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UNIVERSITY TEKNOLOGY MARA FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SAFETY AND HEALTH IN CHEMICAL AND BIOPROCESS INDUSTRIES (CBE 686)

ASSIGNMENT 1

GROUP MEMBERS: 1) MOHAMAD FAKHRURRAZIE BIN JAAFAR (2011827646) 2) HAZIMAH BINTI ABDUL RAZAK (2011809386) 3) NUR AL KISMA BT ABD RAMAN (2011889712) 4) NURUL AFIFAH HUSNA BINTI MOHD SAMSUDIN (2011476814) GROUP: EH2225B LECTURERS NAME: NUR SHAHIDAH BINTI AB AZIZ

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TABLE OF CONTENT

No. RISK GROUP 1 AGENT

Title

Page 3 4-5 6-7 8 9

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

RISK GROUP 2 AGENT RISK GROUP 3 AGENT RISK GROUP 4 AGENT BIBLIOGRAPHY

RISK GROUP 1 AGENT Example: Escherichia Coli.

Figure 1:Escherichia Coli


Adapted from: National Institute of Health,NIH

Hazard/ risk of pathogen Escherichia Coli of K-12 strains are non-pathogenic towards individual or community. These types of strain reside in human large intestine and provide vitamin K to their host. Treatment availability Since the type of microorganism is harmless and not known to cause disease towards human and animal, therefore there is no treatment available. Containment Primary containment: Bio safety Level 1 (BSL1) Additional of physical containment can be used such as fume hood. Following a standard microbiological practices: Work is done on open bench tops. There is appropriate signage of biohazard. Work is supervised with scientist. Working area should be in sterile condition. Personal protection equipment such as lab coat, glove and protective eye wear.

Figure 2: Minimum personal protective equipment. Adapted from: University of North Carolina

RISK GROUP 2 AGENT

RISK GROUP 2

PATHOGEN moderate individual risk, low community risk a pathogen that can cause human or animal disease but is unlikely to be a serious hazard to laboratory workers, the community, livestock or the environment. capable of causing serious infection on exposure, for which there are therapeutic interventions and preventive measures available and the risk of spread of infection is limited.
Adapted from: World Health Organization, 2004

EXAMPLES Hepatitis A-E Varicella Influenza Measles Mumps virus Rubella Shigella B. anthracis Staphylococcus aureus Listeria B. pertussis E. coli, Chlamydia V. cholerae T. pallidum N. gonorrhoeae G. vaginalis Salmonella K. pneumonia

Adapted from: Markus Schmidt, 2012

Salmonella Definition :
Salmonella is a group of bacteria that can cause food poisoning, which is occurs when food or water contaminated with germs (microbes), poisons (toxins) or chemicals is eaten or drunk. Effects : Diarrhea, stomach cramps, have nausea, vomiting, fever. Treatment : Have a lot of fluids to drink (to prevent or to treat dehydration), eat as normally as possible, or take antidiarrhoeal medicines.
Adapted from: Food Standard Agency, 2013

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY CONTAINMENT Primary containment to personnel working with these agents relate to accidental percutaneous or mucous membrane exposures, or ingestion of infectious materials. Extreme caution should be taken with contaminated needles or sharp instruments. Even though organisms routinely manipulated at BSL-2 are not known to be transmissible by the aerosol route, procedures with aerosol or high splash potential that may increase the risk of such personnel exposure must be conducted in primary containment equipment, or in devices such as a BSC or safety centrifuge cups. Personal protective equipment should be used as appropriate, such as splash shields, face protection, gowns, and gloves. Secondary barriers, such as hand washing sinks and waste decontamination facilities, must be available to reduce potential environmental contamination. Adapted from: Principles of Biosafety, n.d.

RISK GROUP 3 AGENT

AGENT : MIDDLE EAST RESPIRATORY SYNDROME CORONAVIRUS (MERS-COV)

HAZARD/RISK & EFFECTS

TREATMENT AVAILABILITY

CONTAINMENT PROVIDED

Electron microscope image of MIddle East Respiratory Syndrome virus particles, colorized in yellow. Adapted from: NIAID,2013

HAZARD/RISK: readily transmissible among humans by direct contact with respiratory secretions, body fluids and excretions from infected individuals cause a range of illnesses in humans, from the common cold to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). cause disease in a wide variety of animal species. EFFECTS: respiratory disease acute renal failure multi-organ failure acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) consumptive coagulopathy gastrointestinal symptoms

No vaccine is currently available Treatment is based on the patients clinical condition.

Containment Level 3 for all proliferative in vitro or in vivo activities. Containment Level 2 for nonproliferative diagnostic or clinical activities with additional operational practices: infectious materials must be conducted in a Biological Safety Cabinet (BSC). eye and respiratory protection should be worn a solid-front gown with tight-fitting wrists must be worn leak-proof containers used to transport infectious material centrifugation of infectious materials carried out in closed containers placed in sealed safety cups

pathogen-specific disinfection and decontamination procedures must be in place. Infectious agents stored outside of the containment zone must be kept locked in leak-proof containers.

Adapted from: World Health Organization(WHO), 2013

RISK GROUP 4 AGENT Examples Hazards Individual HIV virus Can silently cause acquired immunity deficiency syndrome (AIDS) which disable the immune function of the human body. Contagious through sexual transmission also through the body fluid of an infected individual. Causing the deteriorating of health at the last stage. Ebola virus Causes rapid hemorrhage fever with fatality rate of 90% (2003, J. Virol) Marburg virus As fatal and as deadly as the Ebola viruses, can cause hemorrhagic fever with chance of fatality of 80-90% (Sept 2012, Bale S, et al) Contagious through direct contact with bodily fluid of an infected individual. Can lead to chest pain cough, bloody diarrhea, bleeding from nose, mouth, eyes, ears and rectum, stomachache.

Community

Effects

Individual

Community

Can destroy the entire community within several months silently. More people will fall ill even for the mildest infection.

Contagious through contact with the fluids of an infected individual. Causing serious fever, dry hacking coughing, stomach pain, joint and muscle ache, vomiting and severe headache. Destroying the capability of a community to function as people weaken and die.

Demolishing the community by many people being sick and die. Immunization from IgG from multiple bat species both micro and megachiropterans. (August 2007, Towner JS.) Personal protection equipments such as special suit with positive pressure inside the suit ventilated with lifesupport features. Facilities in isolated building complete with communication system, fumigation chamber with air-lock for any entrance, in-line HEPA filters placed for every usage.

Treatment

Vaccination. (autumn 2013, Serum of antibody iavi report) from convalescing patients. (2003, J. Virol) Personal protection equipments such as special suit with positive pressure inside the suit ventilated with life-support features. Personal protection equipments such as special suit with positive pressure inside the suit ventilated with lifesupport features. Facilities in isolated building complete with communication system, fumigation chamber with airlock for any entrance, in-line HEPA filters placed for every usage.

Primary Containment

Secondary Containment

Facilities in isolated building complete with communication system, fumigation chamber with airlock for any entrance, in-line HEPA filters placed for every usage.

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Escherichia Coli. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA. Retrieved on 6 Oct 2013.<http://www.cdc.gov/ecoli/general/> 2. World Health Organization. (2004). "Laboratory Biosafety Manual". 3rd Edition. WHO, Geneva. Retrieved October 9, 2013, from http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/biosafety/WHO_CDS_CSR_LYO_2004 _11/en/index.html 3. Markus Schmidt. (2012). Synthetic Biology. John Wiley & Sons. p. 161. 4. Food Standards Agency. (2013). Retrieved October 9, 2013, from http://www.patient.co.uk/health/salmonella 5. Principles of Biosafety : Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (n.d.). Retrieved October 9, 2013, from http://www.cdc.gov/biosafety/publications/bmbl5/bmbl5_sect_iii.pdf 6. Retrieved October 9, 2013, from http://www.zimbio.com/Nanotechnology/articles/b5ScwnCzb1C/Rapid+test+for+Salm onella 7. NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: MERS-CoV Updated 8 September 2013. http://www.niaid.nih.gov/news/newsreleases/2013/Pages/MERSCoVTreatment 8. WHO. Guidelines for investigation of cases of human infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). July 2013. http://www.who.int/csr/disease/coronavirus_infections 9. Andreas von Bubnoff, PhD. Regina McEnery. IAVIReport 2007. Vol 7. The Publication of AIDS Vaccine Research. Fall 2007. www.IAVIReport.org 10. Ayato Takada, Heinz Feldmann, Thomas G. Ksiazek, Yoshihiro Kawaoka. J. Virol. 2003, 77(13): 7539. DOI: 10:1128. 2003. 11. Towner JS, Pourrut X, Albarino CG, Nkogue CN, Bird BH, et al (2007) Marburg Virus Infection Detected in a Common African Bat. PLoS. ONE 2(8): e764. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000764 12. Bale S, Julien J-P, Bornholdt ZA, Kimberlin CR, Halfmann P, et al. (2012) Marburg Virus VP35 Can Both Fully Coat the Backbone and Cap the Ends of dsRNA for Interferon Antagonism. PLoS Pathog 8(9): e1002916. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002916