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Radiography 50 Question Quiz

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X-rays and Gamma rays: Always travel in a straight line Can be influenced by an electrical field Can be influenced by a magnetic field None of the above

Who is given credit for the discovery of X-ray? Henri Becquerel Wilhelm Roentgen Marie Curie Pierre Curie

Who is given credit for the discovery of radioactive materials? Henri Becquerel Wilhelm Roentgen Marie Curie Pierre Curie

Newtons Inverse Square Law is useful in radiography because it indicates how the radiation intensity is affected by: Radioactive decay Distance from the source The size of the source

None of the above

When penetrating radiation is directed at a material, the radiation intensity decreases: Decreases exponentially with increasing material thickness Increase linearly with increasing material thickness Decrease linearly with increasing material thickness None of the above

X-rays and Gamma rays are a form of: Light Particle radiation Electromagnetic radiation Both B and C

X-rays and Gamma rays have significant penetrating power due to their: Short wavelength Medium wavelength Long wavelength Wide range of wavelengths

Which of the following is not a strength of radiographic inspection? It is not limited to material type It can be used to inspect assembled components It can detect surface and subsurface features Access to both side of the test sample is required

When using geometric magnefication to produce a radiograph, the penumbra will be reduced by: A longer exposure

A faster film speed A smaller source spot size More X-ray energy

10

The rate at which a radioactive isotope changes to a more stable atom is know as the: Isotope decay rate Half-life Activity Attenuation

11

X-rays and Gamma rays are often referred to as photons because: They possess a charge They have mass They occur as small packets of energy None of the above

12

X-rays and Gamma rays present a health risk because they are a form of ionizing radiation, which means that the radiation has enough energy to: Vibrate water molecules and generate heat Break chemical bonds Break physical bonds None of the above

13

There are four types of radiation-matter interactions that can contribute to the total attenuation. These are: Compton scattering, pair production, photoelectric absorption, rayleigh scattering Compton scattering, electron exchange, photoelectric absorption, rayleigh scattering

Electron exchange, pair production, photoelectric absorption, rayleigh scattering None of the above

14

Attenuation of radiation is due to: Absorption Scattering Radioactive decay Both A and B

15

The number of X-ray or Gamma photons that are transmitted through a material depends on the: Energy of the photons Thickness of the material Atomic number of the material All of the above

16

Ionizing radiation can be used in industrial radiography because the health hazards: Have been eliminated with controls and procedures Are minimized through controls and procedures Are worth the risk Are being ignored

17

X-rays and Gamma rays: Are both affected by radioactive decay Are both produced by a radioactive atom Have completely different properties Differ only in their source The factor that indicates how much attenuation will take

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place per centimeter is known as the: Mass attenuation coefficient Linear attenuation coefficient Decay rate Atomic number

19

Which two types of radiation-matter interactions account for the majority of attenuation in typical industrial radiography? Compton Scattering and photoelectric absorption Compton Scattering and pair production Pair production and photoelectric absorption None of the above

20

The thickness of any given material where 50% of the incident energy has been attenuated is known as the: Half-value layer Linear attenuation coefficient Decay rate Mass attenuation coefficient

21

Thin sheets of lead foil in contact with the film during exposure increase the film density because: They act as a filter to harden the radiation beam They reduce the amount of scatter radiation Incident radiation liberates electrons which help to expose the film None of the above

22

Two of the more common industrial Gamma-ray sources are: Cobalt-60 and iridium-192

Cobalt-60 and plutonium-240 Plutonium-240 and uranium-222 Iridium-192 and Lead-102

23

A specific radioactive source will always produce gamma rays at the same: Intensity Activity Energy levels None of the above

24

On a film radiograph, an area of high density in the test component will appear: Lighter than the surrounding area Darker than the surrounding area More defined than the surrounding area Less defined than the sorrounding area

25

After traveling through two half-value layers, the incident radiation has been reduced to: 50% 35% 20% None of the above

26

In comparison with lower-voltage radiographs, high voltage radiographic images have: Less contrast sensitivity Greater contrast sensitivity Greater amounts of scatter radiation relative to primary beam intensity Less latitude

27

A radiograph made with an exposure of 8 mAm produces a density of 1.8. The sensitometric curve shows a difference in relative exposure between a density of 1.8 and the target density of 2.5 is 4. What must the new exposure time be to produce a radiograph with a density of 2.5? 4 mAminutes 2 mAminutes 32 mAminutes None of the above

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The amount of geometric unsharpness in a radiograph is affected by: The source to film distance The source to object distance The size of the source All of the above

29

Radiation beam filters are sometime used in X-ray radiography to: Remove some of the low energy radiation to increase definition To remove some of the low energy radiation to increase contrast sensitivity Remove some of the low energy radiation to reduce definition Both A and B

30

Collimators are used to: Reduce the radiation beam spread Filter the radiation beam Increase film latitude Decrease film latitude

31

Undercut is the loss of resolution at a sharp, thickness transition area due to: Scattering within the part Backscatter Sidescatter Scattering within the film

32

Bremsstrahlung production of X-rays produces radiation that is composed of: A small number of very defined energies A continuous spectrum of energies over some range Radiation of only one energy None of the above

33

X-ray generators produce radiation through: Bremsstrahlung processes K-shell emmission processes Radioactive decay Both A and B

34

Manmade sources of radioactive sources are produced by: By splitting the nucleus of atoms in the source material Adding electrons to the source material Introducing an extra neutron to the atoms of the source material None of the above

35

Radiographic contrast describe: The sharpness of lines in a radiograph The differences in photographic density in a radiograph The average photographic density in a radiograph

The difference in density between two different radiographs

36

Unexposed X-ray film is comprised of a plastic, transparent base coated with an emulsion containing radiation-sensitive particle known as: Metalic silver crystals Silver halide grains Both A and B Neither A or B

37

Exposure to ionizing radiation can be limited: With the use of shielding By increasing distance form the source By limiting the time exposed to the radiaiton All of the above

38

Stationary lab or shop X-ray systems usually rely on what to limit exposure to the radiation? Distance controls Time limits Shielding All of the above

39

Which of the following does not affect radiographic contrast? Attenuation differences in the component being inspected The wavelength of the radiaiton used The amount of scattered radiation The level of current used for the exposure

40

Film contrast is determined by: The type of film used

The process by which the film was developed The radiation energy used Both A and B

41

The drive cable of a gamma ray exposure device (camera) allows the radiographer to: Turn on and shut off the gamma rays from a safe distance Adjust the position of the camera from a safe distance Move the source in and out of the camera while maintaining a safe distance None of the above

42

Lowering the energy of the radiation used to produce a radiograph will generally result in: Less latitude Higher contrast sensitivity A Longer exposure time All of the above

43

When flaws are in unknown locations, radiography is best suited for the detection of: Volumetric defects such as porosity Tight linear defects such as cracks Material delaminations The flaw type does not matter

44

The main advantage of real-time radiography over film is: Higher image contrast sensitivity Inspection can be performed more rapidly Higher image definition Lower equipment costs

45

Image quality indicators (IQIs) provide information about the level of: Resolution and contrast sensitivity Resolution and film latitude Contrast sensitivity and latitude Contrast sensitivity only

46

Image quality indicators are usually placed: Anywhere on the back side of the film On the front side of the film near the primary area of interest On the front side of the test component in an area of similar thickness to the primary area of interest On the back side of the test component in the area of interest

47

Radiographic inspection should be used for crack detection only when: The crack is large The test componet is a casting The test component is a weldment The orientation of the crack is known

48

Computed tomography X-ray techniques allow the test component to be: Viewed in various cross-sectional slices Viewed from different angles Analyzed for chemical composition None of the above

49

Higher energy radiation will have more: Speed

Incident Intensity Penetrating power Both B and C

50

The target of an X-ray tube is often made out of tungsten becuase: It has a high atomic mass which will result in more X-rays being generated due to atomic particle interactions It is an inexpensive material that is easy to machine It have very high thermal conductivity which makes it easy to cool None of the above

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