurants linens are also used as pillow covers and mattress covers. After each wash the linens provides a fine and new look to the material. http://tangkapgambar.blogspot.com/

Restaurant linen tablecloths


This linen tablecloth in the restaurants provides an elegant look to the restaurants and can be ordered in different sizes as per the requirement of the restaurant. It has an elegant glaze that stays for longer period and is very easy to maintain. Various colors are also readily available in the market.

Other than above use the linen is also used in personal clothing for fashion purpose. Due to low maintenance cost and glazing nature linens are used widely all over the world. Especially night wears such as evening gowns for the ladies, night dresses for the kids and night coats for the men are very popular varieties of the linen materials. All these linen products are just for guidelines only and the readers are requested to not take as authority for the linen products. Readers are advised to go through the detailed product catalogue before purchasing any item.

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SPICES
DEFINATION
There are many definitions of a spice but, it is best consider a spice as the aromatic part of any plant that can be usesd to add flavour to the food Spices generally came from hot country lying within a few degree of the equator. Mediterranean is a importance herbs come from.

STORAGE AND SHELF-LIFE


Spices should be stored in cool, dry condition away from light. They should be in airtight packaging to reduce oxidation. http://tangkapgambar.blogspot.com/

Spices are usually an annual crop and will stored for 6-12 months

USE OF SPICES
Spices are use individually or combines Use to enhance flavor and to color the products. To build up the flavor in the development process.

TYPES OF SPICES
Allspice Use in the whole state for pickling spice and widely in the former fot preserving fish The normal method is use ground allspices in both savory and dessert application as wide-ranging as certain types of curry and mixed spice.

Aniseed Has a characteristic licorice flavor and has a limited use in formulation, although anise oil widely used in beverages, baked goods, soup and confectionary A main use in the manufacturing of drinks such as pernod,ouza, and Turkish raki

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Basil Herb belonging to the mint family Distinctive flavor which has affinity with tomatoes and salads Use for flavoring casseroles,sauces,and sausages Component of mixed herbs and banquet garni

Bay Leaves Bay leaves used whole ,cut, ground or as bay leaf oil ,depending on application Added to stew, pts, and marinated Also use as a traditional ingredient in milk puddings and sweet custard

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Caraway Seed Fruit of hardy biennial herb of the parsley family Caraway seed has a distinctive flavor and it used whole in rye bread, cakes,biscuits,cheese,and sauce Caraway seed oil are used in as a main constitute and can be used in flavoring sausages, meat and canned goods

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Cardamom Cardamom is unripe seed capsules, which are picked from August to October. http://tangkapgambar.blogspot.com/

The flavor of cardamom is all in the seed inside Cardamom has a distinctive flavor which is combine of sweet, pungent and aromatic notes Cardamom is expensive and strongly flavor

Chives Member of onion family The normal use of chives is a mild onion flavor garnish to many dishes including soups, salad and eggs They can combine with cottage cheese to give a delicately flavor

Cinnamon And Cassia They are both the peeled bark of tropical trees http://tangkapgambar.blogspot.com/

Cinnamon comes from managed trees on estate and is the product of a coppiced tree Cassia on the other hand, comes from large tree that grow wild and are cut down to obtain the bark Cinnamon has a very fine and delicate flavor, which is used in punches, mulled wine and delicately flavored dessert Cassia comes from several tree in the cassia family and has a a very strong and distinctive flavor Cinnamon is normally used in grounded form to flavor bread,cakes,dessert and sweet product

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Cloves Cloves are the dried, unopened flower of a tropical tree that grows to 40 ft high The main value of cloves is in the whole state with flower bud intact where they are used for studding food such as ham and fruit In the ground form, clove may be used in sparingly to flavor baked goods and various fruit dishes Clover are strong distinctive in flavor and can be used as minor ingredient in some curry and mixed-spice blend to give aromatic lift to flavor

Coriander http://tangkapgambar.blogspot.com/

The coriander is the main spice with a wide range of application in spice mixed in seasoning The taste is warm and fragrant with distinct orangey notes enabling it to be used at fairly high percentages in curry and mixed-spice blend

Cumin Seed The flavor is very aromatic and distinctive and it is an essential ingredient of curry powder and chilies powder It also used to flavor meat, pickled, sausages, soup and casseroles Cumin can use in whole seed or more commonly in ground form

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Fennel Seed The seed are greenish in color and similar to a large caraway seed The seed can be used whole or ground and has a particular affinity with fish

Ginger Ginger has both savoury and sweet uses and brings a hot and lemony flavor to many dishes Nigerian and Indian usually uses in savoury preparation and where it is essential ingredient in curry powder Chinese and Indian ginger are uses in sweet dishes where lemon-like flavor are important Jamaican ginger is almost entirely dedicated in the production of ginger beer

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Mint There are very types of mint but the two of important are spearmint ( Mentha Piperita) and Peppermint( Mentha Spicata) The traditional use in UK is for flavoring lamb in a mint sauce but mint may be uses to flavoring vegetables,salads and yoghurtthe typical use of mint is as a rubbed herb and not in ground form

Chilies Powder Dried, ground chili peppers capsicum anmum Spicy,hot (heat depend on variety of chili pepper used Best used in ground Chili powder is a specific product for specific purpose. Used in chili or other spicy dishes

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Black Pepper Berries of the pepper tree piper nigrum. Not related to the species of plants that include bell or other type of pepper Black pepper is stronger and more piquant in flavor than white pepper Used as the flavoring or seasoning together with salt to flavor any savoury dish,adding zest and piquancy to food Make decomposing meat taste palatable when there were no preservative Can be used in whole, cracked or ground to various particle sizes

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Mustard Mustard is well-known and common spice seed belonging to the cabbage family Mustard is known by everyone as a hot flavor condiment but also whole as an essential ingredient for pickling spice There are different types of mustard seed and different preparation

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Nutmeg Nutmeg come from Indonesia and Grenada, This spice have a sweet, warm and highly aromatic flavor Nutmeg are blended well in baked goods such as cakes and biscuit and also in savoury dish such as soup, sauces, process meat and curries Nutmeg also have affinity with dairy products and puddings containing milk and egg

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Garlic Bulbs of the garlic plant, a member of the Allium family Pungent, onion-like, mildly hot to very hot Fresh; granulated acceptable substitute Roasted, or flavoring for pasta sauces, pork roasts, herb butter, stuffing, and marinades In seasoning they would normally be used as a granules or powders Garlic add flavor to any savoury dish and can be used to replace onion

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Oregano Leaves of the oregano plant Origanum vulgare Harvest wild from the mountainside Oregano is most strongly flavored of the Mediterranean herb and use often in Mediterranean dishes Used in in fresh or dried In Italian dishes, in chili, with vegetables, soups

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Paprika Fruit from a sweet pepper plant Capiscum annum http://tangkapgambar.blogspot.com/

Sweet to hot, somewhat bitter Dried and ground In Hungarian dishes including goulash, in soups, in potato or egg salad The red color in paprika is express in ASTA( American Spice Trade Association) Paprika is use freely in formulation because of its mild flavor In Germany, paprika is popular in sausages to provide red color

Parsley http://tangkapgambar.blogspot.com/

Leaves of the parsley plant Petroselinum crispum Mildly peppery Fresh; dried a very poor substitute As a garnish, in sauces, soups and salads Parsley come in many form: 1. curly parsley 2. flat leaf parsley 3. celery leaf parsley 4. hamburg parsley Parsley has a delicate and distinctive flavor Parsley also can be used as an ingredient in mixed herbs and any other herb blend

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Rosemary Rosemary is very common shrub that grows thoroughly the Mediterranean region and is most commonly in coastal areas Rosemary is usually purchase in the cut or ground form The individual leaves are like long, pine needles and hence unmanageable in the whole state Leaves of the rosemary plant Rosmarinus officinalis Very aromatic, faintly lemony and piney Used in fresh or dried Rosemary has an affinity with lamb and can be used in formulations for stew, casseroles and soup

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Sesame Seed This seed is used widely in baked goods where its distinct nutty flavor add character to bread , roll, and so on It is the seed of the herbaceous plant that has a spring-loaded seed dispersal mechanism Sesame seed should be used whole and toasted before use to generate the nutty flavor It taste oily because of high oil content which itself may extracted for use as a cooking oil Seeds of the sesame plant Sesamum indicum

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Star Anise Star anise is a star shaped, opened fruit of a small tree native to south western China The flavor had some similarities with anise but it is rounder and not harsh Usually use ground in Chinese dishes and is an ingredient of Chinese Five Spice It is used as a ground spice in isolation or combination with other Chinese spices for Chinese dishes Use in herbal tea mixtures, in chicken or casserole dishes, or use as you would anise

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Tymes Tymes is a low-growing shrub-plant that grow wild in Mediterranean Over 100 varieties of tymes of which about five are commercial significance Tymes widely used in savoury dishes as the leaf or as ground tymes It is also ingredient of bonquet garni and a traditional herb in stuffing mixed for poultry It taste minty, lemony In omelettes, stews, bland soups, and stuffing for chicken, or as flavoring for green salads and cooked vegetables

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Turmeric http://tangkapgambar.blogspot.com/

This spice is a dried rhizome and is the hardest spice in texture to grind Root of the turmeric plant Curcuma domestic, a tropical plant related to ginger Turmeric provides the yellow color The flavor of turmeric is mild and earthy Main constituent in curry powder to give the yellow color and also used to color mustard ,piccalilli, rice and breadcrumbs Curries, East Indian recipes. This is also the primary ingredient in American-style ("ballpark") mustard.

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Vanilla Beans from the vanilla orchid Vanilla planifolia Sweet, highly aromatic Remove seeds from whole, dried beans; or, in extract Uses with coffee, in desserts including ice cream, puddings and cakes

SUMMARY Herbs and spices have been with humanity since the beginning of history. Their use in food was always popularized by the great travelers. In our modern world, travel is open to all of us, thus bringing more people into contact with new food ideas and therefore greater use of herbs and spices.

CEREAL
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Grains, Meals and Flours Grains are the fruits and seed or cereal grasses. Wheat and corn are of primary importance in Western countries, such as the United States and Canada. Rice is fundamental to many Asian cuisines. Grains, meals and flours in their available forms are described as follows: Whole grains have not been milled. They have a shorter shelf life than milled grains and should be purchased in amounts that can be used in two to three weeks Milled grains are polished to remove all or some of the germ, bran and/or hull. They have a longer shelf life, but lose some nutritive value during processing. Cracked grains are whole grains that are milled into coarse particles Meals and cereals(cornmeal, farina, cream of rice) are milled to a finer consistency than cracked grains Flours are produced by milling grains(as well as other starchy ingredients such as beans or nuts) into a fine powder There are several methods used for milling; crushing between metal rollers, grinding between stones, or cutting with steel blades in an action similar to that of a food processor. Stone-ground grains remain at a lower temperature during milling and tend to retain more of their nutritive value. Some of the major grains meals, and flours and their uses are discussed in the following text.

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WHEAT AND WHEAT FLOUR Whole berries are unrefined or minimally processed whole kernels that are light brown to reddish-brown in color, with a somewhat chewy texture and nutty flavor. They are used in hot cereal, pilaf, salads and breads. Cracked wheat is made from coarsely crushed, minimally processed kernels that are light brown to reddish-brown in color, with a somewhat chewy texture and nutty flavor. They are used to prepare hot cereal, pilaf, salads, and breads Bulgur is crushed wheat that has been steamed to precook it as part of its processing. It may be fine, medium, or coarse in texture. Bulgur has a light brown color,tender texture and a mild flavor. It is used to prepare hot cereal, pilaf, and salads(tabbouleh) Blan is separated from the wheat kernel. It is sold as flakes and used in hot and cold cereals and baked goods(bran muffins) Wheat germ is a small portion of the wheat kernel, rich in oils and nutrients. It is shaped like a small pellet and has a strong, nutty flavor. It is sold toasted and raw and used to prepare hot and cold cereal and baked goods. Farina is made from polished wheat. It is a medium-grind with a white color and very mild flavor and is typically used as a hot cereal. Whole wheat flour is made from hard wheat. The entire kernel is finely milled giving the flour a light brown color and full, nutty flavor. Graham flour is whole wheat flour with a coarser grind All-purpose flour is a blend of hard and soft wheat that is finely milled. It has an off-white color and may be enriched or bleached. Bread flour is made from hard wheat, giving it a higher percentage of protein. It is used for yeast-raised baked goods.
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Cake and pastry flours are made from soft wheat and are very finely milled. They are typically used to produce tender baked goods. Durum flour is made from durum wheat kernels. It is high in protein and often used for breads or pastas. Semolina is also milled from durum wheat; but it is typically coarser than durum flour and normally pale yellow. Is it used for pasta, gnocchi, puddings and to make couscous. RICE White rice is poished to remove the bran layer. For brown rice, only the inedible outer husk is removed. Long, medium and short grain varities are sold in both white and brown styles. The length of the rice grain determines its texture once cooked. Brown rice is the whole rice grain, with the inedible husk removed. It is light brown in color with a chewy texture and nutty flavor White or polished rice has the husk, bran and germ removed. Converted or parboiled rice is soaked and steamed before the husk, bran and germ are removed; grain are fluffy and stay separated when cooked. Basmati rice has an extra-long grain with an aromatic flavor. It is aged to reduce moisture content; available as brown or white rice. Popcorn rice is a variety of basmati. Arborio or risotto rice is a short to medium, round grain and high starch content, making it creamy when cooked. Also known as Italian rice, varieties include Carnaroli, Piedmontese and Vialone Nano.

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Wild rice has a long, thin grain with dark-brown color, chewy texture and nutty flavor. It is the seed of a marsh grass and is unrelated to regular rice. Sticky, pearl, glutinous or sushi rice is a round, short grain that is very starchy and sticky when cooked. It has a sweet, mild flavor Rice flour is white rice that has been very finely milled It is powdery and white with a mild flavor

CORN
Fresh corn is treated like other fresh produce. The kernels are also dried and processed into many forms. Hominy is whole, dried kernels that have been soaked in iye to remove the hull and germ. It is available canned or dried. Grits are ground hominy; available in fine, medium and coarse grinds Masa harina is a fine flour made from hominy that has been cooked and soaked in limewater. Cornmeal is ground, dried kernels; available in yellow, white or blue and a variety of grinds(fine, medium, or coarse) Cornstarch is made from dried kernels with the hull and germ removed. The kernels are ground to pure white powder.

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OTHER GRAINS
A wide variety of grains fall in the others group, as they do not fit cleanly into another category. Some of these grains are quite common, while others are rarely used. In recent years, however, chefs have begun to experiment with many of these OATS Oats are consumed mainly as a hot or cold cereal. They are also used as an ingredient in baked goods and side dishes. They are a valuable source of nutrients and fiber, readily available and inexpensive. Groats are whole oats that are cleaned, toasted and hulled. They are used in hot cereal, salads and stuffing. Steel-cut/Irish/Scotch oats are groats that are cut into coarse pieces and made into a hot cereal Rolled/old-fashioned oats are steamed and flattened groats. Quickcooking oats are partially cooked; instant oats need only to be combined with hot water. Oat bran and oat flour are used in baked goods
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Buckwheat groats is sometimes known as kasha. It is a light brown grain with a mildly nutty flavor prepared as a hot cereal or pilaf. Made into flour, it is used for pancakes and baked goods. Millet may be sold whole or milled into flour. Whole millet is used for cereal or pilaf; the flour is used for puddings, fat breads and cakes. Rye is sold as whole, cracked, or flaked as well as milled into flour. Pumpernickel flour is a very dark, coarsely ground rye. Quinoa is sold whole or milled into flour. The whole grain looks like very tiny circles. It is a tan or beige color with a mild flavor. Barley may be sold hulled or as pearl(Meaning that the hull and bran were removed).It is used in pilaf, salads and soups, as well as to make whiskey and beer.

NUTS AND SEEDS Nuts are the fruits or various trees, except the peanut, which grows underground in the root system of a leguminous plant. Seeds come from a variety of plans ,including herbs, flowers and vegetables. Nuts are available in the shell, or shelled and roasted, blanched, sliced, slivered, halved and chopped. Seeds are available whole and shelled or toasted. Nuts and seeds are also used to produce butter, such as peanut butter and sesame paste (tahini) Nuts should be checked often for freshness. Store bagged nuts or nuts in the shell in dry storage, Store raw, shelled nuts refrigeration or in the freezer to maintain quality and flavor for longer periods.

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(Left to right, top to bottom):Baby beans, rice beans, brown lentils, canary beans, large red kidney beans, cranberry beans, green lentils, whole peas/mushy peas, navy beans, fava beans, beluga beans(black lentils), hominy.

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(Left to right, top to bottom)Navy beans, red lentils, brown lentils, adzuki beans, calypso beans, chickpeas, black beans, black-eyed peas, baby lima beans, yellow split peas, red kidney beans, great Nortern beans, pinto beans, green split peas.

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Macadamias Cashews

Sunflower seeds

Walnuts

Pistachios

Almond

Peanut

Pumpkin Seed

Pine Nuts

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Sesame seeds

black sesame

poppy seed

VEGETABLES
Vegetables Classifications Vegetables are usually classified according to the parts of the plant from which they are taken,such as roots,stalks,leaves and so on. BULBS Chives Onions Garlic Leeks Shallots LEAVES Brussels sprouts Cabbage
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FRUITS Cucumber Eggplants Tomatoes Okra Peppers Squash STALKS Asparagus Celery

Chinese cabbage Chard Endive Kale Lettuce Mustard greens Romaine Spinach Watercress

Peas Corn Rhubarb

Root vegetable. Potatoes, carrots and turnips. They are usually starchy because the root is the storehouse of energy to grow the new plant. Bulb vegetable. Onions, garlic and shallots. They are related to the lily family and often are FLOWERS Artichokes Broccoli Brussels sprouts Cauliflower ROOTS Beets Parsnips Potatoes
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Rutabagas Radishes Turnips Sweet potatoes Carrots SEEDS AND PODS Beans Green beans Peas

VEGETABLE CUTTING Ingredients: 1 no carrot 1 no leek 1 no onion 1. Julienne: A stick shaped item with dimension inch inch1 to 2 inches(3mm3mm2.5cm to 5cm) 2. Paysane A flat,square-shaped item with dimention of inch inch1/4 inch(1.2cm1.2cm6mm)
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1 no celery 1 no potato 1no shallot

1 no garlic 1 no cabagge

3.Brunoise A cube shaped item with dimention of inch inch inch(3mm3mm3mm) 4. Batonnet A stick shaped item with dimension of inch1/4inch2 to 2 1/2inches(6mm6mm5mm6mm) 5 .Dice -A cube shaped item with dimention of inch1/4 inch1/4 inch(6mm6mm6mm) 6.Mirepoix -it is identical to that used for slicing but without the emphasison uniformity.Coarsely chopped pieces should measure approximately inch3/4inch(2mm2mm2mm) 7-Mincing -To mince is to cut an item into very small pieces.Peel and dice the item.With a flat hand,hold .the knife tip on the cutting board,Using a rocking motion,mince the shallots with the heel of the knife 8-Diagonals - Diagonals are elongated or oval sheped slices of cylindrical vegetable or fruits.Peel the if desired, and place it on the cutting board.Position the knife at the desired angle to the item being cut and slice it evenly 9-Rondelles -Rondelles/round are easily made dish-shaped slices of cylindrical vegetables and fruits. 10-Chiffonade
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-A chiffonade is a preparation of fnely sliced or shredded leafy vegetables used as garnish or a base under cold presentation.

UNDERSTANDING VEGETABLES Vegetables have long been abused and neglected,relegated to the minor roles of unimportant sides dishes, to be taken or left or not even noticed on the table.Today,however,the lowly vegetables are beginning to be appreciated,not only for their nutritional importance,but for the variety,flavor,eye appeal and even elegance and sophistication that they bring to the menu.Modern cooks owe it to themselves and their customers to treat vegetables with understanding,respect and imagination. Because they are so perishable, vegetables require extra care from receiving to service.Freshness their most appealing and attractive quality
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and one must be especially careful to preserve it.The goals of proper vegetables cookery are to preserve and enhance their fresh flavor,texture and color to prepare and serve vegetables that are not just accepted but sought after CONTROLLING QUALITY CHANGES DURING COOKING Cooking affects vegetables in four ways.It changes the following: Texture Flavor Color Nutrient

CONTROLLING TEXTURE CHANGES Changing the texture is one of the main purposes of cooking vegetables FIBER The fiber structure of vegetables(including cellulose and pectins) given them shape and firmness.Cooking softens some of these components. The amount of fiber varies

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In different vegetables.Spinach and tomatoes have less than carrots and turnips In defferent examples of the same vegetables.Old,tough carrots have more fiber than young,fresh carrots. In the same vegetables.The tender tips of asparagus and broccoli have less fiber than their tougher stalks Fiber is made firmer by Acids-Lemon juice, vinegar and tomato products,when added to cooking vegetables,extend the cooking time. Sugar-Sugar strengthens cell structure.You will use this principle primarily in fruits cookery.For firm poached apples or pears,for examples cook in a heavy syrup.For applesauce,cook apples until soft before sweetening.

Fiber is softened by Heat.In general,longer cooking means softer vegetables Alkalis.Do not add baking soda to green vegetables.Not only does it destroy vitamins,but it makes the vegetables unpleasantly mushy.

STARCH Starch is another vegetables component that affects texture.


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Dry starch foods like dried legumes(beans,peas,lentils),rice, and macaroni products must be cooked in sufficient water so that the starch granules can absorb moisture and soften.Dried beans are usually soaked before cooking to replace lost moisture. CONTROLLING FLAVOR CHANGES Many flavors are lost during cooking liquid and by dissolving into the cooking liquid and by evaporation.The longer a vegetables is cooked,the more flavor it loses.Flavor loss can be controlled in several ways: Cook for as short a time as possible. Use building salted water.Starting vegetables in boiling water shortens cooking time.The addition of salt helps reduce flavor loss.
Use only enough water to cover to minimize leaching.Note that this rule contradicts rule 1,because adding vegetables to a small quantity of water lowers the temperature more,so cooking time is extended.Save your questions on this until you have finished the sections on color and nutritional changes.

CONTROLLING COLOR CHANGES It is important to preserve as much natural color as possible when cooking vegetables.Because customers may reject or accept a vegetables only on the basic of its appearance,it can be said that its visual quality is as important as its flavor or nutritional value White Vegetables

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White vegetables called flavones,are the primary coloring compounds in potatoes, onions, cauliflower and white cabbage and white parts of such vegetables as celery, cucumbers and zucchini. Red Vegetables Red pigments called anthocyanins are found in only a few vegetables,mainly red cabbage and beets.Blueberries also are colored by these red pigments.(The red color of tomatoes and red peppers is due to the same pigments that color carrots yellow or orange) Green Vegetables Green coloring or chlorophyll, is present in all green plants.Green vegetables are very common in the kitchen,so it is important to understand the special handing required by this pigment. Yellow and Oranges Vegetables Yellow and oranges pigments called carotenoids, are founds in carrots,corn,winter squash,rutabaga,sweet potatoes,tomatoes and red peppers.These pigments are very stable.They are little affected by acids or alkalis.Long cooking can dull the color,however.Short cooking not only prevents dulling of the color,but preserves vitamins and flavors.

Color

Examples of vegetables

Cooked with Acid

Cooked with Alkali


Yellow Blue or blue-green

Overcooked

White Red

Potatoes,turnips,oions,white White cabbage,cauliflower. Beets,red cabbage Red

Yellowish gray Greenish blue,faded

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Green
Yellow( an d oranges)

Asparagus,green beans,broccoli,peas,spinach Carrots,tomatoes,sweet potatoes,corn,squash

Olive green Little changes

Bright green Little changes Olive green Slightly faded

CONTROLLING NUTRIENT LOSSES Vegetables are an important part of our of diets because they supply a wide variety of essential nutrients.They are our major sources of vitamins A and C and are rich in many other vitamins and minerals.Unfortunately, many of these nutrient are easily lost.Six factors are responsible for most nutrient loss: High temperature Long cooking Leaching (dissolving out) Alkalis(baking soda,hard water) Plants enzymes(which are active at warm temperature but are destroyed by high heat) Oxygen GENERAL RULES OF VEGETABLES COOKERY Now that you understand how vegetables changes as they cook, lets summarize that information in some general rules. You should now be able to explain the reason for each of these rules Dont overcook Cook as close to service time as possible and in small quantities. Avoid holding for long periods on a steam table

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If the vegetables must be cooked ahead, undercook slightly and chill rapidly. Reheat at service time. Never use baking soda with green vegetables Cut vegetables uniformly for even cooking Start with boiling, salted water when boiling vegetables Cook green vegetables and strong-flovored vegetables uncovered To preserve color,cook red and white vegetables in a slightly acid liquid.Cook green vegetables in a neutral liquid Do not mix batches of cooked vegetables STANDARDS OF QUALITY IN COOKED VEGETABLES Color Appearance on plate Texture Flavor Seasonings Sauces Vegetables combinations HANDLING FRESH,FROZEN,CANNED AND DRIED VEGETABLES Washing Soaking Peeling and cutting

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EXAMPLES OF GREEN SALADS

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Iceberg Lettuce The most popular salad ingredient. Firm, compact head with crisp, mildtasting pale green leaves. Valuables for its texture, because it stays crisp longer than other lettuces. Can be used alone, but best mixed with more flavorful greens such as romaine, because it lacks flavor itself . Keeps well.

Romaine or cos letture Elongated, loosely packed head with dark green, coarse leaves. Crisp texture, with full, sweet flavor. Keeps well and is easy to handle. Essential for Caesar Salad. For elegant service, the center rib is often removed
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Boston lettuce Small, round heads with soft, fragile leaves. Deep green outside, shading to nearly white inside. The leaves have a rich, mild flavor and delicate, buttery texture. Bruises easily and does not keep well. Cup-shaped leaves excellent for salad bases.

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Bibb or limestone lettuce Similar to Boston lettuce but smaller and more delicate. A whole head may be only a few inches across.Color ranges from dark green outside to creamy yellow at the core.Its tendersness, delicate flavor and high price make it a luxury in some markets.The small, whole leaves are often served by themselves, with a light vinaigrette dressing, as an after-dinner salad.

Loose-leaf lettuce Forms bunches rather than heads. Soft, fragile leaves with curly edges. May be all green or with shades and of red. Wilts easily and does not keep well, but is enex-pensive and gives flavor, variety, and interest to mixed green salads.
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Escarole or broad-leaf endive Broad, thick leaves in bunches rather than heads. Texture is coarse and slightly tough and flavor is somewhat bitter. Mix with sweeter greens to vary flavor and texture, but do not use alone, because of bitterness. Escarole is frequently braised with olive oil and garlic and served as a vegetable in Italian cuisine.

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SASS1KKKK

SALAD AND SALAD

DRESSING

SALAD Salad is made of raw or cooked vegetables and other foods. The salad is usually served in a small bowl or on a salad plate. It should be carefully planned so its flavor, color and texture complement all of the foods in the meal. SALAD STRUCTURE There are 4 basic parts of a salad: base or under liner, body, garnishing and dressing. Salads may or may not have those 4 basic parts.
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1. Base or under liner


Leafy greens usually form the base of a salad to avoid the salad looks naked on a plate. Green vegetables that commonly used as base or under liner are: a) Cup-shaped leaves of iceberg or Boston lettuce to give height to salads and help to confine loose pieces of food. b) A layer of loose, flat leaves (such as romaine, loose-leaf or chicory) or of shredded lettuce may be used as a base to reduce labour and food cost since it is not necessary to separate whole cupshaped leaves from a head. c) Tossed green salads or salads served in a bowl rather than on a plate usually have no base or under liner.

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2. Body This is the main part of the salad and receives the most attention. It can be vegetables, fruits, protein foods or a combination of all them. 3. Garnishing The purpose of garnishing is to give eye appeal to the salad and adds to the flavour as well. The dressing should be simple and not be elaborate or dominate the salad, harmonize with the rest of the salad ingredients and edible. It may be mixed with other salad ingredients such as shredded of red cabbage mixed into a toosed green salad. For the main ingredients of a salad that form an attractive pattern in themselves, no garnishing is necessary. Example of garnishing: any of vegetables, fruits, and protein foods that cut into simple and appropriate shapes.

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4. Dressing Dressing is a seasoned liquid or semi liquid that is added to the body of the salad to give it added flavour like tartness, spiciness and moistness. The dressing salads should and harmonize with the salad slightly ingredient. For instance tart dressings for green vegetable salads while sweetened dressings for fruit salads. Soft and delicate greens salad like Boston or Bibb lettuce requires a light dressing. A thick and the heavy ones will turn them to mush. Salad dressing may be added at just before serving time (for green salads), served separately or mixed with the ingredients before serving time (as in potato salad, egg salad and tuna salad). A salad mixed with a heavy dressing like mayonnaise is to hold all of the ingredients together it is called a bound salad.

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SALAD INGREDIENTS Freshness and variety of ingredients are essential for quality salads. Below are the most popular ingredients in the above types of salads. a) Greens salad 1. Iceberg lettuce 2. Belgian endive 3. Romaine lettuce Chinese cabbage or celery cabbage 4. Boston lettuce 5. Spinach 6. Bibb or limestone lettuce 7. Dandelion 8. Loose-leaf lettuce 9. Watercress 10. 11. 12. Escarole Arugula Chicory or curly endive

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b) Raw vegetables 1. Bean sprouts 2. Jerusalem artichokes 3. Broccoli 4. Kohlrabi 5. Cabbage: white, green and red 6. Mushrooms 7. Carrots 8. Onions and scallions 9. Cauliflower 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Peppers, red, green and yellow Celery Radishes Celeriac (celery root) Tomatoes Cucumbers

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c) Cooked, pickled and canned vegetables 1. Artichoke hearts 2. Asparagus 3. Beans (all kinds) 4. Beets 4. Carrots and pickled 5. Cauliflower 6. Corn 7. Cucumber pickles d) Starches 1. Dried beans (cooked or canned) 2. Potatoes 3. Macaroni products 4. Rice 5. Bread (croutons) 14. Pimientos 15. Potatoes 16. Water chestnuts 9. Hearts of palm 10. Leeks 11. Olives 12. Peas 13. Peppers, roasted

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e) Fresh, cooked, canned or frozen fruits 1. Apples 2. Apricots 3. Avocados 4. Bananas 5. Berries 6. Cherries 7. Coconut 8. Dates 9. Figs 10. Grapefruit 11. Grapes 12. Kiwi fruits 14. Mangoes 15. Melons 16. Oranges 17. Papayas 18. Peaches and Nectarines 19. Pears 20. Persimmons 21. Pineapple 22. Plums 23. Prunes 24. Pomegranates 25. Raisins

13. Mandarin oranges and tangerines

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f) Protein 1. Meats (beef, ham) 2. Poultry (chicken, turkey) Fish and shellfish (tuna, crab, shrimp, lobster, salmon, sardines, anchovies and herring) 3. Salami and luncheon meats 4. Bacon 5. Eggs: hard-cooked 6. Cheese and cottage 7. Cheese

g) Miscellaneous 1. Gelatine (plain or flavoured) 2. Nuts

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TYPES OF SALAD: a) b) c) d) e) appetizer salads accompaniment salads main-course salads separate-course salads Dessert salads.

a)

Appetizer salads (attractive and appetizing appearance). Attractive arrangement and garnishing are important because visual appeal stimulates appetites. A satisfying and interesting starter puts the customer in a good frame of mind for the rest of the meal.

1. Appetizer salads should stimulate the appetite

2. The salads must be fresh, contain of crisp ingredients and tangy and flavorful dressing.
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3. Portion of the appetizer salads should not be so large. The size is just enough to serve as a substantial complete course. 4. Colour combination of salad ingredients should be interesting, not dull and in small quantities of flavorful foods like cheese, ham, salami, shrimp and crabmeat.

Chicken Waldorf Salad

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b)

Accompaniment salads

Salads can also be served with the main course. They serve the same function as other side dishes (vegetables and starches). 1. Accompaniment salads must balance and harmonize with the rest of the meal like any other side dish. For example do not serve potato salad at the same meal at French Fries or another starch being served. 2. Sweet fruit salads are rarely appropriate as accompaniments except with such items as ham or pork. 3. Should be light, not too rich and flavored. Heavier salads, such as macaroni or highprotein (meat, seafood, cheese, etc.) salads should not be served unless the main course is light. Combination salads with a variety of

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elements are appropriate accompaniments to sandwiches.

c) Main-course salads Cold salad is popular in luncheon menus, especially among diet conscious diners. The salads contain of variety and fresh of ingredients.
1.

Main-course salads should be large enough to serve as a full meal and should contain a substantial portion of protein. For instance meat, poultry, seafood, egg salad and cheese salads. Main-course salads should offer enough variety on the plate to be a balanced meal in terms of nutrition, flavors and textures. Ingredients of main-course salads should have attractive arrangements and good colour balance.

2.

3.

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4.

In addition to the protein, a salad platter should offer a variety of vegetables, greens and fruits. For instance:
a)

chef s salad (mixed greens raw vegetables, strips of meat and cheese), shrimp or crabmeat salad with tomato wedges slices of avocado on a bed of greens cottage cheese with an assortment of fresh fruits.

b)

c) d)

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Rice Salad

i) Protein salad Principles Usually protein salads are served as a main dish and occasionally they can be served as appetizers. Sliced meat, poultry, or fish can be served with cold cooked vegetables and dressing. Guidelines for making protein salads 1. Cut up the protein foods into small pieces and mixed with a dressing. 2. Add ingredients such as diced celery or apples. 3. Hard cooked eggs, sliced or halved, cheese, cooked beans, pasta, cereals and nuts are an excellent way to add protein to a salad.

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ii)

Vegetable salads Principles Vegetable salads are salads whose main ingredients are vegetable. Some vegetables used are raw such as celery, cucumbers, radishes, tomatoes, iceberg or head lettuce, romaine, bibb, leaf and boston or butterhead, endive, dandelion, escarole, chicory, cabbage, watercress, spinach and green peppers. Some are cooked and chilled before including in the salad such as artichokes, green beans, beets and asparagus. Guidelines in vegetable salads making 1. Variety and neat arrangement of salad ingredients, different shapes of vegetable cutting like long and slender asparagus and

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green beans, wedge of tomato, slices of cucumber, strips or rings of green pepper and radish flowers. 2. Cut the vegetables as close as possible to serving time otherwise the vegetables may dry or shrivel at the edges. 3. Cooked vegetables should have a firm, crisp texture and good color. Mushy, overcooked vegetables are unattractive in a salad. 4. Vegetables that need to be cooked for a while must be thoroughly drained and well chilled before mix in the salad. 5. For vegetables that need to be marinated or soaked in a seasoning liquid before being made into salads, do not plate marinated salads too far ahead of serving time to avoid salad base like lettuce get wilt. Use crisp and sturdy greens (such as iceberg, romaine or chicory) as salad bases because they do not wilt as quickly.
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d)

Separate course salad Separate course salad is usually served as refreshing and light salad after main course. The purpose is to cleanse the palate after a rich dinner and to refresh the appetite and provide a pleasant break after dessert. A diner who may be satiated after a heavy meal is often refreshed and ready for dessert after a light, piquant salad. Separate-course salads may be very light, no filling and not served with heavy dressings, such as those made with sour cream and mayonnaise. The ideal choice is fruit salad and a few delicate greens, such as Bibb lettuce or Belgian endive, lightly dressed with vinaigrette.

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e) Dessert Salad I. Fruit salads Principles As the name indicates, fruit salads have either fresh, frozen or canned fruits as their main ingredients. It may contain of sweetened gelatin, nuts and cream. They are popular as dessert salads and as part of combination luncheon plates. Often is served with a scoop of cottage cheese or other mild-tasting protein food. Can be served using fruit shell as its container. For instance half cutting of avocado or a pineapple shell. Guidelines for making fruit salads 1. Fruit salads are often arranged rather than mixed or tossed
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because most fruits are delicate and easily broken. An exception is the Waldorf Salad that made of firm apples mixed with nuts, celery and mayonnaise-based dressing. 2. Broken or less attractive pieces of fruit should be placed on the bottom of the salad while attractive pieces arranged on top. 3. Some fruits discolour when cut and should be dipped into an acid such as fruit juice. 4. Do not hold fruits as well as vegetables after being cut. In preparing both vegetable and fruit salads for a particular meal, the vegetable salads should be prepared first. 5. Drain canned fruits well before mix them in the salad to avoid the salad watery and soggy. The juice from the canned fruit can be reserved for other usage.

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6. Dressings for fruit salads are usually slightly sweet. Fruit juices are often used in fruit salad dressings.

ii) Gelatin salads Principles

Natural gelatin is extracted from bones and connective tissues. A gelatin salad consists of fruit, vegetables, or foods protein in a flavored liquid. That salad is thickening by the gelatin. Commercially flavored gelatins are sweet and make the dessert salads fresh. For an accompaniment salad, the gelatin is less sweet and an acid such as vinegar or lemon juice is added. The combination of those ingredients gives a pleasant and sweet-sour flavor. Unflavored gelatin can be used to make salad by using a flavorful liquid such as fruiter vegetable juice. Fresh pineapple is not mixed in
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gelatin salad because the fresh pineapple contains of enzymes which prevent gelatin from get thick. If need to use pineapple, the pineapple must be cooked in advance or use the canned ones. of liquid in the recipe. Too much gelatin makes salad stiff and rubbery. Too little makes a soft product that will not hold its shape. 2. Basic proportions for unflavored gelatin are 2 oz dry gelatin per gallon of liquid (19g unflavored gelatin per liter of liquid), Basic proportions for sweetened and flavored gelatin are 24oz per gallon of liquid (180g sweetened and flavored gelatin per liter of liquid). Guidelines for making gelatin salads 1. Use the right amount of gelatin for the volume

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3.

Acid such as fruit juices and vinegar weaken the gelatin to get set. So a higher proportion of gelatin to liquid is needed. Sometimes as much as 4oz or more per gallon (30g per liter).The setting power is also weakened by whipping the product into foam and by adding a large quantity of chopped foods. It is impossible to give a formula for how much gelatin to use since it varies with each recipe. Test each recipe before using it.

4.

Do not add fresh pineapple or papaya into gelatin salads. They contain of enzymes that dissolve the gelatin. If need to put those fruits, they must be cooked in advance ore use the canned ones.

5.

Add solid ingredients when the gelatin is partially set-very thick and syrupy. This will

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help keep them evenly mixed rather than floating or settling. 6. Canned fruits or other juicy items must be well drained before being added or they will dilute the gelatin and weaken it. 7. Refrigerate the gelatin salads until serving time to keep them firm.

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GUIDELINES FOR SALADS ARRANGMENT 1. Keep the salad off the rim of the plate. Arrange the salad within the frame of plate. Select the right plate for the portion size, not too large or too small. 2. Strive for a good balance of colors. Plain iceberg lettuce looks pretty pale and sickly all by itself, but it can be lived up by mixing in some darker greens and perhaps a few shreds of carrots, red cabbage, or other coloured vegetable. On the other hand, dont go overboard. Three colours are usually enough, and sometimes just a few different shades of green will create a beautiful effect. Too many colours may look messy. 3. Height helps make a salad attractive. Ingredients mounded on the plate are more interesting than if they are spread flat. Lettuce cups as bases add height. Often just a little height is
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enough. Arrange ingredients like fruit wedge or tomato slices so that they overlap or lean against each other rather than lay them flat on the plate. 4. Cut ingredients neatly Ragged or sloppy cutting makes the whole salad look sloppy and haphazard. 5. Make every ingredient identifiable Cut every ingredient into large enough pieces so that the customer can recognize them immediately. Dont pulverize everything in the buffalo chopper. Bite-size pieces are the general rule, unless the ingredient can be cut easily with a fork, such as tomato slices. Seasoning ingredients like onion may be chopped fine. 6. Keep it simple A simple and natural arrangement is pleasing. An elaborate design, a gimmicky or contrived arrangement, or a cluttered plate is not pleasing. Besides, elaborate designs take too long to make.
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NUTRITIONAL CONTRIBUTION OF SALADS The nutrition value of a salad is determined by the ingredients used to make it. For instance fresh fruit and vegetables salad provide vitamins, minerals, and cellulose. Dark leafy greens vegetable salad contributes iron and vitamin A and C for body. Meat, fish, poultry, cheese, and egg salads provide complete protein while nuts and mature beans contribute only incomplete proteins. The caloric value of salads, in general, is relatively low. The starchy vegetables such as potatoes and mature beans, as, well as cereal products such as macaroni, are higher in calories than fruits and succulent vegetables. Potato and macaroni salads contain starch and help meet the bodys energy needs.

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SALAD DRESSINGS Salad dressings are liquids or semi liquids used to provide flavour to salads. They are sometimes considered cold sauces and serve as same function as salad sauce that is to give flavour, moisture and enrich to salad. TYPES OF SALAD DRESSING 1.) Oil and vinegar dressings (most un thickened dressings) 2.) Mayonnaise-based dressings (most thickened dressings) 3.) Cooked dressings (similar in appearance to mayonnaise dressings but more tart and with a little or no oil content). There are also a number of dressings whose main ingredients include sour cream, yogurt and fruit juices. Many of these are designed specifically for fruit salads or for low-calorie diets.
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GUIDELINES OF SALAD DRESSING SELECTION: a) The dressings should complement and blend with the other flavors in the salad. b) Tart fruits are usually served with a sweet or creamy dressing. c) Delicately flavored foods such as some vegetables and meats can be served d) Almost any type of dressing can be used on salad greens depending on personal preference.

INGREDIENTS OF SALAD DRESSING Since most of salad dressings are not cooked their quality depends very much on the quality of the ingredients. Most salad dressings are made primarily of oil and acid with other ingredients added to provide flavour or texture.
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a) Oil i) ii) iii) v) Corn oil Cottonseed oil, soybean oil, canola oil and sun flower oil Vegetable oil and salad oil Olive oil iv) Peanut oil vi) Walnut oil b) Vinegar/ Vinaigrette i) iii) v) Cider vinegar Wine vinegar Sherry vinegar ii) White or distilled vinegar iv) Flavoured vinegars

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The word vinaigrette (from the French word) refers to: An emulsion of vinegar (or sometimes lemon juice) and vegetable oil, often flavoured with herbs, spices, and other ingredients. Vinaigrettes are used as sauces in many cuisines and as salad dressings. A small container with a perforated top, used to provide aromatic substance such as vinegar or smelling salts (also called a vinaigrette). c) Egg yolk Egg yolk is an essential ingredient in mayonnaise and other emulsified dressings.

d)

Seasonings Any herb or spice can be used in salad dressings. Dried herbs and spices need extra time to release their flavours if they are not heated in the product. That is why most

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dressings are best made at least 2 or 3 hours before serving. Other ingredients added for flavour include mustard, catsup, Worcestershire sauce and various kinds of cheeses.

e)

Lemon juice

b)

Mayonnaise Mayonnaise is a thick, white, creamy, cold sauce; an emulsion of fat (originally olive oil or vegetable oils) suspended in a matrix of egg yolks, flavoured with vinegar or lemon juice, and seasonings. Mayonnaise is made by slowly introducing oil into the other liquids while whisking vigorously to break up the fat into small droplets that will become dispersed in the liquid. The egg yolks

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provide lecithin, which stabilizes the emulsion. It is then seasoned with salt and sometimes other seasonings. Mayonnaise is only eaten cold, for instance on sandwiches (mainly in North America) and on French fries (mainly in northern Europe and Canada). The French serve it with cold chicken and slice hard-boiled eggs.

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1. JENIS-JENIS PEMOTONGAN 1.1. JENIS-JENIS POTONGAN KLASIK Di sini kami menggunakan kentang untuk sebahagian besar demonstrasi beberapa jenis kaedah pemotongan yang terdapat dalam masakan barat. Kaedah-kaedah ini sangat mudah dan murah. Setelah anda melangkah lebih jauh dalam bab ini, anda akan mendapati bahawa ada beberapa jenis potongan berkenaan sering anda lakukan semasa memasak di rumah anda seperti julienne dan brunoise. Sebelum memulakan sebarang pemotongan, kentang hendaklah direndam di dalam air sejuk agar dapat menghasilkan kentang yang putih dan rangup. Luruskan pisau anda dengan menggunakan steel. Walaupun steel tidak boleh menajamkan pisau, tetapi ia akan menjadikan mata pisau berada pada garisan atau kedudukan yang lurus sebelum digunakan dan ditajamkan.

4.1.1 Dice/Mirepoix Pertama sekali kita akan mempelajari kaedah pemotongan dice yang besar berukuran pada setiap ukuran. Ia juga dikenali sebagai mirepoix/coarse chopping. Pertama sekali, potong bahagian tepi kentang bagi mendapatkan permukaan yang rata. Perkara penting disini adalah sudut mata pisau dengan permukaan pemotongan mestilah 90. Untuk memastikan sudut yang akan dihasilkan adalah tepat, mata kita mestilah sentiasa melihat permukaan kentang yang dipotong. Jadi sebaiknya gunakan meja yang tinggi untuk memotong. Kemudian, mulakan dengan memotong sebelah permukaan kentang menjadi rata (rajah 5), Seterusnya, letakkan kepingan tersebut dan potong bagi menjadikannya logs.(rajah 7) dan seterusnya potong menjadi bentuk planks http://tangkapgambar.blogspot.com/ ( lebar) (rajah 6).

Akhir sekali potong bentuk logs tersebut menjadi bentuk kiub besar setiap sisi. (rajah 8)

Maka, potongan dice besar / mirepoix telahpun berjaya dihasilkan. Untuk memahirkan lagi, sila potong semua kentang menjadi beberapa logs dan kemudian satu persatu jadikannya kepada bentuk dice. Dengan kaedah yang sama (potongan yang rata, menjadikannya planks dan potong logs) bagi membentuk dice yang sederhana dengan ukuran kiub setiap sisi. Kaedah yang sama untuk saiz yang lebih kecil. 1.1.1. Paysanne Paysanne dibentuk dari dice yang bersaiz sederhana, tetapi saiz ketebalannya adalah 1/8. Maka ukuran sebenar paysanne ialah ( x x 1/8). Paysanne selalu digunakan untuk tujuan hiasan.

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1.1.2. Batonnet dan Dice Batonnet adalah berbentuk stick atau potongan kayu (potongan biasa untuk kentang goreng) yang berukuran ( x x 2 2 ). Potong segiempat logs di mana lebarnya bersaiz x terlebih dahulu dan kemudian potong panjangnya 2 2. Untuk mendapatkan saiz yang sesuai untuk potongan batonnet anda, bandingkannya dengan rivet pada classic chefs knife.

1.1.3. Julienne dan Brunoise Dimensi sebenar untuk julienne ialah 1/8 x 1/8 x 2- 2 . Kadangkala julienne juga dikenali sebagai alumette. Kami mendapati, semakin kecil potongan yang dibuat, semakin sukar unuk mendapatkan saiz yang sekata. Oleh sebab itu, potongan planks ke bentuk logs akan membantu memudahkan kerja-kerja pemotongan yang bersaiz lebih kecil. Satu lagi rivet pada hulu pisau boleh membantu anda mendapatkan ukuran sebenar untuk panjang julienne dan tang pisau anda menjadi alat pengukur untuk lebar julienne yang sebenar. Julienne boleh dibentukkan kepada bentuk brunoise dengan

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memotong julienne logs kepada kiub 1/8. Brunoise bukan sahaja untuk potongan bagi kentang tetapi juga sesuai bagi lobak atau lada benggala (pepper).

Kaedah menentukan lebar julienne

Memotong julienne logs kepada brunoise

1.1.4. Fine Julienne / Fine Brunoise Fine julienne adalah sama panjang dengan julienne tetapi lebarnya bersaiz lebih kecil iaitu 1/16 x 1/16. Kiub 1/16 dikenali sebagai fine julienne.

Fine julienne

Memotong Fine julienne kpd fine brunoise

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Mincing a shallot Mincing (mencincang) adalah sangat kecil, halus dan merupakan potongan yang cerewet dengan tiada sebarang saiz yang piawai kecuali ia mesti halus. Biasanya potongan mincing bertindak sebagai bahan perasa dalam makanan anda di mana ia mampu disiapkan dengan kadar segera semenara menunggu minyak panas untuk ditumis. Kita akan menggunakan bawang untuk tujuan demonstrasi mincing ini. Untuk menyempurnakan pemotongan mincing dengan cepat, potong bawang anda kepada kepingan-kepingan yang mudah diurus atau bersagmen, kemudian gunakan mata pisau anda dan potong dari atas kebawah dengan hujung jari anda mengawal bawang dan mata pisau tersebut. Kemudian letakkan tangan kiri anda diatas belakang mata pisau dan kedua-dua tangan anda akan mengawal mata pisau unutk mencincang bawang tersebut.

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Minced shallot

Mincing a shallot

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1.1.5. Technic of Dicing an onion. (bawang) Halangan pertama sebelum anda boleh mempelajari bagaimana untuk dicing bawang ialah anda perlu tahu kaedah mudah mengupas kuli bawang. Mula-mula buangkan satu permukaan rata dengan memotong sedikit di bahagian tangkainya. Sekarang imbangkan bawang tersebut di atas permukaan rata yang telah dibuat sebentar tadi. Potong dua bawang tersebut melalui akar bawang tersebut. Jangan memotong bahagian akar kedua-dua belah bawang tersebut.

Kemudian kupas sebelah kulit bawang tersebut dengan menggunakan paring knife.

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Apabila

selesai

mengupas

kulit

bawang tersebut, letakkan bahagian tengah bawang yang dipotong itu di atas permukaan papan pemotong dan buat potongan menegak dengan kelebaran yang sama dari akar ke hujung tangkai. Jangan potong habis
Membuat hirisan vertical

sehingga ke hujung akar.

Sekarang potong secara melintang. Sekali lagi diingatkan agar potong dengan berhati-hati supaya idak terpotong bahagian hujung akarnya. Anda mungkin perlu menahan bawang dengan jari sambil jari anda turut menjadi pengawal mata pisau. Jadi, berhati-hatilah kerana ia boleh
Membuat hirisan horizontal

mengelar tangan anda semasa menyiapkan langkah ini. Akhir sekali, potong melintang ke bawah untuk menghasilkan dice.

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Menyiapkan dice Bawang yang telah siap di dice.

1.1.6. Chiffonade

Chiffonade adalah berbentuk hirisan halus dan sesuai unuk sayuran berdaun atau herba. Mudah saja untuk membua potongan chiffonade. Susun beberapa helai daun sayur, lung seperti bentuk rokok dan kemudian hiriskan. Jangan lupa untuk asingkan apa saja yang tidak dikehendaki seperti batang sayur dan sebagainya.

Rolling the leaves

Slicing the rolled leaves

The completed chiffonade

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1.1.7. Roundelle and Diagonal Rondelle adalah berbentuk syiling daripada sayuran yang berbentuk silinder dan sayur yang panjang seperti lobak, terung dan sebagainya. Diagonal pula boleh dibentuk dengan memotong lobak tersebut dengan hirisan yang menyerong. Kupaskan kulit lobak sebelum memotongnya.

Rondelles Diagonals

Rondelles and diagonals of carrot. Note the flat sides created by the vegetable peeler.

Terdapat sesetengah buku mengajar kaedah diagonal yang sediki berbeza, walaubagaimanapun, tiada sebarang kesalahan untuk kedua-dua shape ini dipanggil diagonal. Rajah di bawah ini merupakan jenis-jenis potongan yang telahpun kita pelajari sebentar tadi.

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1.1.8. Dicing a mango (dice buah mangga) Mangga adalah sejenis buah yang bermasalah untuk dikupas, Ini kerana buah ini bersifat basah dan melekit apabila dikupas dan berbiji besar. Mula-mula, potong setiap sebelah sisi buah mangga tersebut tanpa terkena bijinya. Dengan menggunakan paring knife, buatkan crosshatch (garis sejajar bersilang yang rapat) mengikut citarasa anda tanpa memotong terus kulitnya. Akhir sekali, dengan menggunakan jari anda, ekan bahagian bawah kulit ke atas untuk menonjolkan isi tengahnya. Jadi, sekarang anda boleh makan kiub mangga tersebut dengan memotong bahagian bawah kiub dari sebelah dalamnya.

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Removing the side of the mango

Cutting the crosshatch

Dice of mango, ready to be cut off the peel

2. JENIS-JENIS POTONGAN LAIN 2.1. Tourne http://tangkapgambar.blogspot.com/

Tourne adalah satu bentuk potongan yang istimewa. Ia berbentuk seperti bola ragbi, bahagian hujungnya yang tumpul dan mempunyai 7 sisi yang sama saiz. Untuk menghasilkan satu tourne yang sempurna dan cantik memerlukan latihan yang banyak, tetapi ia mampu menghasilkan hiasan yang paling menarik di pinggan hidangan anda. Adalah lebih mudah untuk melakukan latihan tourne ini pada kentang. Untuk memulakan latihan ini, dapatkan suku kentang yang bersaiz sederhana yang telah dikupas. Kemudian potong sedikit bahagian yang meruncing untuk menghasilkan permukaan yang rata untuk memberikan cengkaman yang baik dan stabil.

Preparing to carve a tourne

Untuk membuat potongan ini, pisau yang sesuai digunakan ialah birds beak atau tourner knife.Pisau yang mempunyai mata yang melengkung adalah lebih sesuai, teapi sekiranya anda ingin menggunakan paring knife, juga boleh. Terdapat dua kaedah bagaimana hendak memulakannya. Didapati bahawa adalah lebih mudah sekiranya bentuk asas bola ragbi dibentuk terlebih dahulu. Kemudian barulah tetapkan unuk membuat tujuh sisi yang sama saiz itu. Ada juga pendapat mengatakan kaedah membuat bahagian sisi terlebih dahulu adalah lebih mudah. Jadi terpulanglah pada anda untuk menentukan satu kaedah yang mudah dengan melakukan latihan berulang yang kerap. Apabila bahagian sisinya telah siap, selesaikan tourne anda dengan meratakan kedua-dua bucu aas dan bawah. Tourne yang sempurna boleh didirikan dengan keadaan seimbang.

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Carving the tourne

Tourne of potato

2.2. Parallel Cutting (potongan sejajar) Potongan ini dinamakan potongan sejajar. Ia berbentuk tebal dan besar tetapi dalam hirisan (slice) yang nipis. Potong sayur di bahagian tengah dari bahagian belakang ke bahagian tangkai dengan merujuk seperti gambar yang disediakan. Semasa memulakan pemotongan, selarikan pisau dengan papan pemotong. Gerakkan pisau dengan kadar yang perlahan dan berhati-hati dalam keadaan yang lurus untuk mengelakkan sebarang kecederaan. 2.3. Crushing Pemotongan jenis ini sesuai untuk sayur atau bahan-bahan yang akan digunakan untuk tumisan perencah seperti bawang putih dan halia. Letakkan bawang putih pada papan pemotong. Kemudian letakkan pisau pada bawang tersebut dengan keadaan yang melintang atau selari dengan papan pemotong. Hentakkan pisau dengan tangan sebelah kiri. http://tangkapgambar.blogspot.com/

Berhati-hati dengan mata pisau yang tajam semasa menghentakkan tangan. Jauhkan sedikit tangan dari mata pisau semasa melakukan hentakan tersebut. KESIMPULAN Pengetahuan berkenaan ilmu dan teknik pemotongan sayur, amat penting bagi seorang kulinari. Ini kerana teknik ini boleh memberikan tips dan cara pemotongan yang selamat, cepat, cantik dan juga mudah. Untuk mendapatkan pemotongan yang cantik dan menarik, pisau yang sesuai perlu digunakan dan semasa menggunakan pisau, aspek keselamatan perlulah dititikberatkan. Ini kerana kerja pemotongan sayur melibatkan penggunaan alatan yang sangat tajam. Dengan menggunakan pisau yang sesuai pelbagai corak, bentuk dan saiz sayuran dapat dihasilkan. Ini akan menambahkan lagi kepelbagaian bentuk sayuran dalam masakan dan boleh menaikkan selera orang yang menikmati hidangan tersebut. Selain digunakan sebagai bahan masakan, sayur juga digunakan sebagai bahan hiasan dalam sesuatu hidangan. Oleh yang demikian, teknik pemotongan perlulah diketahui. Kesesuaian alatan yang digunakan juga amat penting, kerana setiap kaedah pemotongan perlu menggunakan alatan yang berbeza-beza. Seorang kulinari professional seharusnya memiliki set peralatan sendiri yang lengkap seperti pisau, papan pemotong dan sebagainya. Pemilihan alatan pemotong yang baik juga perlu diketahui walaupun ia dianggap remeh. Ini kerana penggunaan alatan yang berkualiti akan menjamin ketahanannya dan dapat memberikan hasil yang memuaskan. Antara jenis-jenis pemotongan sayur yang diketengahkan ialah Dice/Mirepoix, Paysanne, Botannet/Dice, Julinne/Brunoise, Fine Julienn/Fine Brunoise, Mincing, Chiffonade, Roundle and Diagonal, Tourne, Parallel Cuting dan Crushing. Kami berharap, apa yang kami ketengahkan di dalam tugasan ini mampu memberikan sedikit sebanyak ilmu pengeahuan yang berguna berkenaan teknik pemotongan sayur (vegetable cutting) ini.

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RUJUKAN

1. http://rds.yahoo.com/S=96062883/K=dice+cutting/v=2/SID=w/l=IVR/SIG=1275vfnl f/EXP=1121784030/*-http%3A//forums.egullet.com/index.php?showtopic=25958 2. http://rds.yahoo.com/S=96062883/K=dice+cutting/v=2/SID=w/l=IVR/SIG=12guage2 3/EXP=1121784219/*- http %3A//www.roadtowealth.com/discountmarketplace/cutlery3.htm 3. http://rds.yahoo.com/S=96062883/K=dice+cutting/v=2/SID=w/l=IVR/SIG=12gg9lbb e/EXP=1121783834/*-http %3A//www.allrecipes.com/advice/coll/all/articles/466P1.asp 4. http://rds.yahoo.com/S=96062883/K=dice+cutting/v=2/SID=w/l=IVR/SIG=12g dh7ns/EXP=1121784451*-http %3A//www.carliles.net/basic_steps_in_preparing_vegetab.htm 5. http://rds.yahoo.com/S=96062883/K=dice+cutting/v=2/SID=w/l=IVR/SIG=12us3138 3/EXP=1121783283/*-http%3A//cooking4engineers.blogspot.com/2004/06/recipefile-salsa-cruda.html 6. http://rds.yahoo.com/S=96062883/K=dice+cutting/v=2/SID=w/l=IVR/SIG=1275vfnl f/EXP=1121784030/*-http%3A//forums.egullet.com/index.php?showtopic=25958

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7. http://rds.yahoo.com/S=96062883/K=dice+cutting/v=2/SID=w/l=IVR/SIG=12g9lmta 0/EXP=1121783560/*-http %3A//www.allrecipes.com/advice/coll/all/articles/466P1.asp

Salad
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Salad Platter Salad is a term applied broadly to many food preparations that are a mixture of chopped or sliced ingredients. A salad can be served cold or at room temperature, and it can also form the filling for a sandwich. Though it can be made with meat or eggs, it usually includes at least one raw vegetable or fruit, most often lettuce. Often it is prepared or served with a dressing. A salad may be served before or after the main dish as a separate course, as a main course in itself, or as a side dish. Salad may refer to a blended food item often meat, seafood or eggs blended with mayonnaise, finely chopped vegetables and seasonings which can be served as part of a green salad or used as a sandwich filling. Salads of this kind include egg, chicken, tuna, shrimp, and ham salad. In Scandinavia, salad also refers to a blend of vegetables in a dressing used as a condiment on top of the open sandwich, smrrebrd, and with meats. Examples include cucumber salad, horseradish salad, Italian salad (a mixture of vegetables in a crme frache/mayonnaise dressing, served on ham), and Russian salad (a red beet salad). The word "salad" comes from the French salade of the same meaning, from the Latin salata, "salty", from sal, "salt". (See also sauce, salsa, sausage.) http://tangkapgambar.blogspot.com/

Cold Meat Salad

Romanian Salad Contents [hide]

1 The green salad o 1.1 Types of green salad o 1.2 Dressings o 1.3 Garnishes 2 Other types of salad 3 History

4 External links [edit]

The green salad

Green salad http://tangkapgambar.blogspot.com/

The "green salad" is most often composed of a mixture of uncooked or cold cooked vegetables, built up on a base of leaf vegetables such as one or more lettuce varieties, spinach, or arugula. Other common vegetables in a green salad include tomato, cucumber, peppers, mushroom, onion, spring onion, carrot and radish. Other food items such as pasta, olives, cooked potatoes, rice, beans, croutons, meat (e.g. bacon, chicken), cheese, or fish (e.g. tuna) are sometimes added to salads. [edit]

Types of green salad

Caesar salad Chef salad Chopped salad Cobb salad Greek salad Chilean salad Hawaiian salad Italian salad o Rocket salad (rucola) o Agretti salad o Radicchio salad French Salad o Spring Salad o Mesclun salad o Provenale salad o Nioise salad o Chvre chaud salad o Gsier salad o Mche salad o Cucumber salad o Antillaise salad o Watercress salad Tossed salad Pittsburgh Salad

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[edit]

Dressings
A green salad is often served with a dressing. Some examples include:

Italian dressing Mayonnaise o Blue cheese dressing o Green goddess dressing o Louis dressing o Ranch dressing o Russian dressing o Thousand Island dressing Olive oil o French dressing Tahini Vinaigrette

The concept of salad dressing varies across cultures. There are many commonly used salad dressings in North America. Traditional dressings in southern Europe are vinaigrettes, while mayonnaise is predominant in eastern European countries and Russia. In Denmark dressings are often based on crme frache. In China, where Western salad is a recent adoption from Western cuisine, the term salad dressing (, shalajiang) tends to refer to mayonnaise or mayonnaise-based dressings. [edit]Garnishes There are various vegetables and other fare that are often added to green salad. Some of them are:

shelled sunflower seeds onions (mostly the red variety) bacon bits (sometimes the bits are artificially flavored pieces of textured soybean protein) radishes grated carrots tomatoes surimi - artificial crab meat cucumbers bell peppers

Again, individual taste usually governs the choice of salad garnishes. [edit] http://tangkapgambar.blogspot.com/

Other types of salad

A Watergate salad

A fruit salad Some salads are based on food items other than fresh vegetables:

Antipasto salad Bean salad Chicken salad Coleslaw Congealed salad Egg salad Fruit salad Israeli salad Larb from Laos Pasta salad Potato salad Shopska salad from Bulgaria Somen salad from Japan Som tam from Thailand Tabouli Tuna salad Waldorf salad Watergate salad

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[edit] History During the Middle Ages, after eating mostly salted meats and pickled vegetables all winter, people would be "salt-sick" and looked forward to spring greens. Popular history asserts that peasants ate more salads than lords, and were the healthier for it; in fact salads, cooked and raw, included many ingredients that would be "gourmet" today: lovage, burnet, sorrel. The diarist John Evelyn wrote a book on salads, Acetaria: A Discourse on Sallets (1699), that describes the new salad greens like "sellery" (celery), coming out of Italy and the Netherlands.

EGG
OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE

1. Definition 2. Structure 3. Composition 4. Nutrient 5. Characteristics of fresh and old eggs 6. Size 7. Conversions 8. Function in cooking 9. Egg cooking techniques 10. Storage 11. The impact of heat on egg

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DEFINITION . An egg is a body consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing of some type, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. . Nutritionally, eggs are considered a good source of protein.

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EGG STRUCTURE

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EGG COMPOSITION
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COMPONENT FUNCTION
Eggshell Ground egg shells are sometimes used as a food additive to deliver Calcium Air cell The larger end of the egg contains the air cell that forms when the contents of the egg cool down and contract after it is laid. Chicken eggs are graded according to the size of this air cell. As the size of the air cell increases, and the quality of the egg decreases, the grade moves from AA to A to B.

Albumen

contains protein but little or no fat. used in cooking separately from the yolk, and can be aerated or whipped to a light, fluffy consistency known as soft peaks and stiff peaks. Beaten egg whites are used in desserts such as meringue and mousse. main source of protein in order to build muscle mass

Chalazae
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To hold the egg yolk at the middle of the

egg

EGG NUTRIENTS

Nutrient Egg Yolk Albume


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Protein Fat Mineral Water

16.2% 31.7% 1.1% 51.0%

n 12.6% 0.6% 86.8%

CHARACTERISTICS OF FRESH AND OLD EGG

FRESH EGG A very fresh egg has a small air cell


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OLD EGG A very old egg will actually float in

and receives a grade of AA. the water and should not be eaten The yolk in a newly laid egg is round The resulting effect is a flattened and and firm enlarged yolk shape. The resulting effect is a flattened and Boiled eggs that are difficult to peel enlarged yolk shape. Shine a light through the egg -clear Looks grey with black spots

EGG TYPES

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EGG SIZES

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EGG CONVERSIONS
These approximations are based on a large (2-oz) egg.
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Other egg sizes may be more or less than the amounts listed below. Whole Eggs 3 whole eggs = 1/2 cup 1 whole egg = 3 tablespoons 1/2 whole egg = 4 teaspoons Yolks 6 to 7 egg yolks = 1/2 cup 1 egg yolk = 1 tablespoon Whites 4 to 6 egg whites = 1/2 cup 1 egg white = 2 tablespoons Dried or Powdered Eggs 1 egg = 2 tablespoons egg powder + 2 tablespoons warm water

THE FUNCTIONS OF EGG IN COOKING

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As a: main course-First class protein source, replacing fish and meat food of patient because it is easy to digest thickening agent in custard, sauce and soup raising agent when it is beaten such as meringue grease agent add golden colour and shining to food coating to maintain shape of the food that is going to fry an adhesive agent garnishing to a savoury food

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Grease agent

Food garnishing

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Raising agent

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Garnishing

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Adhesive agent

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Food patient

COOKING TECHNIQUES OF EGG

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OMELET

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SCRAMBLE EGG

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SUNNY SIDE UP

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POACHED EGG

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EGG STORAGE
Eggs are a perishable food and need to be refrigerated. Keep eggs in the original carton in the coldest part of your refrigerator to avoid water in the egg evaporate quickly Place the egg with the position narrow part at the bottom to ensure egg yolk stable and albumen does not press the egg air cell Throw away any eggs that are cracked, broken, or leaking. It is best not to wash eggs before storing them to keep the protective layer that coated the eggshell. Washing is a routine part of commercial egg processing and the eggs do not need to be rewashed. Keep away from a strong smell food to avoid the food smell absorbing into the egg through eggshell Fresh eggs in the shell - 3 to 4 weeks Fresh egg whites - 2 to 4 days Fresh egg yolks (unbroken and covered with water) - 2 to 4 days Hard-cooked eggs - 1 week Deviled eggs - 2 to 3 days --Leftover egg dishes - 3 to 4 days

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THE IMPACT OF HEAT ON EGG


Bila telur di masak, putih telur akan membeku pada suhu 60C sementara kuning telur membeku pada suhu 65C Memasak telur pada suhu tinggi pada masa yang lama menyebabkan telur liat dan keras Telur yang direbus secara perlahan-lahan menyebabkan terbentuknya satu lapisan kehitaman antara putih telur dengan kuning telur disebabkan oleh Fosforus Sulfida Haba lembab menyebabkan beberapa garam mineral dan vitamin larut dalam air rebusan

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STOCK,SAUCE AND SOUP

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STOCK
Stock are thin, flavored liquid derived from meat,fish,or poultry bones simmered with vegetables and seasonings. Simmering extracts the flavors and result in rich, flavorful stock. To make a good stock you need the right ingredients, preparation method and aftercare.

TYPES OF STOCK
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Although all types of stock made from a combination of bone, vegetables, seasoning and liquids, each type uses specific procedures to give it distinctive characteristics

White stock
Is made by simmering chicken, veal or beef bones in water with vegetables and seasonings The stock is colorless during the cooking process

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BROWN STOCK
Brown stock usually is made of beef and veal bones or games bones and vegetables All are caramelize before simmered in water before seasoning All stock are rich and dark in colour Cooking method: Oil the bones lightly, place them in the roasting pans and brown in an oven until golden brown. After browning the bones,put them in the stockpot. Add the liquid in the stockpot and simmered it for 6-8 hours Add the mirepoix and sachetabout midway in the cooking period Some chef s are add tomatoes to enrich the colour and give more flavors.

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FISH STOCK
Bones, heads, skins and trimming from white lean, deep-sea fish, are typically used for a fish stock. Rich, fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, or trout give a strong and slightly dark stock. An acid such as lemon juice often to added to simmering fish stock. Simmer for only 30 minutes-45 minutes. Overcooking will cause stock become cloudly.

GLAZE
Stock that has been strain and simmered until reduce one-fourth in volume Use to enhance the flavor of soup and sauce

ESSENCE
Rich stock used to flavor and enriches items. Containing wine,vegetables,and herbs. After simmering the liquid is starained and reduces to desire consistency

FUMET
Rich essence that has been further reduces and has sherry or Madeira wine added to it Fumets and essence have the same uses.

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Court Bouillon (French for short broth)


Is not a stock but is prepared in much the same manner as stock Is made by simmering vegetables and seasoning in water and an acidic liquid such as vinegar or wine. It is used to poach fish or vegetables

Vegetable stock
made with 1-2 vegetables will produce better results than a stock made with many vegetables clear and light coloured useful when preparing vegetarian dishes

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BASIC STOCK INGREDIENTS


1. Bones - Example: beef and veal bones, chicken bones, fish bones and other bones (turkey, lamb, game and ham bones) - The most important ingredient because they add flavour, richness and colour to the stock. - Different bones (with the size of 3-4 inches) release their flavour at different rates a) beef and or veal bones requires 6-8 hours of cooking time b) chicken bones requires 5-6 hours - The best bones for beef and veal stock are from younger animals because they contain a higher percentage of cartilage and other connective tissues than do bones from mature animals - Connective tissue has a high collagen content. - Through the cooking process the collagen is converted into gelatine and water. - The gelatine adds richness and body to the finished stock

bones
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2. Mirepoix
- is a mixture of onions (50%), carrots (25%) and celery (25%) to enhance flavour and aroma - For brown stock, onion skins is used to add colour - For white stock, white mirepoix is made by replacing the carrots in a standard mirepoix with parsnip and adding mushrooms and leeks. - The size in which the mirepoix is chopped is determined by the stocks cooking time: a) White/ brown stocks made frob) Chicken and fish stocks size of the mirepoix is inch

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3. Seasonings
- Principal stock seasoning: peppercorns, bay leaves, thyme, parsley stems and optionally garlic - Seasonings can be added as a sachet depices or a bouquet garni

3. Water

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SOUP
Can be served as an appetizer to stimulate the appetite or served as the main dish of the meal A good soup s made with quality ingredients and proper method One way to classify soups is according to consistently because this reflects their ingredients and dictates their use. Soups that cannot identified this way are best classified according to their main ingredients

Consomm

mushroom soup

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TYPES OF SOUP
1. Soup made from meat stock (clear soup) - Meat stock is a broth made by cooking meat - It requires long, slow cooking - Beef, veal, lamb or chicken can beef cooked separately or in combinations a) Bouillon - made from lean beef b) Consomm - made from two or three kinds of meat (beef-veal-chicken) 2. Soups made without meat stock and milk or cream (thick soup) - a) Cream soup -Is called cream soups and have for their basis white sauce - b) Puree soups - are made by combining thin white sauce with cooked, mashed or strained vegetable, fish or meat pulp Examples: i) Bisques - made with thin white sauce with fish added or vegetable stock ii) Chowders - with pieces of different vegetables or of fish and potatoes and various seasonings

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Consomme(clear soup)

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Mushroom soup

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