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TN_SS001_E1_0

NE System Structure

Course Objectives:
Understand the working principle of the ZXWN MSCS and MGW Understand the hardware structure of the ZXWN MSCS and MGW Understand the software structure of the ZXWN MSCS and MGW Master the networking configuration of the ZXWN MSCS and MGW Master the board structure of the ZXWN MSCS and MGW Master the hardware cable configuration of the ZXWN MSCS and MGW

Contents
1 MSC Server System Architecture ........................................................................................................1 1.1 System Background ...................................................................................................................... 1 1.2 MSC Server Features ................................................................................................................... 1 1.3 Main Functions of MSC Server .................................................................................................... 2 2 MSC Server Working Principle .............................................................................................................5 2.1 System Working Principle............................................................................................................. 5 2.2 Hardware Structure........................................................................................................................ 8 2.3 Software Structure ....................................................................................................................... 10 2.4 System Networking Configuration ............................................................................................. 15 2.4.1 Networking Mode.............................................................................................................. 15 2.4.2 Physical Indices ................................................................................................................ 20 2.4.3 System Configuration....................................................................................................... 21 2.5 Board Structure ............................................................................................................................ 26 2.5.1 Board Description and Structure .................................................................................... 26 2.5.2 Boards of the ZXWN MSCS............................................................................................ 29 2.5.3 Boards ................................................................................................................................ 31 2.6 Hardware Cables ......................................................................................................................... 40 2.6.1 System Clock Cable ......................................................................................................... 40 2.6.2 Line Reference Clock Cable ........................................................................................... 41 2.6.3 IP Access Cable ................................................................................................................ 41 2.6.4 Control Plane Interconnection Cable ............................................................................. 41 2.6.5 PD485 Cable ..................................................................................................................... 42 2.6.6 OMC Ethernet Cable ........................................................................................................ 42
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2.6.7 Fan Monitoring Cable ...................................................................................................... 42 2.6.8 External Cables and Components of the Cabinet ....................................................... 42 3 MGW System Principle ........................................................................................................................ 53 3.1 Main Functions of MGW in R4 ...................................................................................................53 3.2 System Working Principle ...........................................................................................................54 3.2.1 MGW System Background ............................................................................................. 54 3.2.2 Compliant Standards ....................................................................................................... 55 3.2.3 MGW Functions ................................................................................................................ 56 3.2.4 System Working Principle ............................................................................................... 56 3.3 Hardware Structure ......................................................................................................................57 3.3.1 MGW Hardware Principle ............................................................................................... 57 3.3.2 MGW Subsystem Functions ........................................................................................... 58 3.3.3 Functions of the Logical Modules of the MGW ............................................................ 62 3.4 Software Structure ........................................................................................................................69 3.4.1 BSP Subsystem................................................................................................................ 69 3.4.2 Operating Subsystem ...................................................................................................... 70 3.4.3 Database Subsystem ...................................................................................................... 70 3.4.4 Bearer Subsystem ........................................................................................................... 70 3.4.5 Microcode Subsystem ..................................................................................................... 71 3.4.6 Signaling Subsystem ....................................................................................................... 71 3.4.7 System Control Subsystem ............................................................................................ 71 3.4.8 Network Management Subsystem................................................................................. 72 3.4.9 PP Subsystem .................................................................................................................. 72 3.4.10 CS User Plane Subsystem ........................................................................................... 73 3.5 System Networking Configuration .............................................................................................73 3.5.1 Different Networking Modes of the MGW ..................................................................... 73
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3.5.2 System Configuration....................................................................................................... 75 3.5.3 Example ............................................................................................................................. 83 3.6 Board Structure ............................................................................................................................ 85 3.6.1 MGW Boards ..................................................................................................................... 85 3.7 Hardware Cable ......................................................................................................................... 104 3.7.1 System Clock Cable ....................................................................................................... 104 3.7.2 Reference Clock Cable .................................................................................................. 104 3.7.3 IP Access Cable .............................................................................................................. 105 3.7.4 Control Plane Interconnection Cable ........................................................................... 105 3.7.5 PD485 Cable ................................................................................................................... 105 3.7.6 OMC Ethernet Cable ...................................................................................................... 105 3.7.7 Fan Monitoring Cable..................................................................................................... 106 3.7.8 External Cables and Components of the Cabinet ..................................................... 106 4 Hardware Configuration Instance .................................................................................................... 117 4.1 MSC Server System Configuration ......................................................................................... 117 4.1.1 Configuration Calculation of Boards ............................................................................ 117 4.1.2 Board Quantity Calculation Method ............................................................................. 117 4.1.3 Typical Single Shelf Configuration ............................................................................... 118 4.1.4 Typical Single Rack Configuration ............................................................................... 119 4.2 MGW System Configuration..................................................................................................... 120 4.2.1 VMGW Typical Configuration........................................................................................ 120 4.2.2 GMGW Typical Configuration ....................................................................................... 123 Appendix A Terms ...................................................................................................................................127 Appendix B Abbreviations ....................................................................................................................129

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1 MSC Server System Architecture


1.1 System Background
The ZXWN system adopts the architecture of integrated management and distributed processing, which boasts powerful processing capability and facilitates the control and management of the large-capacity mobile network. The ZXWN system boasts flexible networking, so smooth increase of the processing capability can be implemented, and the flexible and economical network optimization plan can be provided for operators. The ZXWN system adopts the ZET all IP unified platform, which is the next-generation platform adopted by ZTE to improve its market competitive power. This platform adopts the leading IP switching technology, improving the integration level of the system and the processing capability of the board, providing the QoS guarantee technology, improving the performance-to-price ratio of the system, and facilitating fusion of the fixed and mobile NGN networks. Under the all-IP unified platform, different functional Network Elements (NE) can be created by combining different boards and functional software, so the NE upgrade can be implemented only through changing hardware boards and upgrading the software. This platform can be used for all the core equipment and the RNC/BSC equipment of 3G WCDMA, CDMA2000 and TD-SCDMA, NGN SS/TG/AG equipment and upgrade and improvement of the existing 2G equipment.

1.2 MSC Server Features


The ZXWN MSCS system implements the functions of the Mobile Switching Center Server (MSC Server), the Visitor Location Register (VLR) and the Service Switching Point (SSP). The ZXWN MSCS system supports the Media Gateway Control Function (MGCF), co-existence of the MGCF and the GMSC Server, and smooth upgrading to the MGCF from the MSC Server.

Being the core of the CN system, the MSCS controls Mobile Stations (MS) within its coverage and implements speech channel switching. The MSCS also serves as an interface between mobile communication systems and circuit switching networks such as PSTN, ISDN and PSPDN. It implements functions such as network interface, common channel system and billing. Also, it manages SS7, auxiliary

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radio resources and mobility management between RNS and CN. To establish call routes to MSs, each MSCS can function as a Gateway MSCS (GMSCS).

The VLR is a database, storing the required information for the MSCS processing incoming and outgoing calls of MSs within its coverage, such as subscriber numbers, ID of the location area where subscribers are located, and services provided to subscribers. The SSP is a service switching point of the intelligent network, providing measures for identifying the call request processing of the CAMEL OSS service, interacting with the MSC Server call processing and call services, modifying call/connection processing function as required, and processing requests of the intelligent services under the Service Control Point (SCP). The MGCF is the NE of implementing interworking between IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) services, and CS domain services and PSTN services, implementing conversation between the control signaling SIP in the IMS domain and the signaling BICC/ISUP in the CS domain.

The ZXWN MSCS system has advantages of modularized design, high reliability, and standard signaling interface. The ZXWN MSCS system is designed to provide solution to the products of the CN control plane of the UMTS system, supporting GSM CN, UMTS R99/R4-phase protocol and the related functions at the same time. It can also provide a complete evolution plan from the GSM CN to 3GPP 99, and then to 3GPP R4.

1.3 Main Functions of MSC Server


The ZXWN MSCS has the following functions:

Mobility management function Supports network attachment, location update and IMSI detachment of 2G and 3G subscribers; supports the roaming of a dual-mode terminal between the 2G network and 3G network; supports the authentication encryption arithmetic of the 2G network and 3G network as well as their mutual conversion.

Basic call function Supports various calls made between mobile subscribers and between a mobile subscriber and a PSTN subscriber.

Handoff function Supports various intra-system handoffs, relocations and inter-system handoffs, such as UMTS UMTS, GSM GSM and UMTSGSM.

Data service function


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Supports the circuit-type transparent and non-transparent data services of maximum 64kbps.

Short message service function Supports the subscribers. SMS originated and terminated by mobile

Multi-media service function Supports video telephone services between mobile terminals and between a mobile terminal and an ISDN terminal, SCUDIF function, and video telephone service decreasing to the voice service.

Supplementary service function Supports the abundant supplementary services, such as Calling Number Identification Presentation (CNIP), call forwarding, call deflection, call transfer, conference call, Advice Of Charge (AOC), priority call, Closed User Group (CUG), call holding and call waiting.

Monitoring function Provides CS lawful interface function, and supports monitoring on calls of the specified subscribers.

CAMEL function The ZXWN MSCS can act as a gsmSSP to access the gsmSCP, supporting CAMEL4 function at present.

Location service function Supports the standard interface with the GMLC, and various location services such as MO, MT and NI.

Multi-area-code networking function The ZXWN MSCS can simultaneously manage multiple local networks, which facilitates region networking adopted and can reduces the cost of network construction.

Dual-home networking function Supports dual-home networking of the MGW. Interworking between IMS and CS Supports the MGCF function, and combination of the GMSCServer and MGCF, which facilitates the interworking between IMS and CS.

The ZXWN MSCS system adopts fully distributed power system, and each board has its own power module to implement conversion from -48V power to the working power.

2 MSC Server Working Principle


2.1 System Working Principle
MSC Server (MSCS for short) is the core of the CN system. The MSCS is a function entity used to control and complete voice channel switching of MSs within its coverage, and serves as an interface between the mobile communication system and circuit switched networks such as PSTN, ISDN and PSPDN. It can implement network interface, public channel system and charging functions, and complete SS7 and auxiliary wireless resource management and mobility management between RNS and CN. In addition, to set up the call route to the MS, each MSCS can complete the gateway MSCS (GMSCS) function. The MSCS also has the visitor location register (VLR) function and implements the service switching point (SSP) function for intelligent calls, with the advantages of modular design, high reliability and signaling interface standardization. The VLR is a database containing the information that the MSCS needs to retrieve for managing incoming and outgoing calls of the MS in its coverage, such as user number, location area identifier and services provided for users. The SSP is the intelligent network service switching point. It provides the means to identify and process CAMEL OSS service call request, interacts with MSCS call processing and call service logic, modifies call/connection processing function according to requirements and processes intelligent services under the control of the service control point (SCP). Fig. 2.1-1 shows the working principle of the MSCS. In this figure, the MSCS consists of various signaling interface boards and MP pool. The interface board is used to interconnect with the signaling network. The SPB is used to access the SS7 network. The APB is used to access the ATM signaling network. The IPI is used to access the SIGTRAN signaling network. The MP pool is used to process upper-layer signaling and services. The SPB provides E1/T1 interface, processes MTP2 signaling, and forwards MTP3 signaling packet through the FE interface to the signaling MP for processing. Through the interface provided by the SPB, the MSCS can implement the interconnection with the BSC, HLR, STP, SCP, other MSCS and SC.

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The APB provides the STM-1 interface, processes ATM adaptation and broadband SS7 underlying signaling such as AAL5-SAR, SSCOP and SSCF, and forward MTP3b signaling packet through the FE interface to the signaling MP for processing. Through the interface provided by the APB, the MSCS can implement the interconnection between the RNC and MGW (when using the ATM as the signaling bearer). The IPI provides FE interface, implements IP packet forwarding of the SIGTRAN underlying signaling interface, and forwards the SCTP packet received from the IP network to the signaling MP for processing. Through the IPI board, the MSCS can interconnect with the MGW, other MSCS and SG. The IPI board processes IP packets with the network processor, supporting the line rate. After receiving route packets, the IPI board forwards route packet to the RPU. The RPU maintains the routing table.
JF C ent er
FTP or FTAM

N M S
Q 3 or C O BR A

O M M C l i ent

O M M C l i ent
FE

ZXW NM SC S

FE

O M M Ser ver
FE

JF Ser ver
FE

Si gnal M P
FE

O M P
FE

R PU
FE

Ser vi ce M P
FE

U SI
FE

Sw i t ch
FE FE FE SYN Si gnal O ut put FE

SPB

APB

I PI

C LKG

E1/ T1

STM -1

FE

SYN Si gnal I nput

N O . 7 Si gnal l i ng N et w or k

ATM Si gnal N et w or k

Si gTr an N et w or k

BI TS SYN Si gnal I nput

Fig. 2.1-1 Working Principle of the MSCS

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The CLKG board is a clock board, providing stratum-2 enhanced clock. The CLKG board can get locking clock signals from the BITS or SPB, provide 8 kHz/s clock reference signals for the SPB, APB and IPI, and ensure the synchronization of the clock of the whole equipment and the external network. The MP pool includes various MP boards. In physical, they are the same board. In logical, they are divided into OMMP, service MP and signaling MP, with different functions. The signaling MP needs to process the signaling from various interfaces: Narrowband SS7: MTP3, SCCP, TCAP, TUP and ISUP. Broadband SS7: MTP3B, B-SCCP. A interface access signaling: BSSAP. Iu interface access signaling: RANAP. BICC signaling. H.248 signaling. SIGTRAN signaling: SCTP, M3UA, M2UA and STC. After receiving the signaling packet from the signaling interface board, the signaling MP processes the packet layer by layer according to the signaling protocol stack, and then sends it to the application layer signaling or service MP. The service MP processes various application layer signaling: mobility management signaling, call processing signaling, SMS processing signaling, MAP signaling and CAP signaling. It also has charging, call observation and statistics functions. When the service MP needs to send signaling, it transmits the signaling packet to the signaling MP. The signaling MP forwards the packet layer by layer according to the signaling protocol stack, and finally forwards it to other NEs through the signaling interface boards. The RPU is responsible for maintaining the routing table of the whole NE. When the IPI board receives a route packet, it forwards the packet to the RPU for processing. The RPU refreshes its own routing table in real time, creates a forwarding table according to the routing table, and synchronizes the forwarding table to the IPI boards.

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NE System Structure

The OMMP is the OMM Server maintenance proxy, saving configuration information and version file of the equipment. It also serves as the information channel between the boards and the OMM Server to transmit alarm information and statistics information. The OMM Server is the maintenance center of the whole system. The OMM Client is the client of the maintenance system. With the client/server architecture, the OMM Server saves the configuration data of the whole equipment, and provides various maintenance functions such as network configuration, alarm management, performance statistics, signaling tracing and service observation. The OMM Server provides NEF function, and interconnects with the upper network management system through Q3 or CORBA interface. To ensure the reliability of charging, the system provides a JF Server, which is used to collect CDRs generated by the service MP and signaling MP, and transmit the CDRs to the charging center through FTP or FTAM interface. The USI board is a charging information interface board. The MPs transmit CDRs to the JF Server through the USI board. The interface boards, MP and USI boards are connected through a high speed switch to ensure the information transfer between them. In Fig. 2.1-1, the MSCS is a distributed processing platform, with powerful expansion capability. The MP and interface boards are connected through a switch, so the maximum capacity of the whole system depends on the number of ports of the switch. The switch is a 28+2 FE switch. One switch can provide up to 28 ports. When the number of ports is insufficient, it is possible to cascade a 46+2 FE switch with up to 11 28+2 FE switches (each lower-level FE switch is cascaded with the upper-level FE switch through four FE Trunkings) to form a level-3 switching network providing up to 1128=308 FE interfaces. This can sufficiently satisfy the application requirement of abundant MP boards and interface boards.

2.2 Hardware Structure


The MSCS consists of the broadband/narrowband signaling access board, signaling link layer processing board, upper-layer signaling MP, service MP (including foreground distributed database) and background commercial database (ORACLE or SQL Server). The MSCS provides the call control and mobility management functions of the original
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MSC, and grooms local control domain MS originated call and terminated transactions: call transaction, SMS transaction and LCS transaction. The MSCS generally works with the VLR to save the MS user data within the local control domain. In the CS-MGW application, the MSCS controls the part which holds the media channel in the call status. The GMSCS is used to groom the traffic between mobile subscribers and the PSTN or other carriers network. The (G)MSCS provides multiple interfaces, and supports only three basic access modes, ATM, IP and E1. According to actual networking conditions, one mode or a combination of two or three modes can be used flexibly. In hardware, the MSCS uses the control shelf BCTC as its shelf. To satisfy specific network requirements, the resource access shelf BUSN can be used. Fig. 2.2-1 shows the structure of the MSCS. The MSCS consists of three types of units, interface unit, switching unit and processing unit. The interface unit provides various external interfaces of the system and implements the L2 protocol processing. In general, the interface unit involves the L1 physical interface and related L2 protocol processing. The processing unit completes the upper-layer protocol processing. The switching unit is used to connect the interface unit to the processing unit and implement the interconnection among multiple shelves. With a comprehensive consideration of system requirements, the MSCS shall be able to provide these external interfaces: 1. ATM interface: In physical, it can adopt the E1/IMA or STM-1 optical access modes. 2. 3. IP interface: In physical, it adopts 100M/gigabit Ethernet access mode. SS7 interface: In physical, it adopts the E1/SDH access mode to complete the L2 protocol processing on the logical interface board. The upper-layer protocol is implemented through a high performance main processing board (MPB).

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NE System Structure

SMP

SMP

...

SMP

CL KCLKG

UIM Other control bus Other control bus To background Data stream Ethernet Data stream Ethernet Control stream Control Ethernet stream Ethernet TDM BUS TDM BUS

SPB(SS7) SPB(SS7) )

SPB OMP

BSL APB

OMC MP MNIC

NIC CHUB

Fig. 2.2-1

Hardware Structure of the MSC Server

2.3 Software Structure


The MSCS software system consists of nine subsystems: BSP driving subsystem, operating subsystem, system control subsystem, database subsystem, bearer subsystem, microcode subsystem, signaling subsystem, service subsystem and network management subsystem. Fig. 2.3-1 shows the relationship among these software subsystems.

Network management subsystem

Service subsystem

Signaling subsystem

Bearer subsystem

Operating subsystem BSP driving subsystem Hardware platform

System control subsystem Database subsystem

Microcode subsystem

Fig. 2.3-1

Software Structure of the ZXWN MSCS

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The following describes these software subsystems and their relationship: 1. BSP subsystem The BSP subsystem boots up and drives the hardware of the whole system. In specific, it involves three aspects of functions, Boot, CPU minimum system and hardware driving. To keep the software subsystems above the operating system independent of the hardware, the BSP can: 1) Shield hardware operation details for the upper-layer software module, abstract hardware functions, and provide hardware logic function plane for other software modules only. 2) Provide a unified and encapsulated function interface for the upper-layer software subsystem especially the real-time operating system to shield unnecessary parameters from the upper-layer software. 3) Support online and offline test of hardware boards and provide necessary interfaces. 2. Operating subsystem The operating system runs over the BSP subsystem and under all other subsystems, shields all device driving interfaces from user processes, and provides single processor based services including process dispatching, timer, memory management, file system and multi-processor based inter-process communication. 3. Database subsystem The database subsystem runs over the operating system. It is responsible for managing physical resources of the ZXWN MSCS NE and configuration information about the service, signaling and protocol. In addition, it provides a database access interface for other subsystems. The database is a relational database, which consists of a foreground database and a background database. 4. Bearer subsystem The bearer subsystem runs over the operating system and database
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subsystem. It provides ATM, IP and TDM bearer services for the service subsystem, signaling subsystem, OAM and network management subsystem. It manages external IP and ATM interfaces of the NE and provides IP packet and ATM cell communication between NEs. In addition, it manages the internal user plane communication interface based on the database configuration data, and provides user plane IP packet communication among the boards inside the NE. 5. Microcode subsystem The microcode subsystem is the extension of the bearer subsystem. Its functions are the same as those of the bearer subsystem. The microcode subsystem runs on the micro engine of the network processor, and is independent of the operating system. It provides interfaces for the bearer subsystem. 6. Signaling subsystem The signaling subsystem runs over the operating system, database subsystem and bearer subsystem, implements narrowband SS7 signaling, broadband SS7 signaling, bearer and independent call control (BICC) signaling, IP signaling (SIGTRAN) and gateway control signaling (H.248), and provides services for the service processing subsystem. The broadband, narrowband SS7 signaling link layer protocol, MTP2, SSCOP and SSCF are processed on the signaling interface board. The signaling of MTP3 or upper part is processed in the signaling processing board. The signaling processing board supports 1+1 active/standby function. The signaling link layer implements the link level load sharing. In case of large capacity of the system, it supports loading sharing of multiple pairs of signaling processing boards. The narrowband SS7 supports 64 kbps, 2 Mbps and n64 kbps signaling links. In addition, the multi-signaling point function over different signaling networks is supported. 7. System control subsystem The system control subsystem runs over the operating system and database subsystem. It is responsible for the monitoring, starting and version downloading of the whole system. The core processing board,
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such as MP board and switching network board, shall support 1+1 active/standby function. The 1+1 active/standby processing board transfers active/standby information through the private active/standby channel instead of the control plane channel. The system control provides a function for monitoring process execution time. 8. Service subsystem The service processing subsystem implements various services and VLR functions provided by the MSC Server. As the core of the MSCS Server, it runs over the operating system, database subsystem, bearer subsystem and signaling subsystem. Basic switching module of mobile service subscribers: It completes the mobile subscriber paging access, RAB assignment, call connection, traffic control and GMSC function, and provides fixed network (PSTN, ISDN and PSPDN) oriented call connection functions. Mobility management and security management module: It completes location area registration and validity check of mobile subscribers. Relocation processing module: It completes the service processing when the local area of mobile subscribers changes during the call. Supplementary service module: It is used to register, delete, activate, deactivate, and query supplementary services, and add or get password. SMS processing module: It completes the SMS transmitting and receiving processing. In addition, it completes information interaction and implements various MAP services. The user related information is queried from the DB module, and the DB module is notified of the latest user data for updating. The mobile intelligent service module implements the CAMEL function and upgrades the MSC Server to be an SSP. It consists of gsmCCF module, gsmSSF module, gsmSRF and smsCCF modules. 9. Network management subsystem The network management subsystem runs over all subsystems. The operation and maintenance personnel configure, analyze, charge, diagnose and test the equipment running in the network and get alarm
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and statistics data through network management subsystem. The network management subsystem consists of foreground module, server module, client module and charging module. The foreground part is resident on each managed NE. It works with the operation and maintenance server to provide NE operation information interaction, including alarm information collection and report, alarm information diagnosis and synchronization, command man-machine command execution, data execution, configuration The management foreground

processing, performance statistics data collection and various services signaling information collection. program communicates through the Ethernet port and network management server, responds to the instructions sent from the server, and returns the results. The server module is the core of the operation and maintenance subsystem. It resolutes and executes various operation instructions sent from the client. After the execution, the instructions are sent to the foreground. The foreground feedback results are sent to the client. This module implements the network management function, network proxy function, NE integration and adaptation function, upper network management access function and FTP server function. It is a network management function center to implement the performance management, configuration management, alarm management, network diagnosis and local maintenance function. In addition, it supports the network management cascading, integrated control and reverse operation. The client module is the user interface of the operation and maintenance subsystem, which provides a visual interface for the client. It operates and controls various NE maintenance interfaces, forms operation commands and sends them to the server. Charging management module: It collects and transmits CDRs. According to functions, it involves foreground original CDR collection and transmission, original CDR collection processing and backup and CDR transmission. The MSC Server provides accurate and detailed charging data instead of completing the charging function by itself.
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2.4 System Networking Configuration


2.4.1 Networking Mode
2.4.1.1 As a VMSC/GMSC Sever According to the control and bearer separation principle, the MSC NE is separated into two NEs, MSCS and MGW. The MSCS is responsible for implementing the service and call control function, and the MGW is responsible for the bearer control function. The MSCS can serve as a VMSC Server used for accessing mobile subscribers. The MSCS also can serve as a GMSC Server to interconnect with other networks, for example, to interconnect with the PSTN. The related MGW also can be used as an MGW and GMGW. Fig. 2.4-1 shows the networking model of the MSCS as a VMSC/GMSC Server:
IW/GMSC SC MAP MAP HLR MAP MAP SCP CAP CAP

Iu/A MSC SERVER Mc BSS MGW Nb MGW Nb GMGW Mc Nc GMSC SERVER Mc

Ai

UTRAN

PSTN

Fig. 2.4-1

Typical Networking of the VMSC/GMSC Server

When the MSCS serves as a VMSC Server, it has these interfaces: 1. Iu/A interface to the UTRAN/BSS. It is used to provide mobile subscriber access function. The interface between the VMSC Server and the UTRAN is the Iu interface. The underlying bearer is AAL5/ATM. It supports service and call related control signaling. The interface between the VMSC Server and the BSS is the A interface. The underlying bearer is TDM. It supports service and call related control signaling. 2. MAP interface to the IW/GMSC+SC. The underlying bearer is based on TDM.
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It is used to send and receive SMS related signaling. 3. MAP interface to the HLR. The underlying bearer is based on TDM. It is used to get route information about the terminating user. 4. CAP interface to the SCP. The underlying bearer is based on TDM. It is used interact with the SCP when users trigger intelligent services. In this case, the VMSC Server has the embedded SSP function. 5. Nc interface to the GMSC Server and other VMSC Server. The underlying bearer can be based on TDM/ATM/IP. It is used to transmit semi call signaling for inter-office calls, fixed-to-mobile calls and mobile-to-fixed calls, and to transmit BICC signaling in the R4 networking. 6. Mc interface to the MGW. The underlying bearer can be based on ATM/IP. It is used to transmit standard H248 signaling. One MSCS can manage multiple MGWs. When the MSCS serves as a GMSC Server, it has these interfaces: 1. MAP interface to the IW/GMSC+SC. The underlying bearer is based on TDM. It is used to send and receive SMS related signaling. 2. MAP interface to the HLR. The underlying bearer is based on TDM. It is used to get route information about the terminating user. 3. CAP interface to the SCP. The underlying bearer is based on TDM. It is used to interact with the SCP when users trigger intelligent services. In this case, the VMSC Server has embedded SSP function. 4. Nc interface to the GMSC Server and other VMSC Server. The underlying bearer can be based on TDM/ATM/IP. It is used to transmit semi call signaling for inter-office calls, fixed-to-mobile calls and mobile-to-fixed calls, and to transmit BICC signaling in the R4 networking. 5. Mc interface to the GMGW. The underlying bearer can be based on ATM/IP. It is used to transmit standard H248 signaling. 6. Ai interface to the PSTN. The underlying bearer is based on TDM. It is used to transmit inter-office TUP/ISUP signaling.

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2.4.1.2 As a TMSC Server The MSCS can serve as a TMSC Server in the network. In the large-area networking, the TMSC Server can transit the MSCS signaling in the local network, reducing the signaling traffic between MSCSs within the large area. It also can transit the signaling route between large areas. Fig. 2.4-2 shows the typical networking of the MSCS as a TMSC Server:
Nc

TMSC SERVER Nc Nc

TMSC SERVER Nc

MSC SERVER Mc MGW/ GMGW Mc Mc

MSC SERVER Mc

MSC SERVER Mc Mc

MGW Nb Large local network 1

MGW

GMGW Nb Large local network N

MGW

MGW Nb Large local network N+1

Fig. 2.4-2

Typical Networking of the TMSC Server

When the MSCS serves as TMSC Server, it has these interfaces: 1. Nc interface between MSCSs within the large area. The underlying layer can be based on ATM/IP. It is used to transit the signaling traffic between MSCSs within the large area. There is no direct signaling MSCS within the large area. The signaling is routed to the called MSCS through the TMSC Server. 2. Nc interface between TMSC Servers of other large area. The underlying layer can be based on ATM/IP. It is used to transit the signaling traffic between large areas. 2.4.1.3 Large-area Networking Mode In the R4 networking, the single MSCS equipment is separated into control plane based MSCS and bearer plane MGW. The MSCS is only responsible for processing the control plane signaling and service of the mobile network. The processing function is single and integrated. In this case, the capacity and integrity of the MSCS as
17

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independent equipment are greatly improved in comparison to those of the MSC with combined bearer and control. In the mobile networking planning, it is possible to promote the MSCS to regional or provincial network level. The same MSCS controls multiple small-capacity MGWs distributed in local networks and implements the access control of the UTRAN access network associated with the MGWs. For 3G R4, the evident difference is that the capacity and networking location of the MSCS exceed the local network, and the MSCS is endowed with the concept of cross-region management or virtual MSC. In R99, one local network has one or more MSC NEs, that is, the MSC only manages the resources of the local network. In R4, because the MSCS processing capability is enhanced, during the initial networking, one MSCS can manage the resources of multiple local networks, as shown in Fig. 2.4-3:

MSC SERVER/GMSC SERVER

Mc

Mc

Mc

MGW/ GMGW
A
Iu

Nb

MGW
Iu PSTN

GMGW

BSS

RNS

RNS

PSTN

Location network 1

Location network N

Fig. 2.4-3

Large-area Networking

2.4.1.4 Disaster Recovery Networking Mode The large-capacity MSCS has many advantages in networking. However, there are some problems. The centralized management of user information and service control significantly affects the network system, so the reliability of the centralized points of the large-capacity MSCS shall be enhanced. Otherwise significant influence may be caused if a large-capacity MSCS fails. In addition to improving the reliability of the MSCS, different networking modes can be used to improve the reliability of these NEs. For example, the multi-MSCS load sharing mode can be used, that is, these NEs work
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simultaneously in normal status. When an NE becomes abnormal, other NEs take over the services of the abnormal NE. The active/standby mode can also be adopted, that is, in normal status, the active NE is responsible for processing services, while the standby NE is not responsible for processing services. When the active NE fails, the standby NE can take over the services of the active NE immediately. In this way, the loss can be minimized. It is recommended to use the 1+1 backup mode. During the backup, the hot backup or warn backup mode can be used for data synchronization. For the GMSC Server, because the GMSC Server is generally configured in pairs, the backup is not needed. For the TMSC Server, it is the same. For the VMSC Server, because it works with the VLR to save user related data, and the RNC within the control area only communicates with this VMSC Server, once a fault occurs, all users within the control area of this VMSC Server cannot access services. Here, the active/standby MSCS refers to active/standby VMSC Server. Fig. 2.4-4 shows the networking:
H LR SC M AP C AP LSTP M AP/ C AP/ N c/ G s M AP SC P N c G s M AP/ C AP/ N c/ G s VM SC Ser ver N c N c I uC S M c R N C M G W M G W G M SC Ser ver SG SN TM SC Ser ver

M AP M AP

H LR

VM SC Ser ver 1

A BSC

VM SC Ser ver 2
M c Ai

Ai

PSTN -G W

Fig. 2.4-4

VMSC Server 1+1 Backup Networking

In this figure, the VMSC Server1 and VMSC Server2 are in 1+1 active /standby mode. Each NE is connected to these two VMSC Servers. For the SCCP signaling, the SCCP subsystem backup mode is used to implement the active/standby changeover, that is, the SCCP SSN of VMSC Server2 is configured as the standby SSN for the SCCP SSN of VMSC Server1. For the BICC traffic, TUP and ISUP traffic, the route backup mode
19

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can be used to configure the trunk circuit to VMSC Server2 as the backup route to VMSC Server1.

2.4.2 Physical Indices


MSC Server adopts 19" standard rack, with maximum internal space capacity of 42 U.

POWER DISTRIBUTE UNIT


ALM

Blank panel (1U) (1U) 2U Power subrack (2U) 1U Fan subrack (1U)

Service subrack (8U) 8U

1U Cable subrack (1U)

8U Service subrack (8U)

2000

Cable subrack (1U) 1U 1U Fan subrack (1U)


Service subrack (8U) 8U

1U Cable subrack (1U)

Service subrack (8U) 8U

Cable subrack (1U) 1U 1U Fan subrack (1U) Air filter

600
Maximum configuration for single rack is composed of four 8 U service shelves, one 2 U power shelf, four 1 U cabling shelves, three 1 U fan shelves and one 1 U blank panel. It totals to 42 U.
20

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The corresponding modules are configured in the cabinet, such as cabinet power inlet filter, a set of bus bar, rear horizontal cabling bracket.

The function of each part is as following:


Parts Functions The power shelf distributes the input -48V power to each shelf. The power shelf has the lightning proof and over-current protection functions, checks the input power voltage and the distributed output power statuses, and gives alarm signal if necessary. The power shelf also effectively monitors the rack running environment, fan heat dissipation system, access control etc., and reports through the RS485 interface It is composed of each kind of control board combined through the backplane. Control shelf In addition, the control sub rack also includes the shelf power filter, which is used to separate and filter -48V input power Provides forced air cooling for the equipment Used to arrange fiber, which is leaded to the two sides of the cabinet through each cable shelf under the control shelf Located at the internal side of the cabinet. The power is provided to each shelf through the bus bar Used to arrange the cables from the rear of the cabinet There are two combined filters on the top of the cabinet, which are used to filter the two lines of -48V external input power

Power shelf

Fan shelf Cable shelf

Bus bar Rear horizontal cable rack Cabinet power input filter

2.4.3 System Configuration


The MSCS supports multiple networking modes and flexible configuration. The following describes several typical system configurations. 2.4.3.1 Board Configuration Calculation Method See 3G CS user traffic model (see the appendix). The processing capacity of the boards is as follows: 1. Service processing unit: It supports 80,000 subscribers/MP.
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2.

Signaling processing unit: It supports 60,000 subscribers/MP or 10,000 trunks/MP.

3. 4.

Signaling service integrated processing unit: It supports 40,000 subscribers/MP. SPB: It supports 32 64 kbps/board.

1) IPI: It supports 80 Mbps signaling traffic/board. 2) APB: It supports 2 Mbps signaling traffic/board. For other boards, the calculation can be implemented according to the number of boards and applied resources. The specific calculation method is as follows: 1. VMSC NE calculation method: Suppose that the number of supported users is Nuser. Table 2.4-1 shows the required number of boards:

Table 2.4-1 Method for Calculating the Number of Boards Board Name Service processing unit Signaling processing unit Operation and Calculation Method Ncmp = 2 (Nuser /160,000) Note 1 Nsmp = 2 (Nuser / 120,000) Note 1 Description When the Ncmp serves as a GMSC, Ncmp = 2 (Nuser /250,000) The service processing unit can be combined with the signaling processing unit. Nump = 2 (Nuser / 80,000) A pair of OMMPs is always configured. Each shelf is always configured with a pair of UIM boards. The SPB is required only when the E1 interface needs to be provided. SPB Nspb = number of E1s/16 In general, the number of E1 interfaces determines the number of Nspb. At least two SPBs are needed. The APB is required only when the ATM Napb1 = Nuser/100,000 APB Napb2 STM-1s/2 = number of interface needs to be provided. The actual number shall be the maximum value between Napb1 and Napb2. At least two APBs are needed. Nipi1 = number of FEs/4 Nipi2 = traffic/80M 22 The IPI is required only when the IP interface needs to be provided. The actual number shall the maximum value between Nipi1 and Nipi2.

maintenance unit Universal interface board

Nomm = 2 Note 1 Nuim = number of shelves 2

IPI

Chapter Error! Use the Home tab to apply 1 to the text that you want to appear here. Error! Use the Home tab to apply 1,H1,Normal + Font: Helvetica,Bold,Space Before 12 pt,Not Bold, ,NMP Heading 1,app heading 1,l1,h1,1. heading 1,,Huvudrubrik,R1,H11,h11,heading 1TOC,NMP Heading1,Normal+Font:Helvetica,space bof..,h12,h13,h14,h15,h16,heading Board Name Calculation Method Description At least two IPIs are needed. Universal server interface board CLKG USI Route processing unit Nusi = 2 Nclkg = 2 Nusi = number of shelves Nrpu = 2 Note 1, Note 2 It is 2. It is always 2. It is always 1. A pair of RPUs are always configured. When the number of shelves is larger than or CHUB Nrpu = 0 or 2 equal to 3, the CHUB is used for the cascading of the shelves.
Note 1: 2 indicates that the board is in active/standby mode. Each MP board has two processing units. Note 2: The RPU and OMMP share one MP. One processing unit serves as the OMMP, and another processing unit serves as the RPU.

2.4.3.2 Typical Configuration of Single Shelf A standalone MSCS can be used to set up an office. When it serves as a VMSC Server, it supports up to 240,000 subscribers, as shown in Fig. 2.4-5:

FAN 1 O M M P 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

FAN 9

FAN 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 I P I U U S M M P P P B S P B C L K G C L K G U S I

O U U U U I M M M M M P M P P P P I P PO W ER
Fig. 2.4-5

U U I I M M PO W ER

M O N TO R

Typical Configuration of Single Shelf

In this configuration, the service processing unit and the signaling processing unit are combined to provide IP signaling interface and SS7 interface. If the MSCS serves as a GMSC Server, the configuration is the same. In this case, it supports up to 480,000 subscribers. 2.4.3.3 Typical Configuration of Single Rack One rack can be configured with up to three shelves. Fig. 2.4-6 shows the full
23

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configuration of single rack:

FAN 1 O M M P 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

FAN 9

FAN 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 I P I C U U U U L M M M M K P P P P G C L K G FAN 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 I P I U U U U U U M M M M M M P P P P P P FAN 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 S P B C U U U U H M M M M U P P P P B C H U B S P B S P B U S I

O U U U U I M M M M M P M P P P P I P FAN

U U I I M M FAN

U U U U U U I M M M M M M P P P P P P P I FAN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

U U I I M M FAN 8 9

U U U U U U S M M M M M M P P P P P P P B PO W ER
Fig. 2.4-6

U U I I M M PO W ER

M O N TO R

Typical Configuration of Single Rack

As shown in Fig. 2.4-6, 15 pairs of UMPs are configured to provide 15 8 = 1,200,000 subscribers. In addition, four IPI boards are configured to provide 16 FEs and support 320M IP signaling traffic. Four SPBs are configured to provide 4 16 = 64 E1 interfaces and support up to 16 2M signaling links or 4 64 = 256 signaling links. 2.4.3.4 Example Assumed that there is an office with 200,000 subscribers. This office needs to access 100,000 2G subscribers and 100,000 3G subscribers at the same time, of which 50% are intelligent users. In addition, the MSCS needs to serve as a GMSC Server. As shown in Fig. 2.4-7, the MSC Server needs to access both the RNS and the BSS. The MGW has a built-in SGW, and forwards the IuCS signaling to the MSC Server through SIGTRAN. The TUP and ISUP signaling of the Ai interface also can be
24

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forwarded to the MSC Server through SIGTRAN. The BSC transmits the signaling of the A interface to the MSC Server directly through E1. The MSC Server is connected to the STP to groom the MAP signaling, CAP signaling and BICC signaling to other NEs. To ensure the reliability, connect the MSC Server to two STPs, namely STP1 and STP2. Because the interconnection signaling traffic to the local HLR office direction is high, the direction interconnection with the HLR can be adopted.
SC H LR SC P

STP1

STP2

M SC S

U E N odeB U E R N C 1 M G W 1

G W 1 PSTN G W 2

U E

BTS

BSC

Fig. 2.4-7

Networking

According to the above configuration analysis, Table 2.4-2 shows the MSCS device configuration:

Table 2.4-2 Board Name BCTC Rack Shelf CLKG USI OMMP UMP 1 1 1 2 1 2 6 25

Board Configuration Qty

TN_SS001_E1_0

NE System Structure

Board Name SPB IPI 2 2

Qty

The application features are as follows: 1. 2. Simple and clear network structure. The MGW has a built-in SG. In this case, the MSCS needs to provide IP interface and TDM interface only. 3. High integration of the MSCS. The single shelf can implement functions.

2.5 Board Structure


2.5.1 Board Description and Structure
The MSCS consists of these units: T network switching unit, ATM switching unit, TC unit, MP unit, signaling processing unit (SPU), DT unit, resource board, clock unit, HMS unit and monitoring unit. According to the design of the MSCS, the user plane is separated from the control plane. From the perspective of the user plane, the MSCS consists of some interface boards and switching network, as well as some resource boards, as shown in Fig. 2.5-1.

Resource board

User interface board

Switching network

3G or 2G users 2 G: Trunk unit 3G: ATM interface


Fig. 2.5-1

The interface board implements the interconnection of user bearer streams between the MSCS and other node. Because the MSCS can serve as both the edge node (used as the GMSC to interconnect with the PSTN and ISDN; used as the VMSC to interconnect
26

User

Network interface board Trunk unit

PSTN Other MSNC ISDN

Composition of the MSCS User Plane

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with the UTRAN) and the internal node of the CN (used as the TMSC), the MSCS has these UNI side interface boards: trunk board (used to interconnect with the BSS), and ATM interface board (used to interconnect with the RNS), as well as NNI side interface board: trunk board used to interconnect with other MSCS, PSTN and ISDN. The MSCS also has resource board ASIG, which is used for the interaction between the network and users, including DTMF number receiving, ringing current and announcement function. In actual implementation, the ASIG board and the DT board are slot compatible. To implement circuit-type data services, the MSCS needs to interconnect with the packet network such as ISDN. Therefore, an interconnection unit is required to implement the protocol conversion of data services. The interconnection function is implemented through the interconnection board IWF. The switching network implements the switching of the user bearer streams between the interface boards. The user bearer streams include voice stream, data stream and multimedia stream. Because the interface to the RNS is the ATM interface, this system has two switching networks: narrowband switching network-T net and broadband switching network-ATM cell switching network. These two networks are interconnected through the TC unit. For the voice service, the bearer streams of the two switching networks are different. In the ATM switching network, the user bearer stream is AMR stream. In the T net, the user bearer stream is PCM stream. Therefore, the TC board is used to complete the mutual conversion of the AMR stream and PCM stream. Because the AMR stream is borne over AAL2, one end of the TC unit is the ATM interface, and the other end is the PCM interface. The ATM switching network sets up the PVC between the Iu interface board and the TC and between BSL boards in the SPU. The external PVC is terminated on the ATM interface board. The ATM interface board exchanges information to the corresponding TC board through the internal PVC. The TC unit implements the code stream conversion, that is, the mutual conversion between the AMR code and PCM code. Accordingly, the TC unit implements the IuUP function. For data services, the TC unit completes the functions of the IWF. The T net switching network completes the TS switching between the TC unit and the resource board, implementing the switching between voice channels. The trunk unit
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implements the interconnection between the external trunk TS and the T net TS. The TC board implements the interconnection between the CID of the RNC and the T net TS. Through the T net, the system can implement the switching of the CID of the RNC and the trunk board TS. The trunk board not only implements the NNI function, but also implements the interface function between the MSCS and the BSC. From the perspective of the user plane, the PCM code stream is transmitted between the MSCS and the BSC. This is consistent with that at the NNI interface. From the perspective of the control plane, the MSCS consists of SMP and signaling interface. The SPU includes the narrowband signaling link (NSL) board, broadband signaling link (BSL) board and signaling MP (SMP). The internal Ethernet connection is used. The NSL and BSL process the signaling of MTPL2 or lower layer. The SMP processes the signaling of the layer higher than MTPL3. The NSL is connected to the TNET or the signaling network through E1/HW. The narrowband SS7 link at any office direction is connected to the NSL through the SPC established by the TNET. The signaling interface implements various standard signaling and transmits the signaling of the application layer. The signaling interface is provided by the signaling board. The NSL processes the signaling of narrowband MTPL2 or lower layer. It can provide E1 directly and exchange the HW to DT to provide E1 to connect to the TNET or the signaling network through E1/HW. The narrowband SS7 link at any office direction is connected to the NSL through the SPC established by the TNET. The BSL processes the signaling of MTPL2 or lower layer. It connects to the ATM switching network through STM-1. All signaling links (generally the signaling PVC) on the Iu interface are switched to the BSL through the internal PVC. The BSL processes the signaling of MTPL2 or lower layer. The application layer signaling is sent to the MP by the NSL or BSL through the internal Ethernet, and processed by the relevant application on the MP. The SMP is responsible for the interconnection with other MPs to implement the signaling access function, the allocation and utilization of inter-office trunk resources, as well as broadband and narrowband compatibility, and to run signaling processes of MTP3b or upper part. The OMMP maintains, monitors and manages the system. The OMMP needs to
28

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communicate with other boards and processing nodes to get their real-time information and monitor the system. Because the MSCS is an internal NE of the PLMN which is a synchronization network, a clock unit implements the clock synchronization function. The clock unit generates or traces the synchronization clock source. In addition, it generates sufficient clock signals and outputs them to other related units to implement the clock synchronization of the MSCS. Fig. 2.5-2 shows the logical structure of the hardware of the MSCS.

ATM switching unit Iu interface TC TC

T net: 64K64K ASIG IWF

TC

DT unit ECDT

DT unit To BSP A interface, and To NSP PSTN interface

Resource MP Ethernet line E1 interfaces

CS MP

SPU

T net HW line 155M or 622M interface

Fig. 2.5-2

Hardware Structure of the ZXWN MSCS

2.5.2 Boards of the ZXWN MSCS


Table 2.5-1 lists the boards of the MSCS.

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Table 2.5-1 Board Name Full Spelling

Boards of the MSCS Description

BSC

Backplane of Circuit Switch Domain

The BSC is the bearer board of all boards in the CS shelf. It provides connection function, but does not process input and output signals. The BPS is the bearer board of all packet switched boards. It provides connection function, but does not process input and output signals. The TCIA connects the physical interface of STM-1 to the

BPS

Backplane of Packet Switch Domain

TCIA

TCU ATM

Interface

of

ATM switching network. It provides a 100M Ethernet communication link port between the TCU and the MP, and supports an adaptation ability of about 8K AAL2. The MTC and the TCIA form a TCU to complete the conversion between the AMR code and PCM code (interconnection between 3G and PSTN users), and to implement AMR voice rate adaptation (interconnection between 3G users) and circuit data services. In this way, the MTC can implement the interconnection between 3G users and PSTN/2G users. The MDT provides 20 E1 interfaces. It can receive 20 channels of primary rate signals (2048Kb/s) sent from other exchanges or modules, convert five 8M HWs of signals sent from the T net board into 20 channels of primary rate signals and send them to other exchanges, and restore 8K Hz clock and 8M8K synchronization frame header from the primary signals as the clock reference of the CLK synchronization clock board.

MTC

MultiRate TransCoder

MDT

MultiplicityDigitalTr unk

EMDT

The EMDT offers 20 E1 interfaces with echo suppressor on one board. The ASIG provides the TONE transmitting, DTMF number

ASIG

Analog Signals

receiving

and

transmitting,

MFC

number

receiving/transmitting and conference call functions. InterWorking Function LVDS Interface 64K Time Slot Switch Net ATM Switching The IWF provides assistance for the interconnection between the PLMN and other network. It implements the conversion of transmission protocol. The LVI provides the LVDS interface board function. The TNET (64K time slot switching network board) implements 64K64K non-blocking switching, and supports 256K switching capacity through multi-level switching. The 30 ASC completes the ATM switching function

IWF

LVI

TNET

ASC

Chapter Error! Use the Home tab to apply 1 to the text that you want to appear here. Error! Use the Home tab to apply 1,H1,Normal + Font: Helvetica,Bold,Space Before 12 pt,Not Bold, ,NMP Heading 1,app heading 1,l1,h1,1. heading 1,,Huvudrubrik,R1,H11,h11,heading 1TOC,NMP Heading1,Normal+Font:Helvetica,space bof..,h12,h13,h14,h15,h16,heading Board Name Full Spelling Card independently. The (E1 digital trunk interface board) E1TB provides E1 trunk connection between the MSC and the RNC. Narrow Band Signaling Link Broad Signaling Link Communication Adapter Hundred Switcher Operation OMMP Maintenance Processor and Main MAC Band The NSL processes the MTP2 signaling of SS7. The BSL is also called Iu interface protocol processing board. By using the third processing module of the SSL board, it processes the Iu interface protocol. One COMA can process up to 256 HDLC links. The HMS exchanges MAC packets for 38 100 M Ethernet ports. It is a large-capacity HUB with a switching capacity of up to 11.6 GB. The OMMP manages the board versions of the whole system and the information reported by the service boards and signaling boards during the operation. The CSMP has the same circuit structure as the OMMP has. CSMP Circuit domain Main Processor All the upper-layer service programs such as call, changeover and location update run on the CSMP. The VLR database is stored in the hard disk of the CSMP board. The SMP completes the main processing of the upper-layer SMP Signaling Processor Main signaling. In the case of large capacity, the SMP shall be configured separately. In the case of small capacity, it can be combined with the OMMP. The CLK provides 16 channels of 8 MHz clock signals and 20 CLCK Clock channels of location frame headers at a frequency duty ratio of 8M8K for the whole MSCS. Description

E1TB

NSL

BSL

COMA

HMS

2.5.3 Boards
2.5.3.1 CLKG The CLKG board is the clock generation board of the MSCS. The CLKG module works in active/standby mode. The active/standby CLKG is locked on the same reference to achieve smooth changeover. The CLKG module takes phase jitter filtering measures to eliminate possible clock burr or jitter during the changeover. The CLKG module and the main control unit communicate through the RS485. The CLKG uses
31

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the 8 kHz frame synchronization signals from the trunk board DTEC or SPB clock reference, 2MHz/2Mbits signals from BITS, 8k (PP2S, 16CHIP) signals from the GPSTM board, or 8k clock signals from the UIM as the local clock reference to synchronize with the clock of the upper-level exchange. For the input reference, the CLKG board can provide alarm signals of reference loss and distinguish the reference degradation. Fig. 2.5-3 shows the principle of the CLKG module.
PP2S receives

distributed

circuits

Reference clock signal input

PP2S signal output

GPS, line 8K 2MHz and 2MBits 16CHIP and PP2S

Reference selection Reference detection Local crystal oscillator

Phaselocked loop frequency combined circuit

8K, 16M, 32M and 64M clock signals

CPU subsystem

RS485

Changeover signal input

Active/standby changeover circuit

Changeover signal output

Fig. 2.5-3

Principle of the CLKG Module

The CLKG board has the following functions: 1. 2. Communicating with the control console through the RS485. Selecting reference sources manually or through the background, including BITS, line (8K), GPS and local (stratum-2 or stratum-3) clock reference. The manual changeover can be shielded through the software. The sequence of selecting reference manually is as follows: 2Mbits1--2Mbits2--2MHz1--2MHz28k18k28k3--NULL 3. Adopting the loose coupling phase-locked system and supporting four working modes, CATCH, TRACE, HOLD and FREE.
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4.

The output clock can be a stratum-2 or stratum-3 clock, which can be implemented by changing the constant-temperature trough crystal oscillator and through the software.

5. 6. 7.

Providing 15 channels of 16.384M, 8K and PP2S clock for the UIM. Distinguishing clock loss and input reference degradation. Active/standby changeover function. It supports command changeover, manual changeover, fault changeover and reset changeover modes. In the case of maintenance changeover, the rate of bit errors occurred to the system shall be less than 1%.

8.

The phase discontinuity between two CLKG boards is less than 1/8 UI code element.

9.

Providing complete alarm function. It supports SRAM failure alarm, constant-temperature trough alarm, reference and output clock loss alarm, reference degradation alarm, reference frequency deviation alarm, phase-locked loop discrimination failure alarm. According to these alarms, you can rapidly locate current working status and a fault of the clock board.

10. Clock maintainability. The VCXO provides a frequency adjustment rotary switch. This switch can be used to adjust the frequency after the central frequency deviates due to the aging of the quartz crystal after several years. The CLKG board provides these external interfaces: 1. 2. 3. 15 groups of 8k/16M/PP2S system clock output interfaces. 10 groups of 8k/32M/64M system clock output interfaces. One or two groups of DTEC, SPB, APBE and SDTEC module line 8k reference input interfaces. 4. 5. 6. 2.5.3.2 MPx86 The MPx86 is used in the processor shelf of the distributed processing platform. It
33

One group of GPS module 8K reference input interfaces. One group of GPS module PP2S and 16CHIP reference input interfaces. Two groups of 2 Mbps and 2 MHz reference clock input interfaces.

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supports mobility management, MAP and CC sublayers and VLR distributed database. The MPx86 has powerful processing performance and is configured with 1 GB memory. In addition, it provides abundant external interfaces such as IDE, 10/100M Ethernet, RS485, RS232 and USB interfaces. The MPx86 can connect to various peripheral components through standard PCI bus to implement active/standby MP changeover. Its control register and data register can be used to set functions or exchange status data through the main control software. Fig. 2.5-4 shows the principle of the MPX86 module.

CPU subsystem 1

Logical time sequence adjustment, control management

Control stream Ethernet BIOS Ethernet interface circuit Media stream Ethernet OMC Ethernet Active/standby Ethernet

Panel IDE

PCI bus Backplane ID

B A C K P L A N E

management

2*USB

Bridging chip

Peripheral memory

Serial port chip

Power management RS485 GPS management RS485 Backup RS485

Power

PCI bus Control stream Ethernet CPU subsystem 2 Logical time sequence adjustment, control management BIOS Ethernet interface circuit Media stream Ethernet OMC Ethernet Active/standby Ethernet

Fig. 2.5-4

Principle of the MP

Two CPU systems are designed on one MPX86 module, which are called CPU_A and CPU_B respectively. The two CPU systems are independent. The CPU_A is the main control CPU system which manages modules. In addition to two CPU systems, the module has the public power supply used to provide power for the whole module. The MPX86 module also provides an Ethernet switching chip for the external control stream, media stream, active/standby and OMC Ethernet. When the MPX86 module serves as an OMP, it provides two external 100M OMC
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Ethernets. When the MPX86 is used for other purposes, it does not provide external interface. 2.5.3.3 MPx86/2
In MSCS system, MPX86/2 board implies the control unit SMP, CMP, OMP in control panel. For UMTS, MPx86/2 board handles the protocols such as GMM, SM and GTP-C. For 2.5G, it handles the BSSGP and LLC protocols. MPx86/2 also performs system control, maintenance function and processing network management protocol.

In the MSCS system, the MPX86/2 board can be used as two kinds of functional units: OMP board and SMP board.
When the MPX86/2 board is used as the SMP board, it mainly implements mobility management, management of the MAP, CC and other sub-layers, and VLR distributed database management. The MPX86/2 board has powerful processing ability. Configured with 2G memory, the MPX86/2 board also provides many external interfaces such as IDE, 10/100M NIC, RS485, RS232, USB interfaces. The MPx86/2 board uses the standard PCI bus to connect with other peripheral equipments and supports MP active/standby switchover function. It has control register and data register to set the functions of the board through the main control software and exchange the working status data.

The function and principle are the same as MPx86. 2.5.3.4 MNIC As the network interface board of the equipment, the MNIC provides a physical interface for the equipment to connect to the external packet network (IP/ATM). For the packet data entering the system, implement the underlying protocol processing first. Restore IP data packets through the PPP protocol of the AAL5 interface and POS interface of the ATM, and then sort the packets. After the underlying processing is completed, the protocol data of the control plane such as signaling is exchanged to the main control unit of the system for processing through the control Ethernet interface of the resource shelf. The service stream data of the user plane is forwarded to the corresponding internal processing board through the media stream switching Ethernet according to the destination address route of IP data packets. When the MNIC serves as a network interface board, it also needs to complete the protocol processing such as IP data filtering and NAT conversion to protect the internal IP communication of the equipment.

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When the MNIC serves as an interface board, at least two MNICs working in 1+1 backup or load sharing mode shall be configured. Fig. 2.5-5 shows the principle of the MNIC module.

Control stream Ethernet


Panel

100M

Control stream Ethernet

100M

Control stream Ethernet Time sequence, logical processing circuit


Internalbus

4*100M

100M Ethernet
4*100M
RS485

B A C K P L A N E

PCI bus

ID, clock signal

Network processor subsystem

Gigabit Ethernet

1000M

1000M

Fig. 2.5-5

Principle of the MNIC Module

The MNIC module consists of network processor system, physical interface part and CPU system. The network processor minimum system and Ethernet interface part are placed on the backplane. The CPU subcard is adopted, and the data is transmitted between the subcard and the network processor system through the PCI bus and internal bus. The components mounted on the PCI bus of the network processor include CPU subcard and Ethernet chip. The coprocessor is connected in the standard subcard mode. One of the two Ethernet chips serves as the data backup channel. When the CPU subcard exists, there is no need to install the data channel which can be provided by the CPU. When the CPU subcard does not exist, that channel can be used to back up
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active/standby data. The other Ethernet chip serves as the control stream channel to communicate with the UIM, and is used for debugging and code downloading. The MNIC board provides these functions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Providing 1100M control stream Ethernet interface. Providing 1100M Ethernet data backup channel. Providing RS485 backup control channel interface. 1+1 active/standby logic control. Providing one gigabit interface (the gigabit module is required) or up to four 100M Ethernet interfaces for the external network. The MNIC module provides one gigabit or 4~8 100M Ethernet interfaces for the external network. 2.5.3.5 UIM The UIM implements the internal Ethernet level-2 switching of the control shelf and the resource shelf management, and provides an external Ethernet cascading interface for the control shelf, including the packet data interface (GE optical interface) connected to the core switching unit and to the control plane data Ethernet interface (four FEs) of the distributed processing platform. Fig. 2.5-6 shows the principle of the UIM.

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Internal bus

Logic control circuit

Peripheral memory

CPU subsystem

RS485 RS232 Debugging Ethernet Active/standby Ethernet

PCI bus

User plane Ethernet

Media plane control plane interconnection GCS subcard Media plane gigabit optical interface GXS subcard Media plane gigabit electrical interface GTS subcard

Control plane Ethernet

24 100M+2 1000M control plane Ethernet

24 100M+2 1000M media plane Ethernet

Fig. 2.5-6

Principle of the UIM

The UIM has these functions: 1. Providing two 24+2 switching HUB. One is the control plane Ethernet HUB, providing 20 internal control plane FE interfaces to interconnect with the internal modules of the resource shelf and four external control plane FE interfaces for the interconnection between resource shelves or between the resource shelf and the CHUB. One user plane Ethernet HUB provides 23 interface FE interfaces for resource shelf interconnection, and provides one external FE interface. 2. Providing one user plane GE optical interface for the interconnection between the resource shelf and core switching unit through an optional GXS subcard. The GE channel adopts the active/standby backup mode to provide 1+1 backup of the core switching unit. The UIM provides one ore two internal user plane GE interfaces (the GTS subcard shall be configured when the UIM provides two GE
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electrical interfaces) for the resource shelf as its GE slots. 3. Providing one internal user plane GE interface. This interface can be used to cascade with the CHUB in the control shelf. 4. Providing control plane and user plane Ethernet GE interconnection mode for the UIM of the distributed processing platform. 5. The internal FE port of the active/standby module adopts the high impedance multiplexing backup mode on the backplane. 6. Providing resource shelf management function, the RS-485 management interface for the resource shelf, and resource shelf module reset and reset signal collection function. 7. Resource shelf clock driving. The PP2S, 8K and 16M signals are inputted. After the phase locking and driving processing, the signals are distributed to the slots of the resource shelf. The UIM provides 16M, 8K and PP2S clock for the resource module. 8. Reading cabinet number, shelf number, slot number, device number, backplane version number and backplane type number. 9. MAC configuration, VLAN and broadcast packet control.

10. Compatible with the commercial HUB. The UIM provides these external interfaces: 1. 2. 2.5.3.6 SPB The SPB module is a multi-CPU processing board with 16 E1s and four 8M Highway interfaces. It is used as the narrowband signaling processing board to process the HDLC of multiple channels of SS7 and the signaling of MTP-2 or lower layer. The SPB module integrates 16 channels of E1/T1 LIU and Framer, communication processing unit consisting of four CPUs, two 100M Ethernet switches used for the user plane and control plane, and time slot switching chip. The SPB module supports the E1/T1 mode and 120 ohms and 75 ohms impedance configuration.
39

Four 100M Ethernet interfaces. One or two GE interfaces.

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According to different system configurations, the SPB module can be used for E1 access or Highway access, and simultaneous E1 and Highway access. The single-chip CPU can be connected through the switching chip, E1 and Highway, to support signaling forwarding. The CPU system is configured in the system in the form of subcard. The module provides two external Ethernet switching planes at an egress rate of 100M. The two Ethernet ports of the CPU are mounted on these two Ethernet planes. The module provides two channels of external clock for the clock board as the 8 kHz reference clock. Fig. 2.5-7 shows the principle of the SPB module.
4*8MHW

TDM Switch

4*8MHW

E1 Line Interface

16*E1

4*8MHW

Control Stream Switch

Control Stream FE

CPU SubSystem

Media Stream Switch

Media Stream FE

Fig. 2.5-7

Principle of the SPB Module

The SPB module provides 16 external E1 interfaces.

2.6 Hardware Cables


2.6.1 System Clock Cable
The system clock cable is used to distribute the synchronization clock signals (8k, 16M and PP2S) of the shelves in the system.
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The signal characteristics of the system clock cable are as follows: 1. 2. The duty ratio of 16 MHz clock signals is 50%. The 8k frame header and 16M clock shall satisfy the following time sequence relationship: 1) The 8k frame header is in negative pulse format, The falling edge of the 8K frame header starts at the rising edge of the 16M clock. 2) The negative pulse duration of the 8k frame header is one 16M period. 3) The duration of one frame is 125 us. 3. The PP2S signals satisfy the following requirements:

1) The PP2S is in negative pulse format, and the pulse period is 2s. 2) The negative pulse duration is one CHIP clock (1.2288 MHz) period.

2.6.2 Line Reference Clock Cable


The line reference clock cable is used to connect the service board to the system clock generation board CLKG, and transmit the 8k reference clock signals on the line to the system clock board for phase locking to generate system synchronization clock. The end A of the cable is located at the silkscreen 8KOUT/DEBUG-232 of the RSPB and 8KOUT/ARM232 of the RMNIC which provide reference. The end B is located at the silkscreen 8KIN1 and 8KIN2 of the RCKG1 panel. The signals flow from the service board to the CLKG board. The line reference clock cable signals are 8k frame headers extracted from the line.

2.6.3 IP Access Cable


It connects the Ethernet cable interface of the external interface board to provide IP access. It is used to transmit 100M full-duplex Ethernet signals. The end A of the cable is located at the silkscreen FEn (n=1-4) on the RMNIC panel. The end B is a standard RJ45 male interface.

2.6.4 Control Plane Interconnection Cable


The control plane interconnection cable implements the control plane Ethernet
41

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interconnection between control shelves. It is used to transmit 100M full-duplex Ethernet signals. The end A and end B of the cable are located at the silkscreen FE-C on the RUIM2/RUIM3 panel.

2.6.5 PD485 Cable


The PD485 cable implements the RS485 communication between the OMP and the power module. It is used to transmit half duplex RS485 signals. The end A of the cable is located at the silkscreen PD485 on the RMPX86 panel. The end B is located at the silkscreen RS485 on the interface board PWRDB of the power distribution shelf. The PD485 cable signal flow is bidirectional.

2.6.6 OMC Ethernet Cable


The OMC Ethernet cable implements the connection between the OMP and the background. It is used to transmit 100M full-duplex Ethernet signals. The end A of the cable is located at the silkscreen OMCn(n=1.2) on the RMPX86 panel. The end B is a standard RJ45 male interface.

2.6.7 Fan Monitoring Cable


The fan monitoring cable enables the PWRD to detect the running status of the fans in the fan shelves. It is used to transmit fan monitoring level signals. The end A of the cable is located at the left RJ45 connection point on the rear of the fan shelf. The end B is located at the silkscreen FAN BOXn (n=1..4) on the interface board PWRDB of the power distribution shelf. The cable signals flow from the fan shelf to the power monitoring board.

2.6.8 External Cables and Components of the Cabinet


2.6.8.1 Temperature & Humidity Sensor Cable It is used to connect the temperature and humidity sensors to the PWRD monitoring board to monitor the ambient temperature and humidity. In the temperature & humidity sensor, the moisture sensitive capacitor component is used as the core of the humidity
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sensor. After the linear processing through a single-chip computer, the information is converted into frequency signals and outputted. The computer can directly collect and process temperature and humidity signal values without the A/D conversion. The sensor is mounted on the wall, and there is a hidden cabling trough on the rear of the converter. Fig. 2.6-1 shows the structure of the temperature & humidity sensor cable and corollary cable.

Label

End A Direction C Direction D

Pin

Fig. 2.6-1

Structure of the Temperature & Humidity Sensor Cable

2.6.8.2 Smoke Sensor Cable It is used to connect the smoke sensor to the PWRD monitoring board to monitor the environment smoke signals. The detection part of the smoke sensor adopts the V-shape labyrinth structure. It can efficiently detect the early smoldering of a fire or generated smoke. When the smoke enters the sensor, the light source disperses, and the light receiving component senses the light intensity. When the preset threshold is hit, the sensor responds to the fire alarm signal, turns on its fire acknowledgement indicator (red), and outputs alarm signals to the external device. Fig. 2.6-2 shows the structure of the smoke sensor cable and corollary cable.

43

Label

End B

Hole

TN_SS001_E1_0

NE System Structure

Direction C
Label

Label

Pins on the sensor chassis End A

Indicator

End B

Fig. 2.6-2

Structure of the Smoke Sensor Cable

2.6.8.3 Infrared Sensor Cable It is used to connect the infrared sensor to the PWRD monitoring board. The infrared sensor has microwave transmitter antenna and receiver antenna. The microwave frequency transmitted on the detector is set as f transmitter. After the object reflection, the reflected microwave frequency received on the detector is set as f receiver. f=f transmitter-f receiver. If f is not 0, the sensor outputs alarm signals. Fig. 2.6-3 shows the structure of the infrared sensor cable.

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Direction C
Label

Label

Front view of the sensor End A

End B

Fig. 2.6-3

Structure of the Infrared Sensor Cable

2.6.8.4 75 Ohms Trunk Cable It implements the non-balanced access of the external E1 of the external interface on the MSC Server. Fig. 2.6-4 shows the structure of the 75 ohms trunk cable.

Label

2.6.8.5 120 Ohms Trunk Cable It implements the balanced access of the external E1 of the external interface on the MSC Server. Fig. 2.6-5 shows the structure of the 120 ohms trunk cable.

Label
Fig. 2.6-4 Structure of the 75 Ohms Trunk Cable 45

Label

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NE System Structure

Label

Label
Fig. 2.6-5 Structure of the 120 Ohms Trunk Cable

Label Label Label Label Label

2.6.8.6 Power Cable Fig. 2.6-6 shows the connections of the power system of the cabinet.

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Filter

Filter

Cabinet ground

- 48V - 48VGND - 48V - 48VGND PE

Fan subrack

- 48V - 48VGND - 48V - 48VGND PE

Grounding copper busbar

BUSN

Busbar

Cabling subrack

- 48V - 48VGND - 48V - 48VGND PE

BUSN

Cabling subrack Fan subrack

- 48V - 48VGND - 48V - 48VGND PE

BUSN

Cabling subrack

- 48V - 48VGND - 48V - 48VGND PE

BUSN

Cabling subrack Fan subrack

- 48V - 48VGND EP

Fig. 2.6-6

Connections of the Power System of the Cabinet

The -48V power access cable (Fig. 2.6-7 shows its structure) (blue/black) is used to
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connect the -48V power from the EMI filter on the cabinet top to the power distribution shelf, and connect -48V power from the power distribution shelf to the busbar of the cabinet.

Label

End A

End B

Fig. 2.6-7

48V Power Cable

The power cable of the shelf connects the -48V, -48VGND, PGND and GND power from the busbar to the shelf filter and from the shelf filter to the backplane to provide power for the shelf. (as shown in Fig. 2.6-8 and Fig. 2.6-9).

Direction C

End B1

Label

End B2

End B3 End A
Fig. 2.6-8 Power Cable From the Busbar to the Shelf Filter

End A1 End B1 Direction C C End B2 End B3

Label End A2

Fig. 2.6-9

Power Cable From the Shelf Filter to the Backplane

The power cable of the fan shelf connects the power from the busbar to the fan shelf to provide power for the fans in the fan shelf. (as shown in Fig. 2.6-10).
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Label

End B1 End B2 End B3

End A

Fig. 2.6-10

Structure of the Power Cable of the Fan Shelf

2.6.8.7 Grounding Cable Fig. 2.6-11 shows the connections of grounding cables in the whole cabinet. The grounding cable of the cabinet doors connects the front/rear doors of the cabinet to the cabinet ground.

Label

End A

End B

Fig. 2.6-11

Grounding Cable of Cabinet Doors

The protection ground cable is used to connect the busbar protection ground to the cabinet ground.

Label

End A

End B

Fig. 2.6-12

Protection Ground Cable

2.6.8.8 Other Cable It is used to interconnect P power RS485 signals between cabinets.
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The end A of the cable is located at the silkscreen RS485 (Bottom) on the PWRDB of the power distribution shelf of the rack. The end B is located at the silkscreen RS485 (Top) on the PWRDB of the power distribution shelf of the rack.

Label

End A
Fig. 2.6-13 RS485 Interconnection Cable Between Cabinets

The RS485 bus used by the PWRD supports multi-rack connection. According to the resistance terminal placement principle of the RS485 bus, in the multi-rack connection, you need to configure the jumper X8 on the PWRD based on the rack locations. Table 2.6-1 shows the configuration principle.

Table 2.6-1 X8 Configuration Principle Jumper X8 Connection Mode 12 910 34 78 Definition As the rack of the RS485 endpoint

As the rack of the RS485 mid-point

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Label

End B

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The following describes the PD485 cable connection mode used when multiple cabinets are interconnected by taking the three racks in Fig. 2.6-14 as an example.

OMP PD485

PWRDB RS485 (Top) of the rack where the OMP is located

PWRDB RS485 (Top) of Rack 2

PWRDB RS485 (Top) of Rack 3

PWRDB RS485 (Bottom) of the rack where the OMP is located

PWRDB RS485 (Bottom) of Rack 2

PWRDB RS485 (Bottom) of Rack 3

PWRD X8 setting: 3-4 7-8

PWRD X8 setting: 3-4 7-8

PWRD X8 setting: 1-2 9-10

Fig. 2.6-14

PD485 Cable Connection Mode

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3 MGW System Principle


3.1 Main Functions of MGW in R4
In the 3GPP R4 phase, the bearer-related part is separated from the MSC NE of the R99 phase, and becomes the MGW NE that is a core NE in the R4 phase. Realizing bearer independent of control, The ZXWN MGW has the following main functions: 1. Bearer access and switching function The MGW supports media flows over three formats of bearers: TDM bearer, IP bearer and ATM bearer; and supports interworking between these media flows over these bearers. 2. Bearer control function In the case of IP bearer and ATM bearer, the communication method between media flows of the MGW is an asynchronous communication method. In this situation, the MGW controls the bearer, including establishing and releasing the bearer, and modifying the properties of the bearer. 3. Built-in SGW function Serving as an end office, the MGW introduces the ATM bearer, while the Mc interface usually adopts the IP bearer. When the Mc interface adopts the IP bearer, the MGW must has the SGW function to implement conversion from the traditional No.7 signaling network to the IP signaling network. 4. Interworking function The MGW has the interworking function with the traditional No.7 signaling network, channel associated network, IP packet network and the PSTN network. 5. Resource library function The MGW has the functions of playing the call service tone and intelligent tone, and playing and detecting the DTMF tone and the MFC tone. For the MSC Server, the MGW is a tone resource library. 6. Related functions of voice and data service processing The MGW has the voice coding/decoding function in multiple modes, including PCM-A, PCM- , UMTS-AMR, UMTS-AMR2, G.723.1 and G.729AB. The MGW supports the related protocol functions of the data services, and the TFO/TrFO function. 7. Network management function Includes dynamic and static configuration signaling and service observation. management, and

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3.2 System Working Principle


3.2.1 MGW System Background
With the development of economy and communication, as well as the informationization, mobile phones are widely used in China. Now, China becomes the largest mobile communication market in the world. With the development of mobile communication services and technologies, more and more mobile communication requirements emerge. Not only voice services but also abundant data and multimedia services shall be provided, and higher mobile communication spectrum efficiency is required. The current 2G mobile communication system (GSM and IS-95) cannot satisfy these requirements. In this case, the 3G (the third generation mobile communication system) emerges. At present, there are three 3G technical standards in the industry: WCDMA proposed by 3GPP, CDMA2000 proposed by 3GPP2 and TD-SCDMA proposed by Datang Mobile of China. Where, the WCDMA technology is evolved from the GSM network technology. Because the GSM achieves great success in the world with nearly 80% market shares, and China is the largest GSM market in the world, the WCDMA technology will be widely used. ZTE Corporation launched the large digital mobile switching system ZXG10-MSS in 1998. This system has been widely used by many carriers both at home and abroad, and has brought them favorable social and economic benefits. Based on the ZXG10 MSS, ZTE developed the 3G core network system ZXWN which strictly complies with the 3GPP R99 and R4 specifications and technical specifications for the MTNET WCDMA experiment network of China. In the aspect of ATM and SS7, this system complies with ITU-T specifications. In the aspect of SIGTRAN signaling, it complies with IETF specifications. In addition, the ZXWN is compatible with the specifications of GSM PHASE2+. It can access the BSS to interconnect with the GSM network. The ZXWN system adopts the centralized management and distributed processing structure. This helps to control and manage large-capacity mobile network. This system has a powerful processing capability and supports flexible networking modes. Its processing capability can be improved smoothly. Flexible and economic network optimization solutions can be provided for telecommunication carriers. The ZXWN system consists of the ZXWN MSCS, ZXWN MGW, ZXWN HLR, ZXWN SGSN, ZXWN GGSN and ZXWN CG. These products can be operated and maintained through a unified network management system. The standard signaling
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interfaces (the internal interface is used among the SCP, SMS and SCE) are adopted among these products. Fig. 3.2-1 shows the system structure.

SC E

SM P

O M C

SC P SD P

H LR AU C

PSTN

SM SC

I nt er net

N O . 7 Si gnal l i ng N et w or k G M SCS/ SSP

G G SN G M G W Packet Sw t i ch N et w or k Packet Sw i t ch N et w or k

C i r cui t Sw i t ch N et w or k

M SCS/ VLR / SSP M G W SG SN

BSC

R N C

Fig. 3.2-1

ZXWN System Structure

3.2.2 Compliant Standards


3GPP technical specifications- R99 3GPP technical specifications- R4
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ITU-T recommendations IETF protocol GB001-900: National No.7 Signaling System Technical Specifications YD/T627-93: Transmission Characteristics and Test Methods of Digital Switch Trunk Interface (2048 kbit/s) Parameters and Digital Interfaces GB 4943-1995 General Security Requirements for Information Technology Products General Technical Requirements for Softswitch General Technical Requirements for Mobile Softswitch

3.2.3 MGW Functions


In WCDMA R4 phase, the bearer related part is separated from the MSC of the R99 phase and becomes the MGW in the core network. The MGW provides all bearer types that might be used in the R4 phase: TDM circuit bearer, RTP bearer and AAL2 bearer. In logical, the MGW is completely controlled by the MSC-SERVER. The MGW manage bearer resources, set up and release bearer according to the requirements of the MSC-SERVER.

3.2.4 System Working Principle


The ZXWN MGW (V3.0) provides Iu-CS, Nb, Ai/Di (PSTN/ISDN), A (2G-BSC), Mc and NIF (broadband or narrowband signaling transfer between it and the MSC-Server) network interfaces for the external NEs. It implements the WCDMA voice call, multimedia services, circuit switched data services, and the interconnection between the PSTN and WCDMA network or between 3G and 2G networks. In addition, it supports extended VoIP/FoIP service, integrates the SGW function, and forwards the signaling to other NEs (such as MSCS and SGSN). According to the network planning, the ZXWN MGM can be configured as an end office MGW and gateway office MGW (G-MGW) or a combination of them. Fig. 3.2-2 shows the function blocks of the ZXWN (V3) MGW.

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N*E1

POS/GE/FE

Clock module

Monitoring module

STM -1 OMC -S

IMA access module

IP access module

ATM access

ATM access

Digital trunk

module control Main

IWF module

Narrowband signaling

module/ resource control module Signaling main control

interface

Vocoder

3.3 Hardware Structure


3.3.1 MGW Hardware Principle
Fig. 3.3-1 shows the hardware principle of the MGW.

module

Fig. 3.2-2

module

MRM

Circuit switching network

Function Blocks of the ZXWN (V3) MGW

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Level-1 IP switching

FE/GE

LAN LAN SWITCH SWITCH

n*32MHw VTC

n*32MHw

DTB (including EC) SDTB (including EC)

E1 P/I S S T D N N

Note 1:The LAN Switches of the media plane and the control plane are located on the UIM board. Note 2: The system supports the IMA access mode of the ATM, which is not indicated here. Note 3: The T net consists of the BSCN level-1 T net and the level-2 T net on the UIM. When the level-1 T net is configured, the level-2 T net is not configured. When the level-1 T net is not configured, the level-2 T net can implement the intra-shelf switching. Note 4: The CLKG/CLKD implements the system clock degradation discrimination, phase locking and distribution, which is not indicated here.

3.3.2 MGW Subsystem Functions


The MGW subsystem uses 64k~256k large-capacity T net which can be expanded smoothly as the switching core. It fully considers the current R4 and ALL IP circuit and packet voice services (VoIP) access and the traditional circuit data services (T.30 and V.90/V.34) access. The T net is divided into two levels. The level-1 T net is separately configured in one shelf (BCSN) which consists of the TSNB with a switching capacity of 64k~256k and the TFI. The level-2 T net is located on the UIM board in the level-2 resource shelf (refers to the TCU/DTU). When the system needs to be configured with the level-1 T net (G-MGW, MGW integrating the G-MGW and the end office MGW functions), the level-2 T net is not configured. When the level-1 T net is not configured (end office MGW), the level-2 T net can implement the intra-shelf switching.
58

network

MPB MPB MPB

n*32MHw n*32MHw IWF B n*32MHw 64~ 64~ 256k 256k T Tnet MR B n*32MHw n*32MHw

SDH

FE/GE

network ATM IP

Control stream FE

FE stream Media

SPB E1

Iu-CS/Nb/Mc

STM-1

A A PP B B

SS7 network

LAN LAN SWITCH SWITCH

Controlcenter

DTB/ DTB/ SDTB


SDHB

FE/GE

Nb/Mc

M M N N II C C

A interface (E1/SDH) B S C

network

Fig. 3.3-1

MGW Hardware Principle

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The media plane packet switching part is divided into two levels. Level 1 is separately configured with one shelf (BPSN), which is called Level 1 IP switching network. Level 2 consists of 24+2 media plane Ethernet switch in the UIM, which is connected to Level 1 IP switching network through the gigabit Ethernet. The packet switching in Level 2 resource shelf can be implemented through Level 2 switching network. The inter-shelf packet switching is implemented through Level 1 Ip switching network. Control plane connection: The control plane Ethernet is connected to the 24+2 control plane switch, and is connected to the control center through the UIM switch. The following describes the service flow based on different service flow directions respectively. 1. Iu-CSPSTN/A interface (The end office MGW and G-MGW are combined to implement calls between 3G users and 2G users or between 3G users and PSTN users) At the uplink direction, the AAL2 SAR of voice services from the Iu-CS is terminated on the APBE. The processed data packets are borne over UDP/IP and are transmitted to the TCU through the IP switching network. The user plane data is processed by the Iu-UP and then processed by the AMR vocoder. After the voice data is converted into 64 kbps PCM code streams, they are transmitted to the PSTN or A interface through the T net. The service flow at the downlink direction is opposite to this. 2. Iu-CSIu-CS (It serves as an end office MGW to implement 3G to 3G calls) AB: If the TrFO mode is not needed, the AAL2 SAR of the voice services from the Iu-CS of End A is terminated on the APBE. The processed data packets are borne over UDP/IP and are transmitted to the TCU through the IP switching network. The user plane data is processed by the Iu-UP and then processed by the AMR vocoder. After the voice data is converted into 64 kbps PCM code streams and processed through the IP protocol, they are transmitted to the IP switching network. Then the streams are exchanged to the TCU processing board at the other end to complete the AMR coding and implement the encapsulation at the Iu-UP layer. The streams are sent to the APBE board through UDP/IP. The APBE board encapsulates them
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into AAL2/ATM packets and sends the packets to the Iu-CS interface at End A. The BA processing is in the opposite way. For TrFO services, the Iu-UP processing shall be implemented through the TCU, but the AMR processing is not needed. 3. Iu-CSNb (It serves as an end office MGW to implement calls between the end office MGWs and between the end office MGW and G-MGW) 1) 3G inter-office calls At the uplink direction, If the TrFO mode is not needed, the AAL2 SAR of the voice services from the Iu-CS of End A is terminated on the APBE. The processed data packets are borne over UDP/IP and are transmitted to the TCU through the IP switching network. The user plane data is processed by the Iu-UP and then processed by the AMR vocoder. After the voice data is converted into 64 kbps PCM code streams or TFO code streams, they are encapsulated at the Nb-UP layer and then sent to the APBE or MNIC board through UDP/IP. The streams are encapsulated into AAL2/ATM packets by the APBE board or RTP/UDP/IP packets by the MNIC board and are sent to the Nb. The MGW at the other end implements the opposite processing and sends the packets the connected RNC. The processing flow at the downlink direction is in the opposite way. For TrFO services, the Iu-UP processing shall be implemented through the TCU, but the AMR processing is not needed. 2) Inter-office calls between the 3G network and PSTN/A interface The service flow is basically the same as above. The TC unit is in the G-MGW, while UP processing of the service flow in the end office MGW is completed in the TCU only. 3) NbPSTN/A interface (It serves as a G-MGW to implement the calls between the 3G network and 2G network or between 3G network and PSTN) At the uplink direction, if the voice services from the Nb are transmitted through the ATM interface, the AAL2/ATM is terminated on the APBE. If they are transmitted through the IP interface, the RTP/UDP/IP is
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terminated on the MNIC. The processed data packets are borne over UDP/IP and transmitted to the TCU through the IP switching network. The user plane data is processed by the Nb-UP and then processed by the AMR vocoder. After the voice data is converted into 64 kbps PCM code streams, they are transmitted to the PSTN or A interface through the T net. The service flow at the downlink direction is in the opposite way. For the above-mentioned ATM access, the APBE board can be used for the STM-1 access, and the IMA board can be used for the E1 access. The traditional circuit data services such as T.30 and V.90/V.34 are processed through the IWFB and switched to the PSTN through the T net. For the media resource function, when the DTMF, MFC and conference call functions are implemented, incoming calls enter the T net through the TC or DT unit, and then are switched to the MRB for processing. The processing results or outgoing calls are different from this route. For tone resources, the board only stores voice streams in the G.711 format, and sends the organized streams to the T net. The T net directly switches them to the PSTN or to the TC unit and converts them into voice streams in the corresponding format. Then the voice streams are sent to the IP core switching network. The signaling processing and control part consists of SPB (used to process narrowband signaling layer 2 or lower part), APBE/IMAB (used to process broadband signaling layer 2 or lower part. It is shared with the Iu-CS user plane), SMP and system service control unit CMP. It is connected through the Ethernet internally. The SPB processes MTP2 or lower part signaling. The SMP processes MTP3 or upper signaling. Narrowband signaling processing flow: The SPB is connected to the external device through E1, or connected to the TSNB through HW. The narrowband SS7 signaling links at any office direction are reachable through the signaling network or are connected to the SPB through the SPC established by the TSNB during the SDH access. The broadband signaling processing flow is similar to this. The protocol termination and conversion of the signaling on all Iu interfaces are implemented through the APBE. The SSCOP and SSCF of the broadband SS7 are processed on the APBE/IMAB. The MTP3b messages are sent to the SMP through the control Ethernet. The SMP completes MTP3 or upper part processing.

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3.3.3 Functions of the Logical Modules of the MGW


According to logical modules, the MGW CS domain can be divided into TCU, circuit switching unit, DTU, IP/ATM access unit, control plane processing unit and clock unit. 3.3.3.1 TCU Fig. 3.3-2 shows its structure:

VTC

VTC

MRB

IWFB

To Level-1 switching network To control switching center To T net switching center To control switching center

Media Media stream stream Ethernet Ethernet Control Controlstream stream Ethernet Ethernet TDM bus TDM bus Other Other controlcontrol bus bus

Fig. 3.3-2

Structure of the TCU

The TCU implements these functions: 1. Service processing part: It includes TC, media resource (such as Conference Call, Tone/voice, DTMF and MFC), IWF (such as T.30 and V.90/V.34), and echo canceller (optional). The functions of this part are performed by the VTC, MRB and IWFB respectively. 2. Ethernet switch part: This part serves as the interface between the resource shelf and the external media & control streams. This part adopts two Ethernets. One 24+2 switching Ethernet provides a channel for the media streams of resource boards and exchanges the traffic to be processed by resource boards. The other 24+2 switching Ethernet provides the signaling streams to be processed by resource boards and the command and parameter channel for controlling, configuring, maintaining and managing boards in the system. The functions of this part are implemented on the UIM board. 3. LVDS access part: This part serves as the interface between the resource shelf and the T net to provide connection function. Because the interface part is the unique data channel of the unit, the LVDS access part shall adopt the
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active/standby design. The functions of this part are implemented on the UIM board. 4. Signaling processing part: The signaling is processed on resource boards, including user plane signaling termination, resource application and allocation, and connection control. 5. Another RS485 control bus shall be reserved in the system as the dedicated alarm and monitoring channel. This bus is terminated on the UIM in the shelf. 3.3.3.2 Circuit Switching Unit The circuit switching unit shall be able to implement the T net switching capacity expansion from 64k to 256k smoothly, including 128k and 192k. The circuit switching unit consists of TSNB (with a capacity of up to 256k256k) and TFI. Fig. 3.3-3 shows the logical location of the unit in the system.

(16*32MHW) (16*32MHW)

DTU/TCU

TFI
LVDS

TFI

DTU/TCU

DTU/TCU
(16*32MHW)

TSNB
256K*256K

LVDS

LVDS

TFI

LVDS

TFI

DTU/TCU
(16*32MHW)

100M control stream Ethernet

Fig. 3.3-3

Internal Structure of the Circuit Switching Unit

In Fig. 3.3-3, the broken line indicates the same shelf. The backplane adopts the 576M LVDS cabling (payload: 512M; 8k time slots) mode. Out of the broken line is the UIM connected to other units through optical fibers. The TSNB provides 64k to 256k circuit time slots switching for the system. The switching network transmits data to the TFI inside the shelf through the 576M LVDS backplane. The connection of the switching network is controlled by the MPB through the Ethernet link. The connection messages are forwarded to the active and standby switching networks simultaneously by the MPB to ensure that the connections of the active and standby switching networks at the same time are completely the same.
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The T net part on the TSNB is implemented through a subcard. The 64k backplane is configured. To establish a 256k switching network, use a TSNB with full configuration. To implement a small capacity configuration such as 64k, 128k and 192k, insert proper subcards. This unit contains four pairs of TFI boards in active/standby mode. Each TFI provides eight pairs of 622M optical interfaces (payload of each interface: 512M; 8k time slots). The TFI and the TSNB are in the same shelf. The high speed LVDS are transmitted through the backplane only. This prevents the LVDS from being transmitted through cables and ensures the reliability of the system. Due to the switching, chip and line delay, to keep the input HWs of the boards synchronous, it is required to place FIFO on the TSNB and UIM of the TCU/DTU in the resource shelf to implement frame synchronization adjustment. Because each pair of optical interfaces of the TFI can access 8k time slots, each can access 64k time slots, and each LVDS from the TSNB can bear 8k time slots, each TFI needs to access 8 LVDSs and provides eight pairs of optical fibers to offer all the 256k time slots. Totally 128 lead-out fibers shall be provided for the TFI panels, including bidirectional fibers and those in active/standby mode. The optical interface provided by the TFI is accessed through the UIM in other resource shelves (such as TCU and DTU). If each TCU board can support 480 channels in the initial stage, totally 8k time slots are required. Therefore, each shelf shall access a pair of optical fibers. If each DTU board supports 960 channels, totally 16k time slots are required. Therefore, each shelf shall access two pairs of optical fibers. When the processing capability of each board in the resource shelf is upgraded to 960 channels, each shelf accesses two pairs of optical fibers. In this case, the capacity of the system can be expanded smoothly. The high speed LVDS signals between the active/standby TSNB and active/standby TFI are implemented through the cross interconnection mode, as shown in Fig. 3.3-4.

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TSNB

LVDS

TFI

TSNB

TFI

Fig. 3.3-4

Cross Interconnection Between the Active/Standby TSNB and Active/Standby TFI

The LVDS selection/tributary component shall be added to the TSNB and TFI to implement the selection of LVDS. 3.3.3.3 Trunk Interface Unit This unit implements the access of PSTN and 2G BSC voice channel or CS data services. Fig. 3.3-5 shows its structure.

SDTB

DTB

To control switching center To T net switching center To control switching center

Control Controlstream stream Ethernet Ethernet

TDM bus TDM bus Other Other control bus control bus

Fig. 3.3-5

Structure of the Trunk Interface Unit

The trunk interface unit implements these functions: 1. Interface part: It accesses the circuit interfaces such as E1 and SDH155, and demultiplexes/multiplexes them into 8 Mbps HWs, and then sends them to the T net. Its functions are implemented through the DT and SDT boards. 2. Ethernet switching part: This part serves as the interface between the unit and external control streams to connect the channels. This part adopts one 24+2 switching Ethernet to provide command and parameter channel for signaling
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streams to be processed by the trunk interface board and for controlling, configuring, maintaining and managing the boards in the system. The functions of this part are implemented on the UIM board. 3. LVDS interface part: This part serves as the interface between the trunk interface unit and the T net to provide connection function. Because the interface part is the unique data channel of the unit, the LVDS access part shall adopt the active/standby design. The functions of this part are implemented on the UIM board. 4. Another RS485 control bus shall be reserved in the system as the dedicated alarm and monitoring channel. This bus is terminated on the UIM in the shelf. 3.3.3.4 IP/ATM Access Unit Fig. 3.3-6 shows its structure:

APB

MNIC

IMAB

DTB

To Level-1 switching network To control switching center

Media Media stream stream Ethernet Ethernet Control Controlstream stream Ethernet Ethernet TDM bus TDM bus Other Other controlcontrol bus bus

To T net switching center To control switching center

Fig. 3.3-6

Structure of the IP/ATM Access Unit

The IP/ATM unit implements these functions: 1. Interface part: It needs to access the STM-1, E1 and FE interfaces to complete the processing of AAL2/ATM or RTP/UDP/IP. The processed data packets are sent to the service processing unit through UDP/IP. The APBE, MNIC, IMAB and DTB (The DTB provides E1 physical interface for the IMAB). 2. Ethernet switch part: This part serves as the interface between the resource shelf and the external media & control streams. This part adopts two Ethernets. One 24+2 switching Ethernet provides a channel for the media streams of resource
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boards and exchanges the traffic to be processed by resource boards. The other 24+2 switching Ethernet provides the signaling streams to be processed by resource boards and the command and parameter channel for controlling, configuring, maintaining and managing boards in the system. The functions of this part are implemented on the UIM board. 3. LVDS interface part: This part serves as the interface between the CS resource and the T net to provide connection function. Because the interface part is the unique data channel of the unit, the LVDS access part shall adopt the active/standby design. The functions of this part are implemented on the UIM board. 4. Another RS485 control bus shall be reserved in the system as the dedicated alarm and monitoring channel. This bus is terminated on the UIM in the shelf. 3.3.3.5 Control Plane Processing Unit Fig. 3.3-7 shows its structure:

MPB

MPB

SPB

MNIC

To control switching center

Control Controlstream stream Ethernet Ethernet TDM bus TDM bus Other Other controlcontrol bus bus

To T net switching center

To control switching center

Fig. 3.3-7

Structure of the Control Plane Processing Unit

The control plane processing unit implements these functions: 1. Control processing part: The MPB transits and processes the control plane media stream, completes the call control, data buffer, broadband signaling, resource and protocol processing, and implements the operation and maintenance functions. The SPB is used to connect the SS7 network and complete the SS7 MTP-2 protocol processing. 2. Ethernet switching part: This part serves as the interface between the resource
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shelf and the external control streams. This part adopts two Ethernets to provide the signaling streams to be processed by resource boards and the command and parameter channel for controlling, configuring, maintaining and managing boards in the system. Some functions of this part are implemented on the UIM board. 3. Another RS485 control bus shall be reserved in the system as the dedicated alarm and monitoring channel. This bus is terminated on the UIM in the shelf. 3.3.3.6 Clock Unit This unit provides global synchronization clock for the units which need synchronization clock in the whole ZXWN MGW to implement the BITS clock access, line clock extraction, clock synchronization phase locking and clock distribution functions. This unit consists of CLKG and CLKD. Fig. 3.3-8 shows the global clock topology.

T net TSNB TSNB TFI TFI

Unit shelves

16M8K 16M

VTC

32M 32M8K 64M

32M 32M8K 64M UIM ( UIM (Need generate T20 T20ms)


ms by itself)

16M8K 16M 16M8K 16M

IWFB/ MRB/ GPPB

CLKG CLKG

2Mbit 2MHz

16M8K 16M

16M8K 16M

DTB

SDTB/ SDHB (Need generate Extract two 8k clock from the line 19.44M clock by itself)

16M8K 16M

Fig. 3.3-8

Clock Unit

The active and standby CLKG boards provide two 16M8K and 16M clocks respectively. After the active/standby multiplexing, they provide one 16M8K and 16M clock for the active and standby UIMs of other resource shelves respectively. In this way, two CLKG board slots can provide global synchronization clock signals for the
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UIMs of 15 shelves. When the number of shelves which need to access clock signals exceeds 15, CLKD boards can be inserted in the compatible slots for CLKG/service board at any BUSN layer to provide clock signals for the UIMs of 15 shelves.

3.4 Software Structure


Fig. 3.4-1 shows the software structure, subsystems and their relationship.

Network management subsystem

PS service subsystem
Operatingsubsystem Databasesubsystem

CS service subsystem

Signaling subsystem

User plane subsystem

IP bearer subsystem

Microcode subsystem

PP subsystem

Operating subsystem BSP driving subsystem BSP driving subsystem

Fig. 3.4-1

Software Architecture of the R4 Core Network

3.4.1 BSP Subsystem


The BSP subsystem boots and drives the hardware of the whole system. It has the functions in these three aspects, Boot, CPU minimum system and hardware device driver. To make the software subsystems over the operating system independent of the hardware, the BSP must: 1. Shield the hardware device operation details from the upper-layer software module, abstract the hardware functions and provide logical function level of the hardware for other software modules. 2. Provide unified and encapsulated function interface for the upper-layer software subsystems especially the real-time operating system and shield the unnecessary parameters from the upper-layer software.
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The BSP requires high reliability and stability of the device driver. In principle, the BSP only provides interface for the real-time operating system. However, to improve the data transmitting/receiving efficiency, the individual software module such as MTP2 may invoke the device driver interface provided by the BSP directly. In addition, the BSP must support the online test and offline test of boards and provide necessary interfaces. Actually, the BSP provides a complete process invoking environment and interfaces invoked by functions. The upper-layer software uses the hardware functions by invoking these functions.

3.4.2 Operating Subsystem


The operating system runs over the BSP subsystem and under all other subsystems. It shields all device driver interfaces from user processes, and provides process dispatching, timer, memory management and file system based on a single processor, as well as the services such as inter-process communication based on multiple processors.

3.4.3 Database Subsystem


The database subsystem runs over the operating system. It is responsible for managing physical resources of R4 core NE and configuration information about service, signaling and protocol, and offering database access interface for other subsystems. The database is a relational database, which is divided into foreground database and background database. The resource management mode varies with different NEs, which is described in the NE design section. Because every two boards can communicate through the control plane channel, the database resource management mode can be selected flexibly.

3.4.4 Bearer Subsystem


The bearer subsystem runs over the operating system and the database subsystem, providing ATM, IP and TDM bearer services for the service subsystem, signaling subsystem, OAM and network management subsystem. The TCP/IP protocol stack provides two interfaces for the application, the callback function interface of the Epilogue protocol stack and the BSD socket interface. On the one hand, the bearer subsystem manages the external IP and ATM interfaces of the NEs and provides service
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for the IP packets and ATM cells communication between NEs. On the other hand, it manages the internal user plane communication interface based on the database configuration data and provides service for the user plane IP packet communication among intra-NE boards. The external ATM interface supports PVC, but does not support SVC. The ATM OAM cells are processed by the hardware chip (such as APC) on the interface board. The OAM cells that the software generates are inserted into the ATM VC by the hardware chip.

3.4.5 Microcode Subsystem


The microcode subsystem is the extension of the bearer subsystem. Its functions are the same as those of the bearer subsystem. The micro subsystem runs on the micro engine of the network processor, and is independent of the operating system. It provides interface for the bearer subsystem and user plane subsystem.

3.4.6 Signaling Subsystem


The signaling subsystem runs over the operating system, database subsystem and bearer subsystem, implementing the narrowband SS7, broadband SS7, call signaling, IP signaling and gateway control signaling and providing service for the service processing subsystem. The broadband and narrowband SS7 link layer protocols such as MTP2, SSCOP and SSCF are processed on the signaling interface board. The protocols of MTP3 or upper part are processed on the signaling processing board. The signaling processing board supports 1+1 active/standby function. The signaling link layer implements the link level load sharing. In the case of large capacity, the system supports load sharing of multiple pairs of signaling processing boards. The narrowband SS7 supports 64 kbps, 2 Mbps and n64 kbps signaling links, and multi-SP function over different signaling networks.

3.4.7 System Control Subsystem


The system control subsystem runs over the operating system and the database subsystem. It is responsible for the monitoring, startup and version downloading of the whole system.. This subsystem can monitor the process execution time. The FeedWatchdog task of the board is performed by a task with the highest priority.
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3.4.8 Network Management Subsystem


The network management subsystem runs over the operating system, database subsystem and bearer subsystem. The O&M personnel of the 3G core network can configure, analyze, diagnose, test the equipment running in the network and get device alarm and statistics data through the network management subsystem. The network management subsystem includes two parts, foreground and background. The foreground part runs on each board as a part of the embedded system. The background part runs on a high performance server. The foreground and background communication is borne over TCP (UDP)/IP/Ethernet. The foreground OMP board uses the Ethernet port to connect to the background. The O&M messages of all other boards are forwarded through the OMP board to implement the foreground and background communication. All the configuration commands are sent to the foreground MPs from the background through the OMP. The alarm agent, performance statistics management agent, signaling tracing agent, service observation agent and dynamic data management agent are resident on the foreground MPs and other related boards. The foreground modules interact with the OMC through these agents. The implementation of the diagnostic test is different from the above description. A unified diagnostic test control module is resident on the OMP to control the diagnostic test of all boards.

3.4.9 PP Subsystem
From the perspective of system function, the PP software bears these six functions: Digital trunk interface management, switching network connection, signal tone, number receiver and register management, control plane and media plane packet switching at the system resource shelf level, system working clock and related management, and simple environment monitoring and power management. In bearing the interface function, the PP serves as the interface system of the switching system, providing the communication bridge between the core network and other switching systems. It can: 1. 2. Convert the external signals of the system into internal messages. Help the service process on the MP complete some service processing functions and pre-process service signals. 3. For the core network, there is only inter-office trunk interface, and only the
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inter-office digital trunk is considered. It is required to process the digital trunk channel associated signaling interface (CAS) and digital trunk common channel signaling interface (CCS).

3.4.10 CS User Plane Subsystem


The CS user plane subsystem processes the user data of the MGW: It involves the following functions: 1. 2. Bearer access: It supports ATM, IP and TDM bearer access modes. Frame protocol processing: It supports NbUP, IuUP protocol and UP versions 1 and 2. 3. Voice data coding/decoding: It supports AMR/G.711 codec, eight AMR rates and AMR rate adjustment. 4. 5. TrFO/TFO processing. Circuit bearer data service rate adaptation.

3.5 System Networking Configuration


3.5.1 Different Networking Modes of the MGW
3.5.1.1 End Office MGW When the MGW is used for end office networking, it provides Mc interface, A interface, Iu-CS user plane interface, Iu-CS bearer control signaling interface and Nb interface, as shown in Fig. 3.5-1.

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MSCSERVER Mc Iu-CS RNC MGW Nb GMGW

BSC

Fig. 3.5-1

End Office MGW Networking

3.5.1.2 G-MGW When the MGW is used for G-MGW networking, it provides Mc interface, Nb interface and Ai interface. If the Nb interface adopts the AAL2 bearer, the MGW also provides ALCAP bearer control signaling, as shown in Fig. 3.5-2.

GMSCSERVER

Mc Nb MGW GMGW Ai PSTN

Fig. 3.5-2

G-MGW Networking

3.5.1.3 Integration of the End Office and G-MGW When the MGW is used for integrated end office and G-MGW networking, it provides Mc interface, Nb interface, Ai interface, Iu-CS interface, A interface and bearer control signaling interface, as shown in Fig. 3.5-3.

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MSCSERVER Mc Iu-CS RNC MGW Ai PSTN

BSC

Nb GMGW

Fig. 3.5-3

Integrated End Office and G-MGW Networking

3.5.1.4 MGW With a Built-in SGW Because the MGW provides complete external interfaces including TDM interface, ATM interface and IP interface, the ZXWN MGW supports the built-in SGW. When the MGW has a built-in SGW, the MGW provides the signaling interface from the SGW to the PSTN, PLMN and IP network. Regarding software functions, the MGW supports the forwarding of PSTN/PLMN messages and IP network signaling messages, and provides NIF. Being different from the separate SGW, the common SGW has no upper-layer user at each signaling processing layer. The messages are not submitted to the upper-layer. Some signaling messages that the MGW receives are provided for local module user such as ALCAP. The signaling layer shall submit these messages to the upper layer directly.

3.5.2 System Configuration


3.5.2.1 Typical Full Rack Configuration of End Office MGW Configuration of the user shelf: In an end office, each shelf supports 6k voice channel and 200,000 subscribers. The APBE board is always installed in slots 7 and 8. The VTC board is in slots 1-6. The MNIC is always in slots 11-14. The MRB and IWFB are always in slots 15-17. The OMP is always in slots 11 and 12 in the BCTC shelf. The Mc interface board is always in slots 1 and 2 of the BCTC shelf. Fig. 3.5-4 shows the configuration of the user shelf.

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1 V T C D

2 V T C D

3 V T C D

4 V T C D

5 V T C D

6 V T C D

7 A P B E

8 A P B E

9 U I M /2

10 U I M /2

11 M N I C

12

13 M N I C

14

15 I W F B/ M R B

16 I W F B/ M R B

17 I W F B/ M R B

Fig. 3.5-4

Configuration of the User Shelf

In the typical full configuration of the rack, two BUSN shelves+one BCTC shelf are needed. In this case, 400,000 mobile subscribers are supported. Number of required VTCs=400,0000.03196%/1960=12. Twelve VTCs are needed. Number of required APBEs=400,0000.03/4000=3. Three APBEs are needed. Number of MNICs (Nb)=400, 0000.0396%/3000=3.84. Four MNICs are needed. Number of required MRBs=400,0000.036%/480=1.5. Three MRBs are needed (one ringback tone resource board is added). Number of required IWFBs=400,0000.03/60200=1. One IWFB is needed. Fig. 3.5-5 shows the configuration of the BUSN1 shelf.

1 V T C D

2 V T C D

3 V T C D

4 V T C D

5 V T C D

6 V T C D

7 A P B E

8 A P B E

9 U I M /2

10 U I M /2

11 M N I C

12

13 M N I C

14

15 I W F B

16 M R B

17 M R B

Fig. 3.5-5

Configuration of the BUSN1 Shelf

Fig. 3.5-6 shows the configuration of the BUSN2 shelf.

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1 V T C D 2 V T C D 3 V T C D 4 V T C D 5 V T C D 6 V T C D 7 A P B E 8 9 U I M /2 10 U I M /2 11 M N I C 12 13 M N I C 14 15 16 17 M R B

Fig. 3.5-6

Configuration of the BUSN2 Shelf

Fig. 3.5-7 shows the configuration of the BCTC shelf.

1 M N I C

2 M N I C

3 M P B

4 M P B

5 M P B

6 M P B

7 M P B

8 M P B

9 U I M /2

10 U I M /2

11 M P B

12 M P B

13 C L K G

14 C L K G

15

16

17

Fig. 3.5-7

Configuration of the BCTC Shelf

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Description: The APBE in the BUSN1/2 is used for the access of the Iu-CS. The MNIC in the BUSN1/2 is used for the IP access of the Nb interface. The MNIC in slot 1/2 in the BCTC is used for the integrated access of the Mc interface. The MPB in the BCTC completes the call control, H.248 signaling processing and OMC function. 3.5.2.2 Typical Full Configuration of G-MGW Rack Fig. 3.5-8 shows the configuration of the user shelf. In the G-MGW, each shelf provides 4.6K voice channels and supports 150,000 subscribers. The VTCD boards are in slots 1, 2, 5, 6 and 13. The DTEC boards are in slots 3, 4, 7, 8 and 14. The MNICs are always in slots 11 and 12. The MRB and SPB are always in slots 16 and 17. The CLKG boards are always in slots 15 and 16 of the BCSN shelf. The OMPs are always in slots 11 and 12 of the BCTC shelf. The Mc interface board is always in slots 1 and 2 of the BCTC shelf.

1 V T C D

2 V T C D

3 D T E C

4 D T E C

5 V T C D

6 V T C D

7 D T E C

8 D T E C

9 U I M /2

10 U I M /2

11 M N I C

12

13 D T E C

14 D T E C

15 V T C D

16 V T C D

17 M R B/ S P B

Fig. 3.5-8

Configuration of the G-MGW User Shelf

In the typical full configuration of the rack, two BUSN shelves+one BCSN shelf+one BCTC shelf are needed. In this case, 300,000 mobile subscribers are supported. Number of required VTCDs=300,0000.03/770=11.7. Ten VTCDs are needed. Number of required MNICs (Nb)=300,0000.03/4600=1.96. Two MNICs are needed. Number of required DTECs=300,0000.03/768=11.7. Ten DTECs are needed.
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Number of required SPBs=300,000/20, 00064=0.23. One SPB is needed. Number of required MRBs=300,0000.035%/480=0.94. One MRB is needed (The gateway office does not need a ringback tone resource board). Fig. 3.5-9 shows the configuration of the BUSN1 shelf.

1 V T C D

2 V T C D

3 D T E C

4 D T E C

5 V T C D

6 V T C D

7 D T E C

8 D T E C

9 U I M /2

10 U I M /2

11 M N I C

12

13 D T E C

14 D T E C

15 V T C D

16 V T C D

17 M R B B

Fig. 3.5-9

Configuration of the BUSN1 Shelf in the G-MGW

Fig. 3.5-10 shows the configuration of the BUSN2 shelf.

1 V T C D

2 V T C D

3 D T E C

4 D T E C

5 V T C D

6 V T C D

7 D T E C

8 D T E C

9 U I M /2

10 U I M /2

11 M N I C

12

13 D T E C

14 D T E C

15 V T C D

16 V T C D

17 S P B

Fig. 3.5-10

Configuration of the BUSN2 Shelf in the G-MGW

Fig. 3.5-11 shows the configuration of the BCSN shelf.

1 T F I

2 T F I

5 T S N B

7 T S N B

9 U I M /2

10 U I M /2

11

12

13

14

15 C L K G

16 C L K G

17

Fig. 3.5-11

Configuration of the BCSN Shelf in the G-MGW 79

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Fig. 3.5-12 shows the configuration of the BCTC shelf.

1 M N I C

2 M N I C

3 M P B

4 M P B

5 M P B

6 M P B

9 U I M /2

10 U I M /2

11 M P B

12 M P B

13

14

15

16

17

Fig. 3.5-12

Configuration of the BCTC Shelf in the G-MGW

Description: The MNIC in the BUSN1/2 is used for the IP access of the Nb interface. For the ATM, the APBE is used. The TFI in the BCSN provides two pairs of optical fibers to connect to the UIM of the BUSN1/2. The MNIC in slot 1/2 in the BCTC is used for the access of the Mc interface. The MPB in the BCTC completes the call control, H.248 signaling processing and OMC functions. The MPB in slot 11/12 is used as the OMP. 3.5.2.3 Typical Full Configuration for Combination of MGW and G-MGW Fig. 3.5-13 shows the configuration of the user shelf. In the combination, each shelf provides 4K voice channels and provides 130,000 subscribers. The VTCD boards are in slots 1, 2, 5, 6, 13 and 14. The DTEC boards are in slots 3, 4, 7 and 8. The APBE and MNIC are always in slots 11 and 12. The MRB, SPB and IWFB are always in slots 15, 16 and 17. The CLKGs are always in slots 15 and 16 of the BCSN shelf. The OMP boards are always in slots 11 and 12 of the BCTC shelf. The Mc interface boards are always in slots 1 and 2 of the BCTC shelf. Fig. 3.5-13 shows the configuration of the user shelf.

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1 V T C D 2 V T C D 3 D T E C 4 D T E C 5 V T C D 6 V T C D 7 D T E C 8 D T E C 9 U I M /2 10 U I M /2 11 A P B E/ M N I C 12 A P B E/ M N I C 13 V T C D 14 V T C D 15 16 M R B/ S P B/ I W F B 17 M R B/ S P B/ I W F B

Fig. 3.5-13

Configuration of the User Shelf in the Combination of MGW and G-MGW

In the typical full configuration of the rack, two BUSN shelves+one BCSN shelf+one BCTC shelf are needed. In this case, about 260,000 mobile subscribers are supported. Number of required VTCDs=260,0000.03126%/980=10.02. Eleven VTCDs are needed. Number of required APBEs=260,0000.03/4000=1.95. Two APBEs are needed. Number of required MNICs (Nb)=260,0000.0326%/3000=0.67. One MNIC is needed. Number of required MRB=260,0000.037%/480=1.14. Two MRBs (ringback tone resource board) are needed. Number of required DTECs=260,0000.0370%/768=7.1. Eight DTECs are needed. Number of required SPBs=260,000/5, 00064=0.81. One SPB is needed. Number of required IWFBs=260,0000.03/60200=0.65. One IWFB is needed. Fig. 3.5-14 shows the configuration of the BUSN1 shelf.

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1 V T C D

2 V T C D

3 D T E C

4 D T E C

5 V T C D

6 V T C D

7 D T E C

8 D T E C

9 U I M /2

10 U I M /2

11 A P B E

12 A P B E

13 V T C D

14 V T C D

15

16 I W F B

17 S P B

Fig. 3.5-14

Configuration of the BUSN1 Shelf in the Combination of MGW and G-MGW

Fig. 3.5-15 shows the configuration of the BUSN2 shelf.

1 V T C D

2 V T C D

3 D T E C

4 D T E C

5 V T C D

6 V T C D

7 D T E C

8 D T E C

9 U I M /2

10 U I M /2

11 M N I C

12

13 V T C D

14 V T C D

15

16 M R B

17 M R B

Fig. 3.5-15

Configuration of the BUSN2 in the Combination of MGW and G-MGW

Fig. 3.5-16 shows the configuration of the BCSN shelf.

1 T F I

2 T F I

5 T S N B

7 T S N B

9 U I M /2

10 U I M /2

11

12

13

14

15 C L K G

16 C L K G

17

Fig. 3.5-16

Configuration of BCSN Shelf in the Combination of MGW and G-MGW

Fig. 3.5-17 shows the configuration of the BCTC shelf.

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1 M N I C 2 M N I C 3 M P B 4 M P B 5 M P B 6 M P B 7 8 9 U I M /2 10 U I M /2 11 M P B 12 M P B 13 14 15 16 17

Fig. 3.5-17

Configuration of the BCTC Shelf in the Combination of MGW and G-MGW

Description: The two APBEs in the BUSN1 are used for the access of the Iu-CS. The MNIC in the BUSN2 is used for the IP access of the Nb interface. For the ATM, the APBE is used. The MNIC in slot 1/2 in the BCTC is used for the access of the Mc interface. The MPB in the BCTC completes the call control, H.248 signaling processing and OMC functions. The MPB in slot 11/12 is used as the OMP.

3.5.3 Example
Suppose that there is an office with 200,000 subscribers, and the MGW serves as the G-MGW concurrently. The average busy hour traffic of each subscriber is 0.03 Erl. The MS (3G) to MS (3G) calls count for 30%, of which 20% are in TFO or G.711 mode (using TC resources), and the rest are in TrFO mode. The internal 3G calls of MGW count for 4%. The 3G to 3G calls between MGWs count for 26%. The MS (3G) to fixed users and MS (2G) calls count for 70%. As shown in Fig. 3.5-18, the BSS and RNS are connected to the MGW through E1 and ATM. The RNS implements the signaling interconnection with the MSC Server through the built-in SG of the MGW. The BSS implements the signaling interconnection with the MSC Server through the external SG. (Because the SG has no ATM signaling interface, the RNS is not interconnected with the SG). At the same time, the MGW is interconnected with the PSTN through E1 to groom the traffic between it and the PSTN. The PSTN is interconnected with the MSC Server through the SG. The MGWs are connected through the IP metropolitan area network to form the bearer network. Through the network, the traffic between them can be groomed. The MSC
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Server shall be connected to the IP metropolitan area network to transmit signaling between the MSC Server and other NEs. In this networking mode, the system has a low requirement on the MSC Server which only needs to implement the IP signaling interface. The requirements on the MGW are the same as those in Mode 1. It is required to implement various bearer layer interfaces (ATM interface, E1 interface and IP interface) and the ATM and IP signaling interfaces. The built-in SG functions shall be provided to implement the signaling interconnection between the MSC Server and the RNS.

HLR

SCP

SS7 network

IP HLR MSC Server MSC Server IP SCP SG MGW IP BACKBONE MGW MGW

PSTN BSS
SS7 link ATM signaling link PCM bearer link

RNS
IP signaling link ATM bearer link

Fig. 3.5-18

Networking

The external SG shall be used to implement the interconnection between the MSC Server and other NEs (HLR, SCP and PSTN). The MSC Server can be interconnected with the HLR and SCP which have IP signaling ports directly through SIGTRAN. According to the above configuration analysis, Table 3.5-1 shows the MGW device configuration:

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Table 3.5-1 Board Name BUSN BCSN BCTC Rack Shelf VTCD APBE MNIC MRB DTEC SPB IWFB UIM/2 TFI TSNB CLKG OMP SMP 2 1 1 1 4 8 2 3 2 6 1 1 8 2 2 2 2 4

Board Configuration Qty

3.6 Board Structure


3.6.1 MGW Boards
Table 3.6-1 shows the circuit boards used in the MGW system.

Table 3.6-1 Abbreviation APBE CLKG MPx86 DTEC VTCD MRB

Circuit Boards Description

ATM access processing module Clock generation board Main processor Digital trunk board Voice transcoder Media resource board 85

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Abbreviation APBE MNIC IWFB UIM SPB TSNB TFI

Description ATM access processing module Universal interface network board Inter-network interconnection function board Universal interface module Signaling processing board T net switching board TDM optical interface board

3.6.1.1 APBE The APBE module is used for the ATM access processing of the Iu-CS interface. The APBE system consists of CPU subcard subsystem, ATM port controller TAPC64013E, C5e NP subsystem and ATM access subsystem. Fig. 3.6-1 shows the principle of the APBE module.

8MHW*8

Circuit switching chip

IMA chip

ATM switching chip

LOCAL BUS

UTO PIA bus

UTOPIA bus

STM -1 STM -1 STM -1 STM -1

Optical module Optical module Optical module Optical module

PCI bridging chip

CPU subcard

ATM PHY chip


Network processor subsystem

PCI BUS

Ethernet PHY

4FE

FE

Fig. 3.6-1

Principle of the APBE

The APBE board implements these functions: 1. Providing 4STM-1 ATM interface to satisfy the requirement for 4STM-1 ATM networking. 2. Supporting ATM AAL2 at a line rate of 155 Mbps and AAL5 SAR (2K VC, 8K CID).

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3. 4. 5.

ATM OAM. Processing SSCOP and SSCF. Providing low-cost ATM interface IMA (IMA1.1, compatible with IMA1.0).

The APBE module provides four external ATM-1 optical interfaces. 3.6.1.2 CLKG The CLKG board is the clock generation board of the MGW system. The CLKG module adopts the active/standby design. The active/standby CLKG is locked on the same reference to implement smooth changeover. The CLKG module takes phase jitter filtering measures to eliminate possible clock burr or jitter during the changeover. The CLKG module and main control unit communicate through the RS485. The 8 KHz frame synchronization signals from the DTEC or SPB clock reference, 2 MHz/2 Mbits signals from the BITS, 8K (PP2S, 16CHIP) from the GPSTM board, or 8K clock signals from the UIM are used as local clock reference to keep the CLKG synchronous with the clock of the upper-level exchange. For the input reference, the CLKG board can provide alarm signals of reference loss and distinguish the reference degradation. Fig. 3.6-2 shows the principle of the CLKG module.
PP2S receives

distributed

circuits

Reference clock signal input

PP2S signal output

GPS, line 8K 2MHz and 2MBits 16CHIP and PP2S

Reference selection Reference detection

Local crystal oscillator

Phaselocked loop frequency combined circuit

8K, 16M, 32M and 64M clock signals

CPU subsystem

RS485

Changeover signal input

Active/standby changeover circuit

Changeover signal output

Fig. 3.6-2

Principle of the CLKG Module

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The CLKG board has the following functions: 1. 2. Communicating with the control console through the RS485 bus. Selecting reference sources manually or through the background, including BITS, line (8K), GPS and local (stratum-2 or stratum-3) clock reference. The manual changeover can be shielded through the software. The sequence of selecting reference manually is as follows: 2Mbits1--2Mbits2--2MHz1--2MHz2--8K1--8K2--8K3--NULL 3. Adopting the loose coupling phase-locked system and supporting four working modes, CATCH, TRACE, HOLD and FREE. 4. The output clock can be a stratum-2 or stratum-3 clock, which can be implemented by changing the constant-temperature trough crystal oscillator and through the software. 5. 6. 7. Providing 15 channels of 16.384M, 8K and PP2S clock for the UIM. Distinguishing clock loss and input reference degradation. Active/standby changeover function. It supports command changeover, manual changeover, fault changeover and reset changeover modes. In the case of maintenance changeover, the rate of bit errors occurred to the system shall be less than 1%. 8. The phase discontinuity between two CLKG boards is less than 1/8 UI code element. 9. Providing complete alarm function. It supports SRAM failure alarm, constant-temperature trough alarm, reference and output clock loss alarm, reference degradation alarm, reference frequency deviation alarm, phase-locked loop discrimination failure alarm. According to these alarms, you can rapidly locate current working status and a fault of the clock board. 10. Clock maintainability. The VCXO provides a frequency adjustment rotary switch. This switch can be used to adjust the frequency after the central frequency deviates due to the aging of the quartz crystal after several years. The CLKG board provides these external interfaces: 1. 15 groups of 8k/16M/PP2S system clock output interfaces.
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2. 3.

10 groups of 8k/32M/64M system clock output interfaces. One or two groups of DTEC, SPB, APBE and SDTEC module line 8k reference input interfaces.

4. 5. 6. 3.6.1.3 IWFB

One group of GPS module 8K reference input interfaces. One group of GPS module PP2S and 16CHIP reference input interfaces. Two groups of 2 Mbps and 2 MHz reference clock input interfaces.

The IWFB implements transparent/non-transparent synchronous or asynchronous data services and non-transparent fax circuit switched data bearer services. The IWFB processes the circuit data services. According to the system configuration, the uplink data might be transmitted through the HW line interface or media stream Ethernet port. If the data is transmitted through the HW line interface, the DSP processes the data link protocol at the wireless network side and implements the rate adaptation and other protocol conversion. Then the processed data is sent through the MPC8250 (or through the MPC8250 directly without passing the DSP) to the M80310 processor to implement DATA/FAX MODEM processing. After the modulation, the 64K data is accessed to the PSTN through the DTU. This is the MODEM/FAX service. For the ISDN service, the CPU terminates the RLP link protocol, and then sends the user data to the DSP on the board. The DSP adapts the data to ISDN service streams, and sends them to the ISDN through the T net switching unit and DTB/SDTB. The following describes external interfaces of the IWFB: 1. The backplane accesses up to four pairs of 8 MHz HW lines, and exchanges them to the intra-board resource processing part through the TDM switching network to ensure flexibly allocation of time slots and to facilitate future expansion. The TDM data streams shall be synchronous with the 8 kHz a 16 MHz clock sent by the UIM. 2. The backplane accesses one 10/100M control stream Ethernet used for CPU and DSP version online downloading, MODEM fixture online downloading, voice channel connection, intra-board signaling stream processing and the transmission of control, configuration, maintenance and management commands and parameters of the board.
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3.

The backplane accesses one 10/100M media stream Ethernet used to bear circuit data services from the switching Ethernet.

4. 5.

An RS-485 bus is reserved for connecting the board to the UIM. Reading information such as cabinet number, shelf number and sot number transmitted from the backplane.

6.

Reporting local board reset status to the UIM and receiving hardware reset signals from the UIM.

7. 3.6.1.4 MPx86

Implementing HW interlock logic with the adjacent board position.

The MPx86 transits and processes the control plane media stream, completes the call control, data buffer, broadband signaling, resource and protocol processing, and implements the operation and maintenance functions. The MPx86 has powerful processing performance and is configured with 1 GB memory. In addition, it provides abundant external interfaces including IDE, 10/100M Ethernet, RS485, RS232 and USB interfaces. The MPx86 can connect to various peripheral components through standard PCI bus to implement active/standby MP changeover. Its control register and data register can be used to set functions or exchange status data through the main control software. Fig. 3.6-3 shows the principle of the MPX86 module.

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Logical time sequence adjustment, control management Control stream Ethernet BIOS Ethernet interface circuit Media stream Ethernet OMC Ethernet Active/standby Ethernet

CPU subsystem 1

Panel IDE

PCI bus Backplane ID

B A C K P L A N E

management

2*USB

Bridging chip

Peripheral memory

Serial port chip

Power management RS485 GPS management RS485 Backup RS485

Power

PCI bus Control stream Ethernet CPU subsystem 2 Logical time sequence adjustment, control management BIOS Ethernet interface circuit Media stream Ethernet OMC Ethernet Active/standby Ethernet

Fig. 3.6-3

Principle of the MPx86

Two CPU systems are designed on one MPX86 module, which are called CPU_A and CPU_B respectively. The two CPU systems are independent. The CPU_A is the main control CPU system which manages modules. In addition to two CPU systems, the module has the public power supply used to provide power for the whole module. The MPX86 module also provides an Ethernet switching chip for the external control stream, media stream, active/standby and OMC Ethernet. When the MPX86 module serves as an OMP, it provides two external 100M OMC Ethernets. When the MPX86 is used for other purposes, it does not provide external interface. 3.6.1.5 MNIC As the network interface board of the equipment, the MNIC provides a physical interface for the equipment to connect to the external packet network (IP/ATM). For the packet data entering the system, implement the underlying protocol processing first. Restore IP data packets through the PPP protocol of the AAL5 interface and POS interface of the ATM, and then sort the packets. After the underlying processing is
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completed, the protocol data of the control plane such as signaling is exchanged to the main control unit of the system for processing through the control Ethernet interface of the resource shelf. The service stream data of the user plane is forwarded to the corresponding internal processing board through the media stream switching Ethernet according to the destination address route of IP data packets. When the MNIC serves as a network interface board, it also needs to complete the protocol processing such as IP data filtering and NAT conversion to protect the internal IP communication of the equipment. When the MNIC serves as an interface board, at least two MNICs working in 1+1 backup or load sharing mode shall be configured. Fig. 3.6-4 shows the principle of the MNIC module.

Control stream Ethernet


Panel

100M

Control stream Ethernet

100M

Control stream Ethernet Time sequence, logical processing circuit


Internalbus

4*100M

100M Ethernet
4*100M
RS485

B A C K P L A N E

PCI bus

ID, clock signal

Network processor subsystem

Gigabit Ethernet

1000M

1000M

Fig. 3.6-4

Principle of the MNIC Module

The MNIC module consists of network processor system, physical interface part and CPU system. The network processor minimum system and Ethernet interface part are
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placed on the backplane. The CPU subcard is adopted, and the data is transmitted between the subcard and the network processor system through the PCI bus and internal bus. The components mounted on the PCI bus of the network processor include CPU subcard and Ethernet chip. The coprocessor is connected in the standard subcard mode. One of the two Ethernet chips serves as the data backup channel. When the CPU subcard exists, there is no need to install the data channel which can be provided by the CPU. When the CPU subcard does not exist, that channel can be used to back up active/standby data. The other Ethernet chip serves as the control stream channel to communicate with the UIM, and is used for debugging and code downloading. The MNIC board provides these functions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Providing 1100M control stream Ethernet interface. Providing 1100M Ethernet data backup channel. Providing RS485 backup control channel interface. 1+1 active/standby logic control. Providing one gigabit interface (the gigabit module is required) or up to four 100M Ethernet interfaces for the external network. The MNIC module provides one gigabit or 4~8 100M Ethernet interfaces for the external network. 3.6.1.6 VTCD The VTCD is configured in the TC unit in the MGW module to implement the voice coding/decoding, rate adaptation and EC functions. In processing the AMR, it also needs to process the Iu-UP protocol. The VTCD board consists of these parts: CPU subcard, DSP system array, circuit switched part, 100M Ethernet switching part, echo suppressor subcard and 100M PHY interface, as shown in Fig. 3.6-5.

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Logic processing

Circuit switching chip

4*8MHW

subcard

Media plane Ethernet

BC

switching Packet

subcard

HPI

chip

BC

Media plane Ethernet Control plane Ethernet

CPU

RS485 and RS232

Fig. 3.6-5

Principle of the VTCD

3.6.1.7 UIM The UIMU performs Ethernet level 2 switching in the resource shelf, CS timeslot multiplexing switching, and resource shelf management. In addition, it provides external interfaces for the resource shelf, including the packet data interface (GE optical interface) connected to the core switching unit, and the control plane data Ethernet interface (four FEs) connected to the distributed processing platform. Fig. 3.6-6 shows the principle of the UIM.

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Time slot switching

Internal bus 128*8MHW

Logic control circuit

Peripheral memory

CPU subsystem

RS485 RS232 Debugging Ethernet Active/standby Ethernet

PCI bus

User plane Ethernet

Media plane control plane interconnection GCS subcard Media plane gigabit optical interface GXS subcard Media plane gigabit electrical interface GTS subcard

Control plane Ethernet

24*100M+2*1000M media plane Ethernet

24*100M+2*1000M control plane Ethernet

Fig. 3.6-6

Principle of the UIM

The UIM has these functions: 1. Completing the 16K time slot access between the resource shelf and the circuit switching unit through two pairs of optical fibers and implementing the multiplexing of 16K time slots from 8M to 32M. The frame interleaving is used for multiplexing and to provide 128 8MHWs for the resource shelf. 2. Providing internal 16K circuit switching function for the resource shelf. This function and the external multiplexing function do not exist simultaneously. The functions are selected by inserting subcards and selecting the welding mode. 3. Providing two 24+2 switching HUB. One is the control plane Ethernet HUB, providing 20 internal control plane FE interfaces to interconnect with the internal modules of the resource shelf and four external control plane FE
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interfaces for the interconnection between resource shelves or between the resource shelf and the CHUB. One user plane Ethernet HUB provides 23 interface FE interfaces for resource shelf interconnection, and provides one external FE interface. 4. Providing one user plane GE optical interface for the interconnection between the resource shelf and core switching unit through an optional GXS subcard. The GE channel adopts the active/standby backup mode to provide 1+1 backup of the core switching unit. The UIM provides one ore two internal user plane GE interfaces (the GTS subcard shall be configured when the UIM provides two GE electrical interfaces) for the resource shelf as its GE slots. 5. Providing one internal user plane GE interface. This interface can be used to cascade with the CHUB in the control shelf. 6. Providing control plane and user plane Ethernet GE interconnection mode for the UIM of the distributed processing platform. 7. The internal FE port of the active/standby module adopts the high impedance multiplexing backup mode on the backplane. 8. Providing resource shelf management function, the RS-485 management interface for the resource shelf, and resource shelf module reset and reset signal collection function. 9. Resource shelf clock driving. The PP2S, 8K and 16M signals are inputted. After the phase locking and driving processing, the signals are distributed to the slots of the resource shelf. The UIM provides 16M, 8K and PP2S clock for the resource module. 10. Reading cabinet number, shelf number, slot number, device number, backplane version number and backplane type number. 11. MAC configuration, VLAN and broadcast packet control. 12. Compatible with the commercial HUB. The UIM provides these external interfaces: 1. 2. Four 100M Ethernet interfaces. One or two GE interfaces.

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3.6.1.8 SPB The SPB module is a multi-CPU processing board with 16 E1s and four 8M Highway interfaces. It is used as the narrowband signaling processing board to process the HDLC of multiple channels of SS7 and the signaling of MTP-2 or lower layer. The SPB module integrates 16 channels of E1/T1 LIU and Framer, communication processing unit consisting of four CPUs, two 100M Ethernet switches used for the user plane and control plane, and time slot switching chip. The SPB module supports the E1/T1 mode and 120 ohms and 75 ohms impedance configuration. According to different system configurations, the SPB module can be used for E1 access or Highway access, and simultaneous E1 and Highway access. The single-chip CPU can be connected through the switching chip, E1 and Highway, to support signaling forwarding. The CPU system is configured in the system in the form of subcard. The module provides two external Ethernet switching planes at an egress rate of 100M. The two Ethernet ports of the CPU are mounted on these two Ethernet planes. The module provides two channels of external clock for the clock board as the 8 kHz reference clock. Fig. 3.6-7 shows the principle of the SPB module.
4*8MHW

TDM Switch

4*8MHW

E1 Line Interface

16*E1

4*8MHW

Control Stream Switch

Control Stream FE

CPU SubSystem

Media Stream Switch

Media Stream FE

Fig. 3.6-7 97

Principle of the SPB Module

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The SPB module provides 16 external E1 interfaces. 3.6.1.9 PSN4V The PSN4V implements the packet data switching between the line cards. It is a self-routing Crossbar switching system, working with the queue engine on the line cards to complete the switching function. It can provide a switching capacity of up to 40 GB user data. The difference between the PSN4V and the PSN8V lies in the quantity of CrossBar switching chips. Fig. 3.6-8 shows the composition of the PSN4V/8V:

Control Bus CPU Subsystem HSSL

CPLD

CrossBar Switch
Fig. 3.6-8 Principle of the PSN4V/8V

The PSN4V board can provide these functions: 1. 2. Bidirectional 40 Gbps user data exchange. 1+1 load sharing. Both manual changeover and software changeover are supported. 3. It can be upgraded to PSN8V smoothly to support a switching capacity of up to 80G. 4. Providing two 10/100Mbase Ethernets as the control channel.
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5.

Reading physical IDs such as cabinet number, shelf number and slot number and identifying versions.

The PSN4V/PSN8V board does not provide external interfaces. 3.6.1.10 2.5G Line Interface Board GLIQV The GLIQV includes four GE line interface boards, implementing the physical layer adaptation, IP packet routing table lookup, fragmentation, forwarding and traffic management. It can implement the processing and forwarding at a line rate of bidirectional 2.5 Gbps and the traffic management of 1K streams. Fig. 3.6-9 shows the composition of the GLIQV:
Optical Module

Ingress NP

GE MAC

Queue Manager

HSSL

Egress NP

Optical Module

CPLD

Fig. 3.6-9

Principle of the GLIQV

The GLIQV board provides these functions: 1. Providing four GE ports. Each GE optical port is in 1+1 backup mode. The GE port backup is provided between the GE ports of adjacent GLIQVs. 2. It performs physical layer adaptation, and IP packet routing table lookup, fragmentation, forwarding, and traffic control. It can implement the processing and forwarding at a line rate of bidirectional 2.5 Gbps and the traffic management of 1K streams. 3. 4. Providing 1100M Ethernet as the active/standby communication channel. Providing 1100M Ethernet as the control stream channel.

The module provides four pairs of external GE optical interfaces, of which every two are in mutual backup mode, for accessing the services of the level-2 resource shelf to
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the level-1 switching platform. 3.6.1.11 DTB/DTEC The DTB/DTEC serves as the digital trunk interface module, providing 32 external E1/T1 links. 1. It provides 32E1/T1 physical interface with echo suppression function (optional). 2. 3. It supports transparent transmission of inter-office CAS and CCS channel. It supports extracting 8K synchronization clock from the line and transmitting the clock to the clock module through the cable as the clock reference. The only difference between the DTB and DTEC lies in the EC function. The DTEC can be configured with the EC function. Fig. 3.6-10 shows the principle of the DTB/DTEC board.

ControlStream F E

C PU Subsystem

Circuit Switch

CPLD
B A C K P L A N E

TDM Bus
Data Bus Address Bus

E1 LIU P rotect Circuit

E 1 LIU&Framer

8*8K Clock 8K16M

2*8K 8K16M 32*E1/T1

Alarm

Fig. 3.6-10

Principle of the DTB Module

The whole circuit consists of the following modules: Unit processing circuit, E1 base interface circuit, time slot switching circuit, echo suppression circuit, alarm detection and indication circuit, time slot and logic generation circuit and bus transceiver circuit. The DTB/DTEC board has these functions:

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1.

Providing 32E1/T1 physical interface with echo suppression function (optional).

2. 3.

Supporting transparent transmission of inter-office CAS and CCS channel. Supporting extracting 8K synchronization clock from the line and transmitting the clock to the clock module through the cable as the clock reference.

Providing 32 external E1/T1 interfaces. 3.6.1.12 CHUB In the MGW system, the CHUB is used for the extension of the distributed processing platform: Each resource shelf provides two or four 100M Ethernets (control stream) to connect to the convergence Ethernet (CHUB, control stream hub). The CHUB connects to the UIM of the local shelf through the gigabit electrical interface. Use multiple FE Trunks to implement the extension of multiple shelves. Use a GE optical interface to connect to the gigabit Ethernet to implement the extension of more shelves. Fig. 3.6-11 shows the principle of the CHUB.
RS485 EPLD CPU RS232

PCI Bus

Ethernet Switch

GMII/TBI

Ethernet Switch

GE
46*FE

Fig. 3.6-11

Principle of the CHUB Module

The CHUB module provides 46 external 100M Ethernet interfaces and one 1000M optical interface.

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3.6.1.13 TSNB The TSNB provides 64k circuit time slot switching for the system. The switching network transmits data to the TFI in the local shelf through the 576M LVDS backplane.

Fig. 3.6-12 shows the principle of the TSNB module.

Address, data bus 128 pairs of 32MHW

64K digital switching array


Chip selection Clock Clock

Eight sets of 576M LVDS

LVDS selector/

multiplexing/ demultiplexing

tributary

synchronization

LVDS

Clock driving

adjustment) FPGA (Frame


Clock

Control

32/64M and 32/ 64M8K clock

Bus driving
Address, data bus
Control stream Ethernet Active/standby Ethernet

Back card in position Debugging serial port

Drive isolation

Data bus output enabled

EPLD
ZXPMC subcard Data bus +3.3V

Active/standby logic I_UIM_HEALTHY O_UIM_RST Backplane ID

RS485

+2.5V

-48V power supply

TSNB

Power module

Fig. 3.6-12

Principle of the TSNB Module

The TSNB is a time division non-blocking switching network in T-T-T structure, with a capacity of 64K64K time slots and a PCM bus rate of 32 Mb/s. It adopts the active/standby working mode. The active/standby information about the active/standby board is interacted through one channel of Ethernet. The T net connection is controlled by the MPB through the control plane Ethernet. The backup RS485 channel is provided.

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The TSNB consists of the following parts: CPU subcard control part, digital switching array part, power conversion part, LVDS interface part, Ethernet and RS485 interface part and frame synchronization adjustment. The TSNB module provides external interfaces. 3.6.1.14 TFI In the MGW system, the T net unit is used to implement the TDM time slot switching between the boards in the DTU and TCU, such as DTB and VTC. The TFI is located at the interface of the T net unit. It provides interfaces between the TSNB in the T net unit and external DTU/TCU. Fig. 3.6-13 shows the principle of the TFI module.

demultiplexer

LVDS

Eight sets of 576M active/standby LVDS

LVDS selector

Active/standby selection signal

management

SERDES FPGA
8

Board divider LVDS

unit

Optical module

multiplexer

LVDS

Eight sets of 576M active/standby LVDS

Fig. 3.6-13

Principle of the TFI Module

The CPU monitoring part monitors the eight channels of optical transmission demultiplexing/multiplexing part, implements the link setup, link detection, bit error detection, clock detection, status query and active/standby control, and communicate with the MP through the RS485 interface. The FPGA completes the extraction and insertion of 8 KHz frame synchronization signals, as well as generation, insertion and detection of Pseudo Numbers.
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The TFI module provides eight external GE optical interfaces.

3.7 Hardware Cable


3.7.1 System Clock Cable
It completes the distribution of synchronization clock signals (8k, 16M and PP2S) of the shelves in the system. The end A of the cable is located at the silkscreen CLKOUT on the RCKG1 and RCKG2 panel. The end B is located at the silkscreen CLK_IN on the RUIM2 and RUIM3 panel. The signals flow from End A to End B. The signal characteristics are as follows: 1. 2. The duty ratio of 16 MHz clock signals is 50%. The 8k frame header and 16M clock shall satisfy the following time sequence relationship: 1) The 8k frame header is in negative pulse format, The falling edge of the 8K frame header starts at the rising edge of the 16M clock. 2) The negative pulse duration of the 8k frame header is one 16M period. 3) The duration of one frame is 125 us. 3. PP2S signals satisfy the following requirements:

1) PP2S is in negative pulse format, and the pulse period is 2s 2) The negative pulse duration is one CHIP clock (1.2288 MHz) period.

3.7.2 Reference Clock Cable


For the ZXWN MGW system, the clock reference source of the CLKG board comes from the 8k line reference clock output of the upper-level exchange sent by two service boards. The line reference clock cable is used to connect the service board to the system clock generation board CLKG, and transmit the 8k reference clock signals on the line to the system clock board for phase locking to generate system synchronization clock.
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The end A of the cable is located at the silkscreen 8KOUT/DEBUG-232 of the RSPB and 8KOUT/ARM232 of the RMNIC which provide reference. The end B is located at the silkscreen 8KIN1 and 8KIN2 of the RCKG1 panel. The signals flow from the service board to the CLKG board. The signals are 8k frame headers extracted from the line.

3.7.3 IP Access Cable


It connects the Ethernet cable interface of the external interface board to provide IP access. The end A of the cable is located at the silkscreen FEn (n=1-4) on the RMNIC panel. The end B is a standard RJ45 male interface. The signals are 100M full-duplex Ethernet signals.

3.7.4 Control Plane Interconnection Cable


It implements the control plane Ethernet interconnection between control shelves. The end A and end B of the cable are located at the silkscreen FE-C on the RUIM2/RUIM3 panel. The signals are 100M full-duplex Ethernet signals.

3.7.5 PD485 Cable


It implements the RSRS485 communication between the OMP and the power module. The end A of the cable is located at the silkscreen PD485 on the RMPB panel. The end B is located at the silkscreen RS485 (Top) on the PWRDB of the power distribution shelf. The signal flow is bidirectional. The signals are half-duplex RS485 signals.

3.7.6 OMC Ethernet Cable


It implements the connection between the OMP and the background.

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The end A of the cable is located at the silkscreen OMCn(n=1.2) on the RMPX86 panel. The end B is a standard RJ45 male interface. The signals are 100M full-duplex Ethernet signals.

3.7.7 Fan Monitoring Cable


It enables the PWRD to detect the running status of the fans in the fan shelves. The end A of the cable is located at the left RJ45 connection point on the rear of the fan shelf. The end B is located at the silkscreen FAN BOXn (n=1..4) on the interface board PWRDB of the power distribution shelf. The signals flow from the fan shelf to the power monitoring board. The signals are fan monitoring level signals.

3.7.8 External Cables and Components of the Cabinet


3.7.8.1 Temperature & Humidity Sensor Cable It is used to connect the temperature and humidity sensors to the PWRD monitoring board to monitor the ambient temperature and humidity. In the temperature & humidity sensor, the moisture sensitive capacitor component is used as the core of the humidity sensor. After the linear processing through a single-chip computer, the information is converted into frequency signals and outputted. The computer can directly collect and process temperature and humidity signal values without the A/D conversion. The sensor is mounted on the wall, and there is a hidden cabling trough on the rear of the converter. Fig. 3.7-1 shows the structure of the temperature & humidity sensor cable and corollary cable.

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Label

Label

End A End B Direction C Direction D

Hole

Pin

Fig. 3.7-1

Structure of the Temperature & Humidity Sensor Cable

3.7.8.2 Smoke Sensor Cable It is used to connect the smoke sensor to the PWRD monitoring board to monitor the environment smoke signals. The detection part of the smoke sensor adopts the V-shape labyrinth structure. It can efficiently detect the early smoldering of a fire or generated smoke. When the smoke enters the sensor, the light source disperses, and the light receiving component senses the light intensity. When the preset threshold is hit, the sensor responds to the fire alarm signal, turns on its fire acknowledgement indicator (red), and outputs alarm signals to the external device. Fig. 3.7-2 shows the structure of the smoke sensor cable and corollary cable.

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Direction C
Label

Label

Pins on the sensor chassis End A

Indicator

End B

Fig. 3.7-2

Structure of the Smoke Sensor Cable

3.7.8.3 Infrared Sensor Cable It is used to connect the infrared sensor to the PWRD monitoring board. The infrared sensor has microwave transmitter antenna and receiver antenna. The microwave frequency transmitted on the detector is set as f transmitter. After the object reflection, the reflected microwave frequency received on the detector is set as f receiver. f=f transmitter-f receiver. If f is not 0, the sensor outputs alarm signals. Fig. 3.7-3 shows the structure of the infrared sensor cable.

108

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Direction C
Label

Label

Front view of the sensor End A

End B

Fig. 3.7-3

Structure of the Infrared Sensor Cable

3.7.8.4 75 Ohms Trunk Cable It implements the non-balanced access of the external E1 of the external interface on the MSC Server. Fig. 3.7-4 shows the structure of the 75 ohms trunk cable.

Label

3.7.8.5 120 Ohms Trunk Cable It implements the balanced access of the external E1 of the external interface on the MSC Server. Fig. 3.7-5 shows the structure of the 120 ohms trunk cable.

Label
Fig. 3.7-4 Structure of the 75 Ohms Trunk Cable 109

Label

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Label

Label
Fig. 3.7-5 Structure of the 120 Ohms Trunk Cable

Label Label Label Label Label

3.7.8.6 Power Cable Fig. 3.7-6 shows the connections of the power system of the cabinet.

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Filter

Filter

Cabinet ground

- 48V - 48VGND - 48V - 48VGND PE

Fan subrack

- 48V - 48VGND - 48V - 48VGND PE

Grounding copper busbar

BUSN

Busbar

Cabling subrack

- 48V - 48VGND - 48V - 48VGND PE

BUSN

Cabling subrack Fan subrack

- 48V - 48VGND - 48V - 48VGND PE

BUSN

Cabling subrack

- 48V - 48VGND - 48V - 48VGND PE

BUSN

Cabling subrack Fan subrack

- 48V - 48VGND EP

Fig. 3.7-6

Connections of the Power System of the Cabinet

The -48V power access cable (Fig. 3.7-7 shows its structure) (blue/black) is used to connect the -48V power from the EMI filter on the cabinet top to the power distribution
111

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shelf, and connect -48V power from the power distribution shelf to the busbar of the cabinet.

Label End A End B

Fig. 3.7-7

48V Power Cable

The power cable of the shelf connects the -48V, -48VGND, PGND and GND power from the busbar to the shelf filter and from the shelf filter to the backplane to provide power for the shelf. (as shown in Fig. 3.7-8 and Fig. 3.7-9).

Direction C

End B1

Label

End B2

End B3 End A
Fig. 3.7-8 Power Cable From the Busbar to the Shelf Filter

End A1 End B1 Direction C C End B2 End B3

Label End A2

Fig. 3.7-9

Power Cable From the Shelf Filter to the Backplane

The power cable of the fan shelf connects the power from the busbar to the fan shelf to provide power for the fans in the fan shelf. (as shown in Fig. 3.7-10).

112

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Fig. 3.7-10

Structure of the Power Cable of the Fan Shelf

3.7.8.7 Grounding Cable Fig. 3.7-11 shows the connections of grounding cables in the whole cabinet. The grounding cable of the cabinet doors connects the front/rear doors of the cabinet to the cabinet ground.

Label

End A

End B

Fig. 3.7-11

Grounding Cable of Cabinet Doors

The protection ground cable is used to connect the busbar protection ground to the cabinet ground.

Label

End A

End B

Fig. 3.7-12

Protection Ground Cable

3.7.8.8 Other Cable It is used to interconnect P power 485 signals between cabinets. The end A of the cable is located at the silkscreen RS485 (Bottom) on the PWRDB of the power distribution shelf of the rack. The end B is located at the silkscreen
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RS485 (Top) on the PWRDB of the power distribution shelf of the rack.

Label

Label

End A
Fig. 3.7-13 RS485 Interconnection Cable Between Cabinets

The RS485 bus used by the PWRD supports multi-rack connection. According to the resistance terminal placement principle of the RS485 bus, in the multi-rack connection, you need to configure the jumper X8 on the PWRD based on the rack locations. Table 3.7-1 shows the configuration principle.

Table 3.7-1 X8 Configuration Principle Jumper X8 Connection Mode 12 910 34 78 Definition As the rack of the RS485 endpoint

As the rack of the RS485 mid-point

The following describes the PD485 cable connection mode used when multiple cabinets are interconnected by taking the three racks in Fig. 3.7-14 as an example.

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OMP PD485

PWRDB RS485 (Top) of the rack where the OMP is located

PWRDB RS485 (Top) of Rack 2

PWRDB RS485 (Top) of Rack 3

PWRDB RS485 (Bottom) of the rack where the OMP is located

PWRDB RS485 (Bottom) of Rack 2

PWRDB RS485 (Bottom) of Rack 3

PWRD X8 setting: 3-4 7-8

PWRD X8 setting: 3-4 7-8

PWRD X8 setting: 1-2 9-10

Fig. 3.7-14

PD485 Cable Connection Mode

115

4 Hardware Configuration Instance


4.1 MSC Server System Configuration
ZXWN MSCS can be configured with multiple networking modes, featuring high flexibility. This section introduces the configuration mode of the board and the typical system configuration when the ZXWN MSCS acts as a VMSCS, GMSCS or TMSCS.

4.1.1 Configuration Calculation of Boards


Based on the contents in Traffic Model, the processing capacity of each board is as follows:

Service processing unit: Supports 120,000 subscribers/SMP Signaling process unit: Supports 20,000-channel trunk/SMP Integrated signaling subscribers/SMP 120,000 subscribers/SMP or

service processing

unit:

Supports 60,000

SPB: Supports 64-channel 64 kbps/board SIPI: Supports 80 Mbps signaling traffic/board APBE: Supports 2 Mbps signaling traffic/board

4.1.2 Board Quantity Calculation Method


For other boards, please calculate according to the above-mentioned number of boards and occupied resources. Assume the number of supported subscribers is Nuser, and thenumber of necessary boards is listed in the following tables:
Board Name Service processing unit Signal process unit (SPU) Operation and maintenance unit (OMMP) Calculation Method Ncsmp = 2(Nuser/120,000) (note 1) Nsmp = 2(Nuser/120,000) (note 1) Description When the Ncsmp serves as the GMSC, Ncsmp = 2(Nuser / 250,000) The service processing unit and the signal process unit can be integrated, Ncmp = 2(Nuser / 60,000) The number of the OMMP is fixed to a pair

Nomm = 2 (note 1)

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Board Name General purpose interface board

Calculation Method Nuim = Number of Shelves2

Description

Each shelf has a pair of UIMs fixedly

SPB

Nspb = Number of E1s/16

The SPB is necessary only when the outgoing E1 interface is needed. The number of E1 interfaces decides the number of Nspbs, however, the minimum number of SPBs is 2 The APBE is necessary only when outgoing ATM interfaces are needed. The actual number is the maximum value of Napb1 and Napb2, and 2 at least The IPI is necessary only when IP interfaces are needed. The actual number is the maximum value of Nipi1 and Nipi2, and 2 at least

APBE

Nmtc = Nuser / 100,000 Napb2 = STM-1/2 Nipi1 = Number of FEs/4 Nipi2 = Traffic amount/80M

SIPI

Universal server interface board CLKG USI Route processing unit CHUB

Nusi = 2

Two is configured invariably

Nclkg = 2 Nusi = Number of shelves Nrpu =2 (note 1, note 2)

Two is configured invariably One is configured invariably The number of RPUs is fixed to a pair The shelf cascading through the CHUB is necessary only when the number of shelves >=3

Nrpu =0 or 2

Note 1: 2 means the board is in active/standby mode. Each MP has two processing units. Note 2: RPU and OMMP share one MP. One processing unit acts as the OMMP, and the other acts as the RPU.

4.1.3 Typical Single Shelf Configuration


ZXWN MSCS adopts the BCTC shelf. Backplane serves to interconnect system resource shelf and control flow of switching shelf. Primary control slots 9 and 10 cannot be used to install any other service boards except UIMCs, which are to bear data of the control shelf and to control switching paths from Ethernet to slots. Common slots 1 to 8 and 11 to 12 can be used for multi-function SMP or OMP, and boards SPB and SIPI. Control switching central slots 15 and 16 are for CHUB or SMP. Clock slots
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13 and 14 are for CLKG or SMP. Shelf at each layer has 17 slots. A single shelf on ZXWN MSCS has the capacity of an office. When serving as a VMSCS, a single shelf can support a maximum of 120,000 subscribers, as shown in the following figure.

1 U S I

2 U S I

3 S I P I

4 S I P I

5 S M P

6 S M P

7 S P B

8 S P B

9 U I M C

10 U I M C

11 O M P

12 O M P

13 C L K G

14 C L K G

15

16

17

Note: Shelf on each layer is installed with front boards and back boards. In the figure, upper layer is for front boards, and lower layer is for back boards. Upper layer and lower layer are actually on one layer. Back boards are external interface boards of the front boards.

4.1.4 Typical Single Rack Configuration


A rack can hold up to 4 shelves. A single full-configured rack is shown as follows:

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3 S M P 3 S I P I 3 S M P 3 S M P

4 S M P 4 S I P I 4 S M P 4 S M P

5 S M P 5 S M P 5 S M P 5 S M P

6 S M P 6 S M P 6 S M P 6 S M P

7 S P B 7 S P B 7 S P B 7 S P B

8 S P B 8 S P B 8 S P B 8 S P B

9 U I M C 9 U I M C 9 U I M C 9 U I M C

10 U I M C 10 U I M C 10 U I M C 10 U I M C

11 S M P 11 O M P 11 S M P 11

12 S M P 12 O M P 12 S M P 12

13 S M P

14 S M P

15 S M P 15 C H U B 15 S M P 15

16 17 S M P 16 C H U B 16 S M P 16 17 17 17

S S M M P P 1 U S I 1 S M P 1 S M P 2 U S I 2 S M P 2 S M P

13 14 C L K G 13 S M P 13 C L K G 14 S M P 14

Note: Shelf on each layer is installed with front boards and back boards. In the figure, the upper layer is for front boards, and the lower layer is for back boards. Upper layer and lower layer are actually on one layer. Back boards are external interface boards of the front boards.

4.2 MGW System Configuration


ZXWN MGW system can be configured flexibly with multiple networking modes. This section describes several typical system configurations.

4.2.1 VMGW Typical Configuration


Two typical configurations for ZXWN MGW when networking as VMSC are described below:

As an end office, MGW has 6000 voice channels in each shelf, which supports 200,000 subscribers. Fixed configuration of subscriber shelf BUSN is shown in the following figure:

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1 V T C D 2 V T C D 3 V T C D 4 V T C D 5 V T C D 6 V T C D 7 A P B E 8 A P B E 9 U I M U 10 U I M U 11 I P I 12 I P I 13 14 15 I W F B/ M R B 16 I W F B/ M R B 17 I W F B/ M R B

Location of each board in different slots of BUSN shelf is as follows:


APBE boards are fixed in slots 7 and 8; VTCD boards are fixed in slots 1 to 6; SIPI boards are fixed in slots 11 to 12; MRB and IWFB boards are fixed in slots 15 to 17; UIMU boards are fixed in slots 9 and 10.

In typical configuration, there are a few boards in BCTC shelf. Only the following configuration should be conducted: OMPs (MPBs) are fixed in slots 11 and 12 of BCTC shelf; Mc interface boards (SIPIs) are fixed in slots 1 and 2 of BCTC shelf. Typical configuration of full rack in MGW end office is shown as follows:

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1 T F I

2 T F I

5 T S N B

7 T S N B

9 U I M C

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 U I M C C L K G C L K G

1 S I P I

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 O M P S S C C M M H H P P U U B B

S S S I MM P P P I

S S S S U U O M M M M I I M P P P P M M P C C

1 V T C D

2 V T C D

3 V T C D

4 V T C D

5 V T C D

6 V T C D

7 A P B E

8 A P B E

9 U I M T

10 11 U I I P M I T

12 13 14 15 I I W P F I B/ M R B

16 17 I I W W F F B/ B/ M M R R B B 16 17 I I W W F F B/ B/ M M R R B B

1 V T C D

2 V T C D

3 V T C D

4 V T C D

5 V T C D

10 11 12 13 14 15 I V A A U U I I W T P P I I P P F C B B M M I I B/ D E E T T M R B 7 8 9

Typical configuration of full racks of 400,000 mobile subscribers is shown in the upper Figure, including BUSN1 shelf, BUSN2 shelf and BCTC shelf from top to bottom. Based on the processing capability of traffic model of subscriber in busy hour 0.03 and each board, quantity required for each board is as follows:

Quantity of required VTC 400,000 0.03 196 / 1960 12, that is, 12 VTCs are required. Quantity of required APBE 400,000 0.03 / 3000 4, that is, 4 APBEs are required. Quantity of required IPI (Nb) 400,000 0.03 96 / 3000 3.84, that is, 4 IPIs are required. Quantity of required MRB 400,000 0.03 6 / 480 1.5, that is, 3 MRBs are required (1 ring-back tone resource board is added). Quantity of required IWFB 400,000 0.03 / (60 200) 1, that is, 1 IWFB is required.
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4.2.2 GMGW Typical Configuration


This section describes two typical configurations of ZXWN MGW in case of networking as GMSC:

Subscriber Shelf Fixed configuration Full Rack Typical Configurations

As a gateway office, MGW has 3500 voice channels in each shelf, which supports 120,000 subscribers. Fixed configuration of subscriber shelf BUSN is shown in the following:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

V V T T C C D D

D T E C

D T E C

V T C D

V T C D

D D U U T T I I E E M M C C U U

I P I

I P I

V T C D

D T E C

S M M P R R B B B

Location of each board in the slots of BUSN:


VTCD boards are fixed in slots 1, 2, 5, 6 and 13. DTEC boards are fixed in slots 3, 4, 7, 8 and 14. IPIs are fixed in slots 11 and 12. MRBs and SPBs are fixed in slots 15, 16 and 17. UIMU boards are fixed in slots 9 and 10.

Typical configuration of full rack in G-MGW office is shown in the following:

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1 T F I

2 T F I

5 T S N B

7 T S N B

10

11 12

13 14 15 16 17 C L K G C L K G

U U I I M M C C

1 S I P I

10

11 12 O M P

13 14 15 16 17 S S M M P P C H U B C H U B

S S S I M M P P P I

S S S S M M M M P P P P

U U O I M I M M P C C

1 V T C D

7 D T E C

10

11 12 A P B E

13 14 15 16 17 V T C D D T E C S P B

V D T T C E D C

D V V T T T E C C C D D

D U T C I T E M

U A I T P E M B

M R B

M R B

1 V T C D

7 D T E C

10 11 12 U A I P M B T E A P B E

13 14 15 16 17 V T C D D T E C

V D T T C E D C

D V V T T T E C C C D D

D U T E C I M T

S P B

M R B

M R B

Typical configuration of full racks of 300,000 mobile subscribers is shown in the upper Figure, including BUSN1 shelf, BUSN2 shelf, BCSN shelf and BCTC shelf from top to bottom. Based on the processing capability of traffic model of subscriber in busy hour 0.03 and each board, quantity required for each board is as follows:

Quantity of VTCD 240000 0.03/700 10, that is, 10 VTCDs are required. Quantity of IPI (Nb) 240000 0.03/4600 2, that is, 2 IPIs are required. Quantity of DTEC 240000 0.03/768 10, that is, 10 DTECs are required. Quantity of SPB 240000/20000 64 0.23, that is, 1 SPB is required.

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Quantity of MRB 2400000.035%/4800.94, that is 1 MRB is required (no ring-back tone resource board is required in the gateway office).

125

Appendix A Terms
Term AAA AAL2 AAL5 AH ATM DHCP DiffServ GRE HLR ICMP IETF IKE IMSI IntServ IPCP IPsec IPv6 ISAKMP IWF L2TP LAES LAN LCP MGW MIP MS MSC NCP PAP PPP QoS RADIUS RSVP SDH Authentication Authorization Accounting ATM Adaptation Layer type 2 ATM Adaptation Layer type 5 Authentication Header Asynchronous Transfer Mode Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Differentiated Service Generic Routing Encapsulation Home Location Register Internet Control Message Protocol Internet Engineering Task Force Internet Key Exchange International Mobile Station Identity Integrated Service IP Control Protocol IP Security IP Version 6 Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol Inter Work Function Layer2 Tunnel Protocol Lawfully Authorized Electronic Surveillance Local Area Network Link Control Protocol Media Gateway Mobile IP Mobile Station Mobile Switching Center Network Control Protocol Password Authentication Protocol Point to Point Protocol Quality of Service Remote Authentication Dial in User Service Resource Reservation Protocol Synchronous Digital Hierarchy 127 Description

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Term STM TCP TOS UDP UDR VLR VPN WAN Synchronous Transfer Mode Transfer Control Protocol Type of Service User Datagram Protocol User Data Record Visit Location Register Virtual Private Network Wide Area Network

Description

128

Appendix B Abbreviations
Abbreviations A3 A5/X A8 ACK ACM ACM AE APB Authentication algorithm A3 Encryption algorithm A5/0-7 Ciphering key generating algorithm A8 ACKnowledgement Accumulated Call Meter Address Complete Message Application Entity ATM Process Board Description

AoC AoCC AoCI ASE ASIG ASN.1 AuC BAIC BAOC BCCH BCTL BCSN BDT BCTC BFBI BHCA BIC-Roam BNET BO BOIC BOIC-exHC BPSN BS BS

Advice of Charge Advice of Charge Charging supplementary service Advice of Charge Information supplementary service Application Service Element Analog Signaling Abstract Syntax Notation One Authentication Centre Barring of All Incoming Calls supplementary service Barring of All Outgoing Calls supplementary service Broadcast Control Channel Back Control Backplane of Circuit Switch Network Back Digital Trunk Backplane of ConTrol Center Back Fiber Bus Interface Busy hour Calling Attempt Barring of Incoming Calls when Roaming outside the home PLMN country supplementary service Back Network all Barring of Outgoing call supplementary services Barring of Outgoing International Calls supplementary service Barring of Outgoing International Calls except those directed to the home PLMN Country supplementary service Backplane of Packet Switch Network Basic Service (group) Bearer Service 129

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Abbreviations BSG BSNM BTS BUSN CAI CB CBC CBCH CBK CC Basic Service Group Back S Network Base Transceiver Station

Description

Backplane of Universal Switch Network Charge Advice Information Cell Broadcast Cell Broadcast Centre Cell Broadcast Channel Clear Back signal Country Code Call Control

CCF CCITT Cct CF CFB CFNRc CFNRy CFU CGC CI

Conditional Call Forwarding The International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee Circuit all Call Forwarding services Call Forwarding on mobile subscriber Busy supplementary service Call Forwarding on mobile subscriber Not Reachable supplementary service Call Forwarding on No Reply supplementary service Call Forwarding Unconditional supplementary service Circuit Group Congestion signal Cell Identity CUG Index

CLKG CLKI CLI CLIP CLIR CM CMD CMP COLI COLP COLR DTB GGLP COLP GGMP GGUP GLI

CLOCK Generator CLOCK Interface Calling Line Identity Calling Line Identification Presentation supplementary service Calling Line Identification Restriction supplementary service Connection Management CoMmanD Control Main Processor COnnected Line Identity COnnected Line identification Presentation supplementary service COnnected Line identification Restriction supplementary service Digital Trunk Board GGSN Line Processor COnnected Line identification Presentation supplementary service GGSN Main Processor GGSN GTP-U Processor GE Line Interface

130

Appendix B Abbreviations

Abbreviations GERAN IMAB IPB IPI IWFB MNIC MONB MPB MRB OMP PLI PSN PWRD RMP RPB SDHB SDTB SDU SGBP SGLP SGMP SGSP SGUP SIUP SMP SPB TFI TSNB UIM VTC

Description GSM Enhanced Radio Access Network IMA Board IP Process Board IP bearer Interface IWF Board Multi-service Network Interface Card MONIOTR BOARD Main Process Board Media Resource Board Operation Main Processor POS Line Interface Packet Switch Network POWER Distributor Router Main Processor Router Protocol process Board SDH Board Sonet Digital Trunk Board Selection and Distribution Unit SGSN Gb Processor SGSN General Line Processor SGSN Main Processor SGSN Processor SGSN GTP-U Processor SGSN Iu Processor Signal Main Processor Signaling Process Board TDM Fiber Interface TDM Switch Network Board Universal Interface Module

Voice Transcoder Card

131