Anda di halaman 1dari 13

2.

20 Marine Hydrodynamics, Fall 2011


Lecture 3
Copyright c 2011 MIT - Department of Ocean Engineering, All rights reserved.
2.20 Marine Hydrodynamics
Lecture 3
1.7 Stress Tensor
1.7.1 Stress Tensor
ij
The stress (force per unit area) at a point in a uid needs nine components to be completely
specied, since each component of the stress must be dened not only by the direction in
which it acts but also the orientation of the surface upon which it is acting.
The rst index i species the direction in which the stress component acts, and the second
index j identies the orientation of the surface upon which it is acting. Therefore, the i
th
component of the force acting on a surface whose outward normal points in the j
th
direction
is
ij
.

X
1
X
2
X
3

31

11

21

22

12

32

13

23

33
Figure 1: Shear stresses on an innitesimal cube whose surfaces are parallel to the coordinate
system.
1
Figure 2: Innitesimal body with surface PQR that is not perpendicular to any of the Cartesian
axis.
Consider an innitesimal body at rest with a surface PQR that is not perpendicular to any
of the Cartesian axis. The unit normal vector to the surface PQR is n = n
1
x
1
+n
2
x
2
+n
3
x
3
.
The area of the surface = A
0
, and the area of each surface perpendicular to X
i
is A
i
= A
0
n
i
,
for i = 1, 2, 3.
Newtons law:

on all 4 faces
F
i
= (volume force)
i
for i = 1, 2, 3
Note: If is the typical dimension of the body : surface forces
2
: volume forces
3
An example of surface forces is the shear force and an example of volumetric forces is the
gravity force. At equilibrium, the surface forces and volumetric forces are in balance. As
the body gets smaller, the mass of the body goes to zero, which makes the volumetric
forces equal to zero and leaving the sum of the surface forces equal zero. So, as
0,

all4faces
F
i
= 0 for i = 1, 2, 3 and
i
A
0
=
i1
A
1
+
i2
A
2
+
i3
A
3
=
ij
A
j
. But the area
of each surface to X
i
is A
i
= A
0
n
i
. Therefore
i
A
0
=
ij
A
j
=
ij
(A
0
n
j
), where
ij
A
j
is
the

notation (represents the sum of all components). Thus


i
=
ij
n
j
for i = 1, 2, 3,
where
i
is the component of stress in the i
th
direction on a surface with a normal n . We
call
i
the stress vector and we call
ij
the stress matrix or tensor.
2
1.7.2 Example: Pascals Law for Hydrostatics
In a static uid, the stress vector cannot be dierent for dierent directions of the surface
normal since there is no preferred direction in the uid. Therefore, at any point in the
uid, the stress vector must have the same direction as the normal vector n and the same
magnitude for all directions of n .
Pascals Law for hydrostatics:
ij
=
no summation
..
(p
i
) (
ij
)
=
_
_
p
1
0 0
0 p
2
0
0 0 p
3
_
_
where p
i
is the pressure acting perpendicular to the i
th
surface. If p
0
is the pressure acting
perpendicular to the surface PQR, then
i
= n
i
p
0
, but:

i
=
ij
n
j
= (p
i
)
ij
n
j
= (p
i
)(n
i
)
Therefore p
o
= p
i
, i = 1, 2, 3 and n is arbitrary.
3
1.7.3 Symmetry of the Stress Tensor
To prove the symmetry of the stress tensor we follow the steps:

j
o
i

ji

ij

ji

ij

Figure 3: Material element under tangential stress.


1. The

of surface forces = body forces + mass acceleration. Assume no symmetry.


Balance of the forces in the i
th
direction gives:
()(
ij
)
TOP
()(
ij
)
BOTTOM
= O(
2
),
since surface forces are
2
, where the O(
2
) terms include the body forces per unit
depth. Then, as 0, (
ij
)
TOP
= (
ij
)
BOTTOM
.
2. The

of surface torque = body moment + angular acceleration. Assume no sym-


metry. Balance of moments about o gives:
(
ji
) (
ij
) = O(
3
),
since the body moment is proportional to
3
. As 0 ,
ij
=
ji
.
4
1.8 Mass and Momentum Conservation
Consider a material volume
m
and recall that a material volume is a xed mass of mate-
rial. A material volume always encloses the same uid particles despite a change in size,
position, volume or surface area over time.
1.8.1 Mass Conservation
The mass inside the material volume is:
M(
m
) =
___

m(t)
d

S
m
(t)

) t (
m

Figure 4: Material volume


m
(t) with surface S
m
(t).
Therefore the time rate of increase of mass inside the material volume is:
d
dt
M(
m
) =
d
dt
___

m
(t)
d = 0,
which is the integral form of mass conservation for the material volume
m
.
5
1.8.2 Momentum Conservation
The uid velocity inside the material volume in the i
th
direction is denoted as u
i
. Linear
momentum of the material volume in the i
th
direction is
___

m(t)
u
i
d
Newtons law of motion: The time rate of change of momentum of the uid in the material
control volume must equal the sum of all the forces acting on the uid in that volume.
Thus:
d
dt
(momentum)
i
=(body force)
i
+ (surface force)
i
d
dt
___
m(t)
u
i
d =
___
m(t)
F
i
d +
__
Sm(t)

ij
n
j
..

i
dS
Divergence Theorems For vectors:
___

v
. .
v
j
x
j
d =
__
S
v. n
..
v
j
n
j
dS
For tensors:
___

ij
x
j
d =
__
S

ij
n
j
dS
Using the divergence theorems we obtain
d
dt
___

m(t)
u
i
d =
___

m(t)
_
F
i
+

ij
x
j
_
d
which is the integral form of momentum conservation for the material volume
m
.
6
1.8.3 Kinematic Transport Theorems
Consider a ow through some moving control volume (t) during a small time interval t.
Let f (x, t) be any (Eulerian) uid property per unit volume of uid (e.g. mass, momentum,
etc.). Consider the integral I(t):
I(t) =
___
(t)
f (x, t) d
According to the denition of the derivative, we can write
d
dt
I(t) = lim
t0
I(t + t) I(t)
t
= lim
t0
1
t
_

_
___
(t+t)
f(x, t + t)d
___
(t)
f(x, t)d
_

S(t)

S(t+t)
) t t ( +
) t (

Figure 5: Control volume and its bounding surface S at instants t and t + t.


7
Next, we consider the steps
1. Taylor series expansion of f(x, t + t) about (x, t).
f(x, t + t) = f(x, t) + t
f
t
(x, t) + O((t)
2
)
2.
___
(t+t)
d =
___
(t)
d +
___

d
where,
___

d =
__
S(t)
[U
n
(x, t)t] dS and U
n
(x, t) is the normal velocity of S(t).

S(t)
dS
2
n
) t ( O t ) t , x ( U +
v
S(t+t)
Figure 6: Element of the surface S at instants t and t + t.
Putting everything together:
d
dt
I(t) = lim
t0
1
t
_

_
___
(t)
df + t
___
(t)
d
f
t
+ t
__
S(t)
dSU
n
f
___
(t)
df + O(t)
2
_

_
(1)
8
From Equation (1) we obtain the Kinematic Transport Theorem (KTT), which is equivalent
to Leibnitz rule in 3D.
d
dt
___
(t)
f(x, t)d =
___
(t)
f(x, t)
t
d +
__
S(t)
f(x, t)U
n
(x, t)dS
For the special case that the control volume is a material volume it is (t) =
m
(t) and U
n
= v n, where v is the uid particle velocity. The Kinematic Transport Theorem (KTT),
then takes the form
d
dt
___
m(t)
f(x, t)d =
___
m(t)
f(x, t)
t
d +
__
Sm(t)
f(x, t)(v n)
. .
f(v
i
n
i
)
(Einstein Notation)
dS
Using the divergence theorem,
___


. .

x
i

i
d =
__
S
n
..

i
n
i
dS
we obtain the 1
st
Kinematic Transport Theorem (KTT)
d
dt
___
m(t)
f (x, t) d =
___
m(t)
_
f(x, t)
t
+ (fv)
. .

x
i
(fv
i
)
_
d,
where f is some uid property per unit volume.
9
1.8.4 Continuity Equation for Incompressible Flow
Dierential form of conservation of mass for all uids Let the uid property
per unit volume that appears in the 1
st
KTT be mass per unit volume ( f = ):
0 =

conservation
of mass
d
dt
___
m(t)
d =

1
st
KTT
___
m(t)
_

t
+ (v)
_
d
But since
m
is arbitrary the integrand must be 0 everywhere. (Because if it is not
zero at any point then we can shrink the volume to that point and get a non-zero
result which is a contradiction)
Therefore:

t
+ (v) = 0

t
+ [v
. .
D
Dt
+ v] = 0
Leading to the dierential form of
Conservation of Mass:
D
Dt
+ v = 0
10
Continuity equation Conservation of mass for incompressible ow In
general it is = (p, T, . . .), but we consider the special case of an incompressible
ow, i.e.
D
Dt
= 0 (Lecture 2).
Note: For a ow to be incompressible, the density of the entire ow need not be
constant ((x, t) = const). As an example consider a ow of more than one incom-
pressible uids, like water and oil, as illustrated in the picture below.

oil water
fluidparticle

1
fluidparticle

2
Constant
Figure 7: Interface of two uids (oil-water)
Since for incompressible ows
D
Dt
= 0, substituting into the dierential form of the
conservation of mass we obtain the
Continuity Equation: v
v
i
x
i
. .
rate of volume dilatation
= 0
11
1.8.5 Eulers Equation (Dierential Form of Conservation of Momentum)
2
nd
Kinematic Transport Theorem 1
st
KTT + dierential form of conservation
of mass for all uids. If G = uid property per unit mass, then G = uid property
per unit volume
d
dt
___
m(t)
Gd =

1
st
KTT
___
m(t)
_

t
(G) + (Gv)
_
d
after some algebra:
=
___
m(t)
_

_
G
_

t
+ v
_
. .
=0 from mass conservation
+
_
G
t
+v G
_
. .
=
DG
Dt
_

_
d
The 2
nd
Kinematic Transport Theorem (KTT) follows:
d
dt
___
m
Gd =
___
m

DG
Dt
d
Note: The 2
nd
KTT is obtained from the 1
st
KTT (mathematical identity) and the
only assumption used is that mass is conserved.
12
Eulers Equation
We consider G as the i
th
momentum per unit mass (v
i
). Then,
___
m(t)
_
F
i
+

ij
x
j
_
d =

conservation
of momentum
d
dt
___
m(t)
v
i
d =

2
nd
KTT
___
m(t)

Dv
i
Dt
d
But
m
(t) is an arbitrary material volume, therefore the integral identity gives
Eulers equation:

Dv
i
Dt

_
_
_
_
v
i
t
+v v
i
. .
v
j
v
i
x
j
_
_
_
_
= F
i
+

ij
x
j
And in vector tensor form:

Dv
Dt

_
v
t
+v v
_
=

F +
NOTE:
Euler equation is the momentum equation for the uid in the dierential form.
Stress does not make the uid to accelerate. It is the derivative of stress that makes
the uid to accelerate.
13