Anda di halaman 1dari 1

Chord recognition Complementary to recognizing the melody of a song is hearing the harmonic struct ures that support it.

Musicians often practice hearing different types of chords and their inversions out of context, just to hear the characteristic sound of t he chord. They also learn chord progressions to hear how chords relate to one an other in the context of a piece of music. Microtonal chord and interval recognition The process is similar to twelve-tone ear training, but with many more intervals to distinguish. Aspects of microtonal ear training are covered in Harmonic Expe rience, by W. A. Mathieu, with sight-singing exercises, such as singing over a d rone, to learn to recognize just intonation intervals. There are also software p rojects underway or completed geared to ear training or to assist in microtonal performance. Gro Shetelig at The Norwegian Academy of Music is working on the development of a Microtonal Ear Training method for singers[23] and has developed the software Micropalette,[24] a tool for listening to microtonal tones, chords and intervals . Aaron Hunt at Hi Pi instruments has developed Xentone,[25] another tool for mi crotonal ear training. Rhythm recognition One way musicians practice rhythms is by breaking them up into smaller, more eas ily identifiable sub-patterns. For example, one might start by learning the soun d of all the combinations of four eighth notes and eighth rests, and then procee d to string different four-note patterns together. Another way to practice rhythms is by muscle memory, or teaching rhythm to diffe rent muscles in the body. One may start by tapping a rhythm with the hands and f eet individually, or singing a rhythm on a syllable (e.g. "ta"). Later stages ma y combine keeping time with the hand, foot, or voice and simultaneously tapping out the rhythm, and beating out multiple overlapping rhythms. A metronome may be used to assist in maintaining accurate tempo. Timbre recognition Each type of musical instrument has a characteristic sound quality that is large ly independent of pitch or loudness. Some instruments have more than one timbre, e.g. the sound of a plucked violin is different from the sound of a bowed violi n. Some instruments employ multiple manual or embouchure techniques to achieve t he same pitch through a variety of timbres. If these timbres are essential to th e melody or function, as in shakuhachi music, then pitch training alone will not be enough to fully recognize the music. Learning to identify and differentiate various timbres is an important musical skill that can be acquired and improved by training. Transcription Music teachers often recommend transcribing recorded music as a way to practice all of the above, including recognizing rhythm, melody and harmony. The teacher may also perform short compositions, with the student listening and transcribing the piece onto paper in a practice known as dictation.