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# The Gay Lussacs and Avogadros Law

## Gay Lussacs Law

The expression Gay-Lussac's law is used for each of the two relationships named after the French chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and which concern the properties of gases, though it is more usually applied to his law of combining volumes, the first listed here. The first law relates to volumes before and after a chemical reaction while the second concerns the pressure and temperature relationship for a sample of gas often known as Amontons' Law. This law is often referred to as Amontons' Law of Pressure-

Temperature after Guillaume Amontons, who, between 1700 and 1702, discovered the relationship between the pressure and temperature of a fixed mass of gas kept at a constant volume Amontons discovered this while building an "air thermometer". The pressure of a gas of fixed mass and fixed volume is directly proportional to the gas' absolute temperature. Simply put, if a gas' temperature increases, then so does its pressure if the mass and volume of the gas are held constant. The law has a particularly simple mathematical form if the temperature is measured on an absolute scale, such as in kelvins. The law can then be expressed mathematically as:

or where: P = pressure of the gas T = temperature of the gas (measured in Kelvin). k = constant.

For comparing the same substance under two different sets of conditions, the law can be written as:

Examples :

1.)

A gas has a temperature of 300 Kelvin and a pressure of 1.5 atmospheres. If the previous pressure was 1.2 atmospheres, what was the original temperature?

Pairing up and classifying the data we have T = 300K and we must solve for T. Solving Gay-Lussac's Law for T we get: T = P T P T = 1.2 atm 300K 1.5 atm

P = 1.5 atm

P = 1.2 atm

T = 240K

2.)

A gas at a temperature of 60 Fahrenheit has a pressure of .9 atmospheres. What is the new temperature if the pressure increases to 1.1 atm?

The two variables that were measured at the same time and which can get "paired up" are 60F (T) and .9 atm (P). Before we continue, we must convert that temperature to an absolute scale. To change Fahrenheit to Rankine, we add 459.67 and so we get: T = 60F + 459.67 = 519.67 Rankine. P is 1.1 atm and so we are ready to calculate T. Solving Gay-Lussac's Law for T we get: T = P T P T = 1.1 atm 519.67R .9 atm T = 635.15 R

## The Avogadros Law

Avogadro's Law also known as Avogadros Hypothesis or Avogadro's Principle is an experimental gas law relating volume of a gas to the amount of substance of gas present. The volume and amount (moles) of the gas are directly proportional if the temperature and pressure are constant where : V = volume n = is the amount of substance of the gas (measured in moles). k = is a constant This law explains how, under the same condition of temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules. For comparing the same substance under two different sets of conditions, the law can be usefully expressed as follows: or

V1 n2=V2 n1

The equation shows that as the number of moles of gas increases, the volume of the gas also increases in proportion. Similarly, if the number of moles of gas is decreased, then the volume also decreases. Thus, the number of molecules or atoms in a specific volume of ideal gas is independent of their size or the molar mass of the gas. The law is named after Italian chemist Amedeo Avogadro who hypothesized in 1811 that two given samples of an ideal gas, of the same volume and at the same temperature and pressure, contain the same number of molecules. Examples :

1.) A cylinder with a movable piston contains 2.00 g of helium, He, at room temperature. More helium was added to the cylinder and the volume was adjusted so that the gas pressure remained the same. How many grams of

helium were added to the cylinder if the volume was changed from 2.00 L to 2.70 L? (The temperature was held constant.) Solution: 1) Convert grams of He to moles: 2.00 g / 4.00 g/mol = 0.500 mol 2) Use Avogadro's Law: V1/n1 = V2/n2 2.00 L / 0.500 mol = 2.70 L / x x = 0.675 mol 3) Compute grams of He added: 0.675 mol - 0.500 mol = 0.175 mol 0.175 mol x 4.00 g/mol = 0.7 grams of He added

## 2.) If n1 = 2.00 moles, n2 = 6.00 moles, V1 = 880 ml what is the V2?

V2 = V1n2

n1
= (880) (6.00) 2.00 = 2640 ml