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# Boyles and Charles Law

## By : Jhan Warren Magno

Boyles Law
The Boyles law is an experimental gas law which describes how the pressure of a gas tends to decrease as the volume of a gas increases. This relationship between pressure and volume was first noted by two new scientists, Richard Towneley and Henry Power. Boyle confirmed their discovery through experiments and published the results. According to Robert Gunther and other authorities, it was Boyle's assistant, Robert Hooke, who built the experimental apparatus. Boyle's law is based on experiments with air, which he considered to be a fluid of particles at rest in between small invisible springs. At that time, air was still seen as one of the four elements. Boyle (and Mariotte) derived the law solely on experimental grounds. The law can also be derived theoretically based on the presumed existence of atoms and molecules and assumptions about motion and perfectly elastic collisions (see kinetic theory of gases). These assumptions were met with enormous resistance in the positivist scientific community at the time however, as they were seen as purely theoretical constructs for which there was not the slightest observational evidence. The mathematical equation for Boyle's law is: where:

P denotes the pressure of the system. V denotes the volume of the gas. k is a constant value representative of the pressure and volume of the system.

So long as temperature remains constant the same amount of energy given to the system persists throughout its operation and therefore, theoretically, the value of k will remain constant. However, due to the derivation of pressure as perpendicular applied force and the probabilistic likelihood of collisions with other particles through collision theory, the application of force to a surface may not be infinitely constant for such values of k, but will have a limit when differentiating such values over a given time. Boyle's law is used to predict the result of introducing a change, in volume and pressure only, to the initial state of a fixed quantity of gas. The before and after volumes and pressures of the fixed amount of gas, where the before and after temperatures are the same (heating or cooling will be required to meet this condition), are related by the equation: Here P1 and V1 represent the original pressure and volume, respectively, and P2 and V2 represent the second pressure and volume.

Charles Law
There are different interpretation of a gas law. The early gas laws were developed at the end of the 18th century, when scientists began to realize that relationships between the pressure, volume and temperature of a sample of gas could be obtained which would hold for all gases. Gases behave in a similar way over a wide variety of conditions because to a good approximation they all have molecules which are widely spaced, and nowadays the equation of state for an ideal gas is derived from kinetic theory. The earlier gas laws are now considered as special cases of the ideal gas equation, with one or more of the variables held constant. One of this gas law was the Charles law is an experimental gas law which describes how gases tend to expand when heated. The volume of a given mass of an ideal gas is directly proportional to its temperature on the absolute temperature scale (in Kelvin) if pressure and the amount of gas remain constant; that is, the volume of the gas increases or decreases by the same factor as its temperature. This directly proportional relationship can be written as: .where: V is the volume of the gas, T is the temperature of the gas (measured in Kelvin). This law explains how a gas expands as the temperature increases; conversely, a decrease in temperature will lead to a decrease in volume. For comparing the same substance under two different sets of conditions,

## The law can be written as:

The equation shows that, as absolute temperature increases, the volume of the gas also increases in proportion. The law was named after scientist Jacques Charles, who formulated the original law in his unpublished work from the 1780s. Jacques Alexandre Csar Charles was a a French inventor, scientist, mathematician, and balloonist. Charles wrote almost nothing about mathematics, and most of what has been credited to him was due to mistaking him with another Jacques Charles. This law had been use for many years until today. Were lucky to have such great man like Jacques Charles that helps us to understand the different variables about gases until today that helps us in our study about the behavior of gases towards volume and temperature changes.