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1) Describe the principle of ion exchange process and give example of its application in chemical industries The process

of exchanging ions between a solution and an ion exchangers normally called resin which have in their molecular structure acidic or basic radicals that can be exchanged. The positive or negative ions fixed on these radicals are replaced by ions of the same sign in solution in the liquid in contact with them. There are many application by ion exchange such as in chemical industry. For example: recovery of vanadium and copper catalysts in the production of adipic acid (a precursor of nylon) with AmberlystTM 40Wet

2)

Ion exchange is defined as reversible chemical reaction where an ion from a solution is exchanged for a similarly charged ion attached to an immobile solid particle. One of typical ion exchange process is water softening and widely applied in waste water treatment plant. I. Describe water softening process mechanism by giving related equation. II. Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of water softening process

2.i)

The water softening where it removes unwanted charges in the water. In this reaction, an ion diffuses through a pore to a site that has in the resin, the site holds the ion while releasing another. For example: Na+ + H-X Na-X + H+ Where Na+ is an unwanted sodium ion, H+ is a desired hydrogen ion, and X is the exchange site. This case is called the hydrogen cycle of a cation (+ charged ion) exchanger. It is used to soften water by removing such cations as sodium, calcium, and potassium. Anion (charged ion) exchangers work the same as their cation counterparts. For example:HCO3 - + A-OH A-HCO3+ OHWhere bicarbonate ion, HCO3-, is exchanged for hydroxide ion, OH-, on A which is the exchanged site. Anion and cation resins are used in conjunction to create DI (deionization) water systems. The most common DI systems are the two bed and the mixed bed. In the two bed system, raw water is pumped into a pressure vessel containing cation resin which removes hardness (Na, Ca, K) , and then it is transferred to another pressure vessel containing anion resin to complete deionization. In a mixed bed system, untreated water is sent to a vessel containing a mixture of anion and cation resins. The reactions are the same as in the two bed, but a mixed bed system produces water of higher purity because the reactions take place simultaneously Na+ + Cl- + H-X + A-OH Na-X + A-C1 + H2O ( raw water) ( in vessel) ( in vessel) (in water) On depletion of the H+ or OH- inventory, called exhaustion, the resins can be regenerated by an acid or caustic solution. The solution is pumped into the exhausted resin bed, and then the subsequent salt solution is rinsed out. The bed is now regenerated and ready to be put back into service. Acid regeneration: HCl + Na-X NaCl + H-X Caustic regeneration: NaOH + A-Cl NaC1 + A-OH

2.ii) Advantages Recovery of valuable component Recovery of water for reuse Better quality control due to elimination of process Disadvantages Capital cost for equipment Cost for chemical regenerate Disposal costs for regenerant wastes