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Equations of Motion

Lecture 19

Question of the Day

Question of the Day Determine the vertical acceleration of the 60- lb cylinder for each of

Determine the vertical acceleration of the 60- lb cylinder for each of the two cases.

Outline for Today

Question of the day

Question of the day

Free body diagram

Equations of motion

Two types of problems

– Inverse dynamics – Forward dynamics

Constrained vs. unconstrained motion

Rectilinear motion

Answer your questions!

Free Body Diagram Perhaps the most important concept in mechanics! F = 50(cos30 j + sin30

Free Body Diagram

Perhaps the most important concept in mechanics! F 2 = 50(cos30 o j + sin30 o k) F 1 = 50 j

k z
k
z
j y
j
y
30 o m y m z
30
o
m y
m z
Free Body Diagram Perhaps the most important concept in mechanics! F = 50(cos30 j + sin30

F 3 = -100 j

Free Body Diagram Perhaps the most important concept in mechanics! F = 50(cos30 j + sin30
y x mg
y
x
mg
Free Body Diagram Perhaps the most important concept in mechanics! F = 50(cos30 j + sin30

z

ME 231: Dynamics

4

Equations of Motion Perhaps the most important concept in dynamics! m y z m x mg

Equations of Motion

Perhaps the most important concept in dynamics!

m y z m x mg
m y
z
m x
mg

Vector form of force-mass- acceleration equation

F ma

Component form of force- mass-acceleration equation

F ma mx x x F ma my y y F ma mz z z
F
ma
mx
x
x
F
ma
my
y
y
F
ma
mz
z
z
m y z x
m
y
z
x

ME 231: Dynamics

5

Inverse Dynamics Problem

inverse

Inverse Dynamics Problem inverse F m a Forces Velocities d dt d dt Positions Accelerations are

F ma

Forces

Inverse Dynamics Problem inverse F m a Forces Velocities d dt d dt Positions Accelerations are

Velocities

d

dt

d dt
d
dt
Inverse Dynamics Problem inverse F m a Forces Velocities d dt d dt Positions Accelerations are

Positions

Accelerations are specified or determined directly from kinematic conditions

Determine the corresponding forces

Forward Dynamics Problem

inverse inverse Velocities F ma
inverse
inverse
Velocities
F ma

Forces

Positions

forward specified or determ
forward
specified or determ

Forces are specified or determined from a FBD

Determine the corresponding acceleration

If forces are functions of time, position, or

velocity, then integrate differential equation to

determine velocity and position

ME 231: Dynamics

7

Constrained vs. Unconstrained Motion

es
es

Unconstrained

Free of mechanical guides

– Follows a path determined ed

by its initial motion and

applied external forces

Constrained

– Path is partially or totally

determined by

restraining guides

– All forces (applied and

reactive) must be

accounted for in F=ma

Outline for Today

Question of the day

Question of the day

Free body diagram

Free body diagram

Equations of motion

Equations of motion

Two types of problems

Two types of problems

Inverse dynamics

– Inverse dynamics

– Forward dynamics

– Forward dynamics

Constrained vs. unconstrained motion

Constrained vs. unconstrained motion

Rectilinear motion

Answer your questions!

Rectilinear Motion

Coordinate direction (x)

along the motion

F ma

x

x

F

y

0

F

z

0

Coordinate direction NOT

along the motion

F ma F ma F ma

x

y

z

x

y

z

Acceleration

a

a

x

i

a

y

j

a

z

k

a

Rectilinear Motion Coordinate direction (x) along the motion F ma x x F y 0 F

a

x

2

a

y

2

a

z

2

Resultant force

F

F

F

x

i

F

y

j

F

z

2

F

y

F x
F
x

2

k

F

z

2

Rectilinear Motion: Exercise

The 80-lb crate has a velocity of 30 ft/s up

the incline.

Calculate the

time required

for the crate to

come to rest.

Rectilinear Motion: Another Exercise

Rectilinear Motion: Another Exercise The 75-kg man stands on a spring scale in an elevator with

The 75-kg man stands on a

spring scale in an elevator with

a constant upward acceleration

a y . The cable tension T is 8300

N. The total system mass is

750 kg.

Find the reading R

(in Newtons) of the

scale.

ME 231: Dynamics

12

Rectilinear Motion: Yet Another Exercise

Determine the tension P in

the cable to give the 100-lb

block a constant acceleration

of 5 ft/s 2 up the incline.

Rectilinear Motion: One More Exercise

A cylinder rests in a

supporting carriage

where = 45º and =

30º.

Calculate the maximum

acceleration a up the

incline so that the

cylinder does not lose

contact with the

carriage.

Outline for Today

Question of the day

Question of the day

Free body diagram

Free body diagram

Equations of motion

Equations of motion

Two types of problems

Two types of problems

Inverse dynamics

– Inverse dynamics

– Forward dynamics

– Forward dynamics

Constrained vs. unconstrained motion

Constrained vs. unconstrained motion

Rectilinear motion

Rectilinear motion

Answer your questions!

For Next Time…

Continue Homework #7 due next

Wednesday (10/17)

Read Chapter 3, Sections 3.1 & 3.2