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APRIL 2012

INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS

VOL 3, NO 12

THE STUDY OF MARITAL ADJUSTMENT IN EMPLOYERS DUAL CAREER FAMILIES


AMIRSALEH AMINJAFARI, M.A MA. IN COUNSELING, ISFAHAN UNIVERSITY ZAHRA PADASH, MA M.A IN FAMILY COUNSELING,ISFAHAN UNIVERSITY IRAN BAGHBAN, PH.D. PROFESSOR AND FACULTY MEMBER OF ISFAHAN UNIVERSITY, COUNSELING DEPARTMENT , ISFAHAN, IRAN MOHAMMAD REZA ABEDI, PH.D PROFESSOR AND FACULTY MEMBER OF ISFAHAN UNIVERSITY, COUNSELING DEPARTMENT, ISFAHAN, IRAN.

Abstract
The purpose of this research was to study the marital adjustment in employers' dual career families of Isfahan state universities in 2010. The method was descriptive and the population were all Isfahan state universities. The random sampling was used and 1200 (600 pairs) questionnaires were distributed but 946 were back (473). Then 200 pairs (400 numbers) were related to dual career families and 200 (400 numbers) to earner career. The instrument were World Health Organization Quality Of Life (WHOQOL100) and Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS) that their validity and reliability were suitably aproved in previous researches. Dependent T-Test and stepwise Regression analysis showed there is a significant difference between marital adjustmen in dual career families And earner career (P=0/002). Also of 25 quality of life factors, just 8 ones such as sexual activity, pain and unhappiness, work capacity, social support, physical environment, positive feeling and a chance to get new skills and information predict significantly marital adjustment scores. Key Words: Marital adjustment, quality of life, dual career families, employers, Isfahan University

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INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS Introduction

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Dual career couples are special population who share a full-time work in a family (Rapoport and Rapoport, 1971). Dual career expression was created by Ropoport and Rapoport (1971). They were among those who starting study on dual career families. Although dual career families face with special challenges, the researches report useful information about their success and progress (Bruce, Mary, 2006). In these researches some factors are more important in the families' success. They are divided into internal and external. Internal factors includes couples' behaviors such as: 1-flexibility 2- couples' relationship, support and mutality 3- balance. External factors are those out of family suchas: 1- friendly family career environments 2- social supports (Bruce and Mary, 2006). Therefore, studying these factors can facilitate success in these families. One of the important successful factors in dual career families is Couples' relationship. Hence, investigation of it and its related components like marital adjustment can be useful to get success. In marital adjustmen definition, Grief explains that adjustment couples are those who are at all compatible, they satisfy of their relationship level and type, also they satisfy of their leisuretime type and quality and at last they have a good management in time and economics. In fact, marital adjustment is a process which is created during couples' life because it is necessary for taste comformity, person's traits recognition, behavioral rules creation and relational models formation. Thus, marital adjustment is an evolutional process between a couple (Lass and Lasswell, 1982). The study of past concepts in marital adjustment showed that it is permanently necessary for those processes of acquiring a balanced and functional marital relationship (Bradbury, Fincham and Beach, 2000). So, well- adjusted relationship is defined as a relationship in which even if participants are againts each other, they relate well and solve their problems and conflicts mutually and satisfactory (Locke and Wallace, 1959). Spanier defines adjustment as a process which its consequences are determined with couples' problematic conflicts, interpersonal tension and anxiety, couples' satisfaction, unity, cohesion and intellectual collaboration about
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marital important problems (Gong, 2007). Therefore, adjustment is a multidimensional concept which considers a person's relationship with his/ her spouse and has objective characteristics (Broman, 2005). Baniasadi (2002) compares social, personal and personality factors of 70 maladjusted couples with 70 adjusted ones. Based on his findings, these couples are different in common problems decesion, economics, sexual relationship, leisure time, interpersonal relationship, marriage motivations and religious beliefs. As a whole, adjusted couples are more satisfied in previous variables. In their researches, Grout and Clark (2001, Cited by Zadhoosh, 2008) Showed that couples who respond their needs in marital relationship such as sexual needs, they have more satisfaction. Markoweski and Greenwood (1984, Cited by Hosein Qhafari, 2005) have reported significant positive relationship between social adjustment and marital adjustmen, it means that those who are successful in life, are more adjusted in their social relationship. Parker, in a research, compared dual career families and earner career in marital satisfaction. He found that in both families, marital satisfaction level has been affected from factors such as affectional relationship, being together, ability of problem solving and unsatisfaction in finance. Also, role conflict affects more on dual career couple than earner career. Finally, he reported that earner career couples, with the ability to find financial cooperative strategies, have more marital satisfaction than dual career couples. Campbell and Snow (1992) studied the effect of gender roles conflict on Mens' marital satisfaction of dual careef families and came to this point that high gender roles conflict is related with low marital satisfaction. Aslo, mens' gender roels conflict and family environment can clarify 47 percent of variance in marital satisfaction which shows the significant effect of role pressure on marital satisfaction. Van Meter and Agronow (1982) have reported the same results in women. Rosin (1990), in his study, has examined the dual career effect on men and they reported positive result of career, marital and family satisfaction. All these men

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had Rapoport and Rapoport's(1971) definition situations and had children under 18 years old. E Jeffrey (2005), by using national studies information about career strength changes (1314), studied men and women of dual career families in family- work facilities and conflict. The finding revealed family- work facilities has a positive relationship with family, marital and career satisfaction and life satisfaction as a whole. Also, it has a negative relationship with personal stresses and organizational commitment. Employed fathers reported more working time (49 hours in a week), more involvement in family responsibilities (46 hours in a week) and less family support to their jobs than employed mothers. Nevertheless ,employed fathers reported less family- work conflict, less personal stresses and more life, marital and family satisfactions than mothers. Jason (2009), in his research of dual careef families, has pointed out that couples' mental and physical health are related in these families and financial problems are very important to decrease both mental health and physical health. In the last decades, many researches have studied the effective factors in strength of marital adjustment and satisfaction. Some of them are overlaped. The effective factors in marital satisfaction are: 1- cognitive factors, beliefs, attributions and interpretations. 2- Emotional and affectional factors. 3- physiological fctors. 4-behavioral models. 5- social support. 6- aggression. 7- having children. 8- life history and personal characteristics. 9- stress. 10-economical subjects. 11- religion. 12- couples' relationship type. 13- power structure in family. 14- cultural and social traditions. 15- mate selection criteria. 16- mate selection methods (Fatehizadeh, 1384). Since dual career families have special situations, the present research has studied dual career families' marital adjustment and its effective factors in Isfahan state university employers in 2010. To find the effective factors on marital adjustment, it is studied a lot. We can find the most effective factors in quality of life. Therefore, here it is used Quality of Life Components such as general health, pain and discomfort, energy and fatigue, sleep and rest, positive
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feelings, cognitive activities, self-esteem, body image and appearance, negative feelings, mobility, activities of daily living, dependence on medication or treatment, working capacity, personal relationships, social support, sexual activity, financial resources, physical safety and security, health and social care, home environment, opportunities for acquiring new information and skills, leisure time, physical environment, transportation and spirituality. Base on this purpose, these questions are planned here: 1- How is the marital adjustment in dual career families and earner career ones. 2- what are the effective factors on these families' marital adjustment. Method: Research Method: It is descriptive and causal-comparative type. Population: They are all Isfahan state university employers in 2010. Sample: Dual career families were those who both had a full-time work. It is important to mention that at least one couple was Isfahan state university employer. Among all Isfahan state universities, only Isfahan university, Isfahan medical university and Isfahan industrial university had been cooperated. Thus, after an introductory study and estimated volume formula (Sharif, 2004) statistical sample were 389 individuals. Then 1200 questionnaires were distributed but 946 were back. At last 400 questionnaires related to dual career families and 400 questionnaires reated to earner career ones were selected. Sampling Method: It was randomly sampling method Measuring Instruments Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS): This scale was made by Busby, Karan, Larsen and Christensen (1995, Cited by Hollist and Miller). The original form was made by Spanier (1979) which was based on Lewis' and Spanier's (1979) theory about marital relationship quality. (Adital, 2005). Bradbury, Fincham and Beach (2000), after introducing their theory about marital quality, assessed this case suitable for it. It is of 14 questions made from Spanier's 32 questions form (1976). This is a Lickert scale from 0-5
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(Completely disagree=0 Completely agree=5). It has three subscales: intellectual agreement, satisfaction and cohesion which show marital adjustment scores as a whole and high scores mean higher marital adjustment (Hollist and Miller, 2005). Emphatic factorial ananlysis approved questionnaire 3- factorial structure in U.S.A and showed its validity (Busby et al, 1995). The reliabililty was reported in Hollist and Miller's (2005) study about 0/8 to 0/9 using Cronbach Alpha (Eisanejad, 2004). It this research, Cronbahch alpha was 0/87 (implemented on 100 individuals). World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-100): WHO has used WHOQOL-100 to assess quality of life.The first presumption of QOL is: "a person's behaviors to special environmental aspects can introduce quality of life. It includes 6 domains of physical, psychological, level of independence, social relationship, environment and Spirituality. Each domain has some subclasses which 24 subclasses make this scale. Each subclass is measured by 4 questions of 5 selections. It addition, 4 questions assess General Health (Qholamalian, 2007). Therefore, this scale has 100 question which its domain and subclasses are in table 1. The total Cronbach alpha was 0/98. The domains Cronbach alpha and 25 subscales are in table 1, too.

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Table 1: Domains and subscales of Quality of life scale (WHOQOL-100) based on questions Domais General health Physical domain ( =0/87) Subscales Total life quality and health Pain and discomfort Energy and Fatigue Sleep and rest Positive feelings Cognitive activities Self- esteem Body image and appearance Negative feelings Mobility Activities of daily living Dependance of medication or treatment Working relationships Personal relationships Social support Sexual activity Financial resources Physical safety and security Health and social care Home environment Opportunities for acquiring new information and skills Leisure time Physical environment Transportation Personal beliefs ___________ Questions 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Cronbach alpha 0/84 0/82 0/85 0/86 0/89 0/89 0/88 0/9 0/81 0/89 0/73 0/88 0/88 0/84 0/82 0/84 0/92 0/7 0/72 0/9 0/78 0/85 0/77 0/66 0/88 100 Total questions numbers 4 12

Phychological domain ( =0/95)

20

Level of independence domain ( =0/91)

16

Social relationship domain ( =0/85)

12

Environment domain ( =0/94)

32

Spirituality Total

Data analsis: It is used t-test, step wise Regression analysis Findings: To answer the question "How is the marital adjustment in dual career families and earner career" marital adjustment was assessed.

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Table 2: Descriptive statistics of marital adjustment scores between two families of dual career and earner career Sample Marital adjustment Dual career earnercareer Umbers 400 400 Mean 60/454 64/333 Standard deviation 11/416 6/989 Variance 130/347 48/854

Table 3: independent t-test of Marital adjustment between two families of dual career and earner career Levin test for variance Variables F Marital adjustment 1/037 equality Sig. 0/31 T 3/147 t-test for Mean equality df 798 sig. 0/002

At it is seen in table 2, there is difference between marital adjustmen mean in two families and it shows high marital adjustment in couples of earner career families. To test this difference, after not being significant of Levin test for variance inequality (P=0/31), it was used T-test. The results are in table 3 and shows the significancy (P=0/002). Also, to answer the second question "what are the effective factors?" 25 life quality factors effect on marital adjustment were assessed. Using multi variables Regression by Enter method, we could predict these life quality factors power in marital adjustment score. As it is seen in table 4, marital adjustment score regression is significant (F=6/455, df=25, 374, P<0/000). The correlation between 25 life quality factors and marital adjustment score is 0/71 (R=0/71). In other meaning 71 percent of marital adjustmen score variance is clarified through 25 life quality factors (R2=0/5).

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Table 4: Regression analysis of marital adjustment score through 25 life quality factors in dual career families Changes Resources Total remain regression 0/71 0/5 R2 compression Sum of Squares 12081/06 11902/8 23983/86 Sum of df squares mean 25 374 399 483/243 74/86 F Sig.

6/455

0/000

Base on regression test results due to significancy of marital adjustment score regression through 25 life quality factors, the stepwise regression is used to explain effective factors.The results are in table 5. Table 5: Marital adjustment score regreesion analysis through 25 life quality factors in dual career families Variable Fixed amount Sexual activity Pain and discom fort Work capacity Social support Physical environment Positive feelings Opportunities for acquiring new information and skills 0/663 0/012 0/44 -0/103 -0/136 -1/981 0/049 R ___ 0/554 0/578 0/608 0/627 0/64 0/654 R2 pure ___ 0/307 0/028 0/035 0/024 0/016 0/018 R2 compression ___ 0/307 0/335 0/369 0/393 0/409 0/427

T 13/513 6/83 3/395 -3/195 2/655 -2/345 2/717

Sig. 0/000 0/000 0/001 0/002 0/009 0/02 0/007

coefficients 43/399 0/274 0/12 -0/156 0/089 -0/102 0/135 ___ 0/487 0/218 -0/225 0/172 -0/158 0/221

As it is seen in table 5, among 25 factors, only 7 factors of sexual activity, pain and comfort, work capacity, social support, physical environment, positive

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feelings and opportunities for acquiring new information and skills have significant roles in marital adjustment score prediction.

Therefore, the rgression formula for it will be: Marital adjustment= 0/274 (sexual activity ) +0/12 (pain and comfort) -0/156 (work capacity) +0/089 (social support) 0/102 (physical environment) +0/135 (positive feelings) -0/103 (opportunities for acquiring new information and skills +43/399.

Conclusion
Base on the findings, marital adjustment level in earner career families were higher than dual career ones and this was significant (table 2). It is congruent with Parker's (1994). It seems that this family style has negative effect on couples' marital adjustment. Thus, it is necessary to study the effective factors to improve marital adjustment. In this research, among 25 life quality factors, 7 factors of sexual activity, pain and discomfort, work capacity, social support, physical environment, positive feelings and opportunities for acquiring new information and skills had significant roles in marital adjustment score prediction. It is congruent with Baniasadi (2002), Grot and Clark (2001). Since marital adjustment component is one of the marital life component, the study of it, is very important to help dual career couples. When adjustment is low in dual career couples, it shows the working effect on family roles. To look at life quality subscales as maritl adjustment prediction in dual career families, it is understood those subscales are important which make challenges in the family. Sexual activity and pain and discomforts are components which can be affected for gender, career and famiy different roles in couples. Therefore, to improve these two components, we can predict higher marital adjustment level in couples. Aslo it can be concluded that work capacity, social support, physical environment and opportunities for acquiring new information and skills are directly related with couples' career roles. It shows working in couples affect on marital adjustment. Thus, paying attention to harmony of career and family roles can increase
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spouses' relationship quality level in this family style. Negative feelins can be affected negatively by present failure in planned responsibilities when there is no harmony in individuals' roles and responsibilities. As a whole, Since these components are important to predict couples' marital adjustment in dual careeer families, it is suggested that couples must try to imorve these components level.

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