Anda di halaman 1dari 28

Table of Contents

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11
The Importance of Teaching the Oral Tradition Brian Lillos ........... 1 Learner Styles Brian Lillos ...................................................... 5 Mentorship/Job-Shadowing/Practica Brian Lillos.......................... 8 Myths about Jazz Education Brian Lillos.................................... 10 The Jazz Curriculum - Brian Lillos.............................................. 16 - Kevin Dean .............................................. 26 Course Outlines Brian Lillos .................................................... 30 Lesson Plans Brian Lillos ........................................................ 38 Instructional Objectives Brian Lillos ......................................... 41 Supervision of Instruction Brian Lillos ....................................... 51 Assessment and Evaluation Brian Lillos ..................................... 54 Towards Teaching Jazz Improvisation Brian Lillos....................... 56 The Teenage Improvizor Colleen Allen............................... 59 Teaching Beginning Improvisation Using a Rhythmic Approach - Alex Dean ................................................................... 66 Melodic Implications in a Harmonic World Paul Tynan ........... 71 Developing an 8th Note Time Based Concept Paul Tynan ......... 74 Getting the Most out of Transcriptions Shirantha Beddage...... 81 Using Linear Material to Connect Melodic Ideas Ted Quinlan... 92 Getting Hip Accessing Altered Tensions Brian Lillos ............ 97 Navigating the Be-Boppers Harmonic Galaxy Brian Lillos .......100 Cu-Bop and Beyond David Virelles Gonzalez .........................109 Advanced Techniques Sundar Viswanathan ..........................120 Uses of Diminished Pat LaBarbera .....................................145

12 13 14 15 16 17

The Contemporary Approach to Jazz Composition - Christine Jensen....................................................................149 Towards Teaching Jazz History Alan Matheson............................159 Jazz in Canada Mark Miller .....................................................169 Women in Jazz Alexis Marsh ....................................................176 Profile: Canadian Women in Jazz Greg Buium .............................190 Rehearsal Techniques for the Jazz Orchestra -Gordon Foote Fundamentals ..............................................................193 Warm-up ......................................................................196 Time ...........................................................................198 Articulation ..................................................................201 Swing Harder ................................................................205 Psychology ...................................................................209 Rehearsal Time .............................................................214 Performance .................................................................218 Video and Audio Recording ...............................................221 Clinicians .....................................................................222 Sectionals ....................................................................224 Conducting ...................................................................228 Conductor Evaluation .....................................................236 Festival Participation .....................................................237 Final Thoughts ..............................................................239 Choosing Repertoire for the Jazz Orchestra Brian Lillos ................243 The Jazz Choir Russ Baird.......................................................248

18 19

20

Rhythm Section Pedagogy: The Junior High School Jazz Rhythm Section Bob Rebagliati ....254 Basic Functions .....................................................256 Physical Set Up .....................................................258 Understanding the Arranger ....................................260 Trouble Shooting ...................................................284 An Introduction to Walking Bass Lines in the Jazz Rhythm Section Bryan Stovell .....................................................290 An Introduction to Drums in the Jazz Rhythm Section Bryan Stovell .................................................................301 Bass in the Jazz Rhythm Section Mike Downes .....................312 Big Band Drumming Tips Ted Warren .................................321 Playing Jazz Drums Melodically Ted Warren........................322 More Jazz Drums Terry Clarke .........................................323 Getting Beyond Your Drums Set Barry Elmes........................327 Musical Leadership and the Jazz Rhythm Section Don Thompson................................................................331 Jazz Program Infrastructure Brian Lillos .....................................334 Fund Raising .................................................................334 Budget.........................................................................334 Student Recruitment and Program Profile ...........................338 Equipment, Facility, and Time Table Needs ........................339 F.T.E.s ......................................................................340 Administrative Support and Career Planning ........................341 Proposal Writing Carmella Luvisotto..................................343 Networking the Jazz Education Industry Program .................351 Recruiting Faculty ..........................................................351 Direction, Co-ordination, Administration .............................352 Graduate Degrees in Jazz Studies in Canada McGill University Kevin Dean ...........................................354 York University Michael Coghlan......................................356 University of Toronto Paul Read ......................................358 The Banff International Workshop in Jazz and Creative Music ...........360 Creative Scholarship in Jazz Education Andrew Scott .....................370 Adjudicating a Jazz Performance Brian Lillos ...............................383 Presenting a Jazz Clinic Brian Lillos ...........................................397

21

22

23 24 25 26

27 28 29 30 31 32

Music Fest Canada Jim Howard .................................................399 I.A.J.E. Alexis Marsh ...............................................................408 I.A.S.J. Alexis Marsh ...............................................................414 Jamey Aebersold Brian Lillos ....................................................417 Websites ...............................................................................419 Contemporary Jazz Composition: An Introduction to Contemporary Jazz Composition Christine Jensen .........................................................................420 Personal Strategies Esteban Figueroa ................................430 Finding Your Own Voice Bill Prouten .................................435 Hands on Approach Brenda Earle ......................................448 Creative Process in Jazz Composition Paul Tynan.................458 Empowering Originality Andrew Jones ...............................466 Creating Fifteen Seconds One Composers Approach Christian Overton........................................................................474 Contemporary Jazz Composition Shirantha Bedagge..............481 Composition A Personal Perspective Neil Yorke-Slader...........486 Composing by Ear Lina Allemano ......................................491 Storyville Darcy Argue...................................................498 Jazz Composition Alan Matheson ......................................512 Introducing Jazz Composition Christian Overton...................515 Towards Teaching Composition Jim McGrath ......................522 Towards Teaching Composition Hugh Fraser .......................526 Towards Teaching Composition Don Thompson ....................529 Compositional Concepts Christine Jensen .............................534

33

More Rhythm Section: The Rhythm Section in Jazz David Restivo ..........................542 Latin Jazz Concepts for the Bass Will Jarvis .......................553 Multi Meter Excerpts for Drummers Paul De Long .................566 Developing Ideas for Drum Solos Neil MacIntosh ...................568 Dan Weiss and the Tabla Carlos Aguilera............................578 Profound Rhythm Sections Adam Caringi ............................591 Afro-Cuban Bata Rhythms Adapted to Drum-Set Steve Mancuso..............................................................600 The Adaptation on South Indian Concept Steve Mancuso ........604

34

More Improvisation: Learning the Language Brian OKane .................................609 The Importance of Listening Steve Haines...........................612 Repertoire Development in the Classroom Dave Neill ............619 Repertoire Development for the Individual Dave Neill ...........627 Navigating the Be-Boppers Harmonic Galaxy Brian Lillos .......635 Jazz Advocacy and Some Philosophical Perspectives: Musical Improvisation and Determinacy Jodi Proznick ...........656 Toward Creative Musical Achievement Jodi Proznick.............666 The marginalization of Art Education Jodi Proznick ..............679 Community Music Cathy Mitro ................................................687 More Instructional Methodology: Rehearsal Techniques Neil Yorke-Slader .............................692 Jazz Pedagogy Final Exam Brian Lillos...............................698 Jazz Pedagogy Course Outline Brian Lillos ..........................701 Supervision of Instruction Brian Lillos................................721 More Infrastructure: Running a Student Jazz Festival Sarah Falls ........................723

35

36 37

38 39

Meet the Authors ..................................................................729

The be-boppers harmonic galaxy is based on the Diminished 7th arpeggio. It is the axis upon which all is built. For this reason, the first thing I do when I look at a new set of changes is to look for diminished relations. These relations quickly define key centers, dominant relationships, and significant harmonic movement. In 30 seconds I am able to gain the necessary insight for improvisation. However, from an educational standpoint, my 30 second perusal took half a life time to learn. Let me try and retrace my some of my steps. Remember, you are going to have to connect some of the dots. Also remember, if you move to a new step without understanding the previous one, proceed with caution because leapfrogging doesnt work for long. The beginning of my be-bop study started with be-bop scales. These 8 note, rhythmically symmetrical scales, served many purposes. The first purpose was to my get chord tones on the beat, which proved to be an essential part of be-bop playing.

The 8 note, rhythmic symmetrical scale, also facilitated back phrasing which is a very important element of swing and be-bop phrasing.

Navigating the Be-boppers Harmonic Galaxy by Brian Lillos

635

The be-bop scale also made harmonic anticipation easy to execute. For example,

But, most importantly, the be-bop scale delivered something harmonic. It sounded the I chord and the V7 chord at the same time. For me this was particularly significant.

(I had to think of an inverted, rootless D7b9 to make this work.)


The result of discovering that I and V were in the same scale allowed me to, in the initial stages of improvisation, harmonically generalize large sections of tunes. It allowed me to create a harmonic reduction analysis, if you will. For example, I made the following harmonic generalizations in the A section of Loudly, as in an evening Sunset. The original

Navigating the Be-boppers Harmonic Galaxy by Brian Lillos

636

When reduced, became

While this cant be considered making the changes, it does allow, through generalization, a scale to be used which covers the tonality. By using the bop scale built on A-6 the E7b9b13 and the B-7b5 is implied. The A-6 bop scale is as follows:

Another example would be All Dr. Harris Children Got Rhythm. The original progression, for the A section, was as follows.

My harmonic reduction analysis gave me this:

Navigating the Be-boppers Harmonic Galaxy by Brian Lillos

637

As my improvisation became more about melodic inventiveness with one scale, it gave me the time to concentrate on rhythmic groupings and pronunciation (articulation). The unreduced harmonic progression paralysed me. I felt I had to micro-manage it. With the be-boppers reduction analysis I found I was looking ahead for a target that required a new scale and looking for significant chords that were specific to this tune. This is what is supposed to happen. And beboppers have a hierarchy of chords. In a major tonality they believe I, V7, IV, and IV- are important chords. In their world they would assign these chords bigger size fonts on a lead sheet. Everything else is subordinate to I, V7, IV, and IV-. Look again at the reduction of All Dr. Harris Children Got Rhythm.

My generalization would put important chords on the beat. Hence, I would be left with the example mentioned earlier.

When I initially improvised on this tune I would improvise on G major 6 and D7 for four bars watching carefully for G7 to appear and immediately C major C minor in bar 6. To the bebopper, G7 is important because it sets up C major. C major is particularly important because it sets up C minor and C minor is very, very important because it resolves (takes us back) to G major. Following this type of logic, bars 5 and 6 of All Dr. Harris Children Got Rhythm are significant. The other 6 bars are G major. To prove my point, I ask that you please consult the Charlie Parker Omnibook and look at several of his solos on Rhythm Changes. Pay particular attention to his playing on bar 6 of each A section.

Navigating the Be-boppers Harmonic Galaxy by Brian Lillos

638

With the concept of harmonic reduction in mind I started to analyze a great many bop tunes and jazz standards. I was looking for an abbreviated or more simplified harmonic progression to which I could apply my bop scales and also any snags or hooks or significant harmonic movement I needed to negotiate. One of my first bop tunes after Rhythm Changes was the bop anthem Constipation. The original chord progression is as follows:

Navigating the Be-boppers Harmonic Galaxy by Brian Lillos

639

My harmonic reductions looks like this:

What first startled me when I was improvising on my simplified version of Constipation was bar 2 and bars 21 through 24. What commonality was I going to find to handle these two spots in the tune. Bars 1 and 2 share the same diminished 7th. Bars 17 through 20 and bars 21 through 24 share the same diminished 7th. This is significant because it means the dominant 7th chords are related. This is where a deeper level understanding the diminished theory began. If chords share the same diminished arpeggio then they are related. If they are related then navigation becomes easier.

Navigating the Be-boppers Harmonic Galaxy by Brian Lillos

640

For example:

In my initial journeys through the galaxy I was looking for I, V7, IV, and IV- and any modulations. Later, I started looking for significant harmonic movement that was specific to certain tunes or what I learned later were tune types. over a chord.) I became interested in connecting my be-bop scales. (Be-bop is a lot more than just playing the right bop scale I became interested in moving from one chord to another in a logical and melodic fashion. I became interested in chord inversions because my instrument has a limited range. I became interested in voice leading (ways in which to introduce tension and resolve it logically). another and why. I became interested in the way chords moved from one place to My first journey of this nature was to look at bars 3 and 4 as well as

bars 7 and 8 of Lovers No More. I learned that the tune actually started on the IV chord, moved to the flat VII7, then to I, then to flat VI7 and then to V7. Melodically, the tune enjoyed the sound of the tritone. In my improvisation I had the option of playing bop scales over the aforementioned bars:

Navigating the Be-boppers Harmonic Galaxy by Brian Lillos

641

Or using these scales as harmonic anticipation or approaches to targets in my improvisation:

Or doing the bop thing and looking for the tritone voice lead wherever musically feasible and doing something like this:

Navigating the Be-boppers Harmonic Galaxy by Brian Lillos

642

Later, I became interested in the diatonic and non-diatonic microcosm, the thing I initially had rejected. I was becoming fascinated with it because I understood chord function and the hierarchy inherent in be-bop harmony. I had learned these concepts through understanding diminished relations. Here is what I think and play now: Bella by Barlight.

The further one delves into the be-boppers galaxy, the more one realizes that the diminished 7th is the axis upon which all is built. The diminished arpeggio gives us 2 Further, secondary tritones, 4 related dominants, and I and V7 in the same scale.

dominants are a semi-tone away, altered can be explained as the tritones minor, and augmented is diatonic to harmonic minor. For the be-bopper, diminished is the axis upon which all is built. All the best in your travels through the galaxy. Here are some solos of mine which I believe are an expansion of Charlie Parkers language: Try them along with original recordings of Charlie Parker. As well try them against Jamey Aebersolds Play Along Series. Volume 6, All Bird. You will have to slow down the rhythm track for Confirmation, and Yardbird Suite however, the Rhythm Changes solo works best at a fast tempo so track 10 on Volume 6 will suffice. Volume 43, track 4 is acceptible for the solo on Night in Tunisia but is even better if you can speed up the rhythm track. Volume 94, Hot House, track 7 is fine for the solo on What is this thing Called Love however, it may also have to be slowed down.

Navigating the Be-boppers Harmonic Galaxy by Brian Lillos

643

Solo on Confirmation:

Navigating the Be-boppers Harmonic Galaxy by Brian Lillos

644

Navigating the Be-boppers Harmonic Galaxy by Brian Lillos

645

Solo on Yardbird Suite:

Navigating the Be-boppers Harmonic Galaxy by Brian Lillos

646

Navigating the Be-boppers Harmonic Galaxy by Brian Lillos

647

Solo on Rhythm Changes

Navigating the Be-boppers Harmonic Galaxy by Brian Lillos

648

Navigating the Be-boppers Harmonic Galaxy by Brian Lillos

649

Navigating the Be-boppers Harmonic Galaxy by Brian Lillos

650

Navigating the Be-boppers Harmonic Galaxy by Brian Lillos

651

Solo on Night in Tunisia

Navigating the Be-boppers Harmonic Galaxy by Brian Lillos

652

Navigating the Be-boppers Harmonic Galaxy by Brian Lillos

653

Solo on What Is This Thing Called Love

Navigating the Be-boppers Harmonic Galaxy by Brian Lillos

654

Brian Lillos can be reached at www.BrianLillos.com


Navigating the Be-boppers Harmonic Galaxy by Brian Lillos 655

Forward (2nd edition)


by Tommy Banks
Pedagogy: A Canadian Perspective is one of the most important Jazz Works ever to come from Canada. In it, Brian Lillos has captured the essence of "The Community for Learning" that is so precious to jazz musicians in Canada. The scope of the text, both in content and authorship, is typical of Brian's exhaustive work, and illustrative of his collaborative and synergistic approach to everything he does. He is an unique musician; a first-rate player, world-class teacher, scholar, administrator, jazz advocate, and respected visionary in his community. I don't think theres anybody else in Canada who could have pulled this off. The contributions to this book are from some of the best minds in music education. The collective experience and wisdom of these authors will, if taken and applied, benefit every conscientious music educator, as they have over many years benefited me.