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Turbine

1. A turbine is supplied with steam at 40bar and 450


o
C, and exhausts at 4bar. If the machine
operates with an isentropic efficiency of 60%, determine the steam flowrate is required to produce
a power output of 1MW and the exhaust steam temperature.

Solution:
At 40bar, 450
o
C,
1
3330 h = kJ/kg and
1
6.935 s = kJ/kg K

At 4bar (for saturated conditions),
2730
g
h = kJ/kg and 605
f
h = kJ/kg
6.897
g
s = kJ/kg K and 1.776
f
s = kJ/kg K

Assume isentropic expansion,
2 1
' 6.935 s s = = kJ/kg K

By comparing
2
' s and entropy at the saturated condition,
Hence,
2 @4
' ,
g bar
s s > the exhaust is superheated vapor

At 4bar,
2753
2
' h
2862
6.929 6.935
7.172

2
2
2753 ' 6.929 6.935
' 2755.7
2753 2862 6.929 7.172
h
h

= =

kJ/kg


1 2 2
2
1 2
3330
0.60 2985.4
' 3330 2755.7
T
h h h
h
h h
q

= = =

kJ/kg

( ) ( )
1 2
1000 3330 2985.4 2.9
SA
W m h h m m = = = kg/s
2. A turbine is supplied with 90tonne/h of steam at 450
o
C and 80bar. If the isentropic efficiency of
the turbine is 80% and the exhaust steam is at 2.5bar, determine the condition of the exhaust and
power output. Why is the quality of the exhaust steam lower for the reversible turbine than that for
a real turbine?

Solution:
At 80bar, 450
o
C
1
3272 h = kJ/kg and
1
6.555 s = kJ/kg K

At 4bar (for saturated conditions),
2717
g
h = kJ/kg and 535
f
h = kJ/kg
7.053
g
s = kJ/kg K and 1.607
f
s = kJ/kg K


1000
S
W kW =
( ) 1 40 , 450
o
bar C
( ) 2 4bar

S
W
( ) 1 80 , 450
o
bar C
( ) 2 2.5bar
Assume isentropic expansion,
2 1
' 6.555 s s = = kJ/kg K

By comparing
2
' s and entropy at the saturated condition. Hence,
2
' ,
g f
s s s < < the exhaust is a
mixture of saturated vapor and saturated liquid

Method 1 (Determine the quality and the ideal outlet enthalpy)
At 80bar,
535
2
' h
2717
1.607 6.555
7.053

2
2
2717 ' 7.053 6.555
' 2517.5
2717 535 7.053 1.607
h
h

= =

kJ/kg
( ) ( ) ( )
2
' 1 2517.5 2717 1 535
g f
h xh x h x x = + = +
0.9086 x =

Method 2 (Determine the quality and the ideal outlet enthalpy)
( ) ( ) ( )
2
' 1 6.555 7.053 1 1.607
g f
s xs x s x x = + = +
0.9086 x =
Hence, ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
' 1 ' 0.9086 2717 0.0914 535
g f
h xh x h h = + = +

2
' 2517.5 h = kJ/kg


1 2 2
2
1 2
3272
0.80 2668.4
' 3272 2517.5
T
h h h
h
h h
q

= = =

kJ/kg

Actual work done,
( ) ( )
1 2
90, 000
3272 2618.4 15090
3600
SA
W m h h = = = kW

( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 2668.4 2717 1 535
g f
h xh x h x x = + = +
0.9777 x =

In conclusion,
SA SI
W W < , less power is produced, this is due to lesser steam is condense during
expansion for the ideal cases.