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A New Reactive, Distortion and Non-Active Power Measurement Method for Nonstationary Waveforms Using Wavelet Packet Transform

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Electric Power Systems Research

j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er . com/ l ocat e/ epsr

A new reactive, distortion and non-active power measurement method for

nonstationary waveforms using wavelet packet transform

Walid G. Morsi, M.E. El-Hawary

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dalhousie University, PO Box 1000, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 15 September 2007

Accepted 22 April 2009

Available online 7 June 2009

Keywords:

Power system harmonics

Wavelet packet transform

Nonstationary waveforms

a b s t r a c t

The denitions of power components that are contained in the IEEE Standard 1459-2000 [IEEE Std. 1459-

2000, Denitions for the measurement of electric quantities under sinusoidal, non-sinusoidal, balanced

or unbalancedconditions, 2000] are basedonthe Fourier transform(FT) whichis suitable only for the case

of stationary waveforms. However, for nonstationary waveforms, the FT produces large errors. Therefore,

the power components based on this transformbecome inaccurate. Anewapproach based on the wavelet

packet transform(WPT) for dening these power components is developed in this paper. The advantages

of using the wavelet transformare that it canaccurately represent andmeasure nonstationary waveforms,

providing uniform frequency bands while preserving both time and frequency information. In addition,

this paper addresses theproblemof choosingthemost appropriatemother wavelet for power components

measurements. The results of applying bothapproaches to stationary and nonstationary waveforms show

that the currently used denitions according to the IEEE Standard 1459-2000 result in large errors for the

case of nonstationary waveforms while the proposed approach (WPT based) gives more accurate results

in this situation.

Crown Copyright 2009 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Electric power system waveforms can be classied into two

types; stationary and nonstationary waveforms. Stationary wave-

formis dened as a waveformwhere all its statistical properties do

not change with time [2]. The main loads that generate stationary

waveforms are personal computers (PCs), televisions, energy sav-

ing lamps, HVDC links, exible ac transmission (FACT) and other

power-electronic converters.

On the other hand, nonstationary waveforms are those with sta-

tistical properties that change with time and are also called time

evolving waveforms. Electric arc furnaces (EAFs), electric welders,

capacitor switching, motor starting and transformers energization

are examples of loads that generate these nonstationary wave-

forms.

Power components such as active, reactive, distortion, non-

active and apparent power are dened by the IEEE Standard

1459-2000 [1] using fast Fourier transform (FFT). For the case of

stationary waveforms, the FFT can provide accurate results; how-

ever, for the case of nonstationary waveforms, the FFT introduces

large errors due to spectral leakage and picket fence phenomena

[3]. Fig. 1 shows a stationary current waveformof frequency 180Hz

Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 902 494 6198; fax: +1 902 422 7535.

E-mail address: elhawary@dal.ca (M.E. El-Hawary).

withamplitude 50A. The FFT spectrumshows exactly the third har-

monic at 180Hz and amplitude 50 with no spectral leakage. Fig. 2

shows an example of a nonstationary current waveform at 180Hz.

The current amplitude changes with time; it starts from an ini-

tial value of 50A for 0.083s and then the amplitude drops to 10A.

The FFT spectrum shows a 30A component at 180Hz (which does

not exist in the original waveform) plus other components that are

spread along the frequency axis. Spectral leakage is very clear here

which leads to inaccurate results. Moreover the time at which the

waveform drops from 50 to 10A is not accessible through the FFT

because it provides amplitudefrequency spectrum so therefore

time information is lost.

Basedonthis fact, the measurement of these power components

according to the IEEE Standard 1459-2000 [1] would be accept-

able only for the case of stationary waveforms but it would not

be acceptable for nonstationary waveforms which exist in large

amounts due to todays electric power system non-stop dynamic

operating conditions.

The wavelet transform, whichis considered as a timefrequency

transform, is capable of handling and accurately representing

nonstationary waveforms in too many applications in different dis-

ciplines [430]. The power of the wavelet stems from the fact that

it can provide variable frequency resolution while preserving time

information. This is an important requirement for the analysis and

measurement of the nonstationary waveforms whichpossess time-

variant characteristics and this is lost when using the FFT.

0378-7796/$ see front matter. Crown Copyright 2009 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.epsr.2009.04.018

W.G. Morsi, M.E. El-Hawary / Electric Power Systems Research 79 (2009) 14081415 1409

Fig. 1. Stationary waveform. (a) Time-domain waveform and (b) FFT spectrum.

Our previous work for calculating and measuring the power

components was concerned with steady-state harmonic distortion

using discrete wavelet transform as in [31,32], while [33,34] were

concerned with harmonics and inter-harmonics distortion using

wavelet packet transform.

This paper, introduces a new approach for calculating and

measuring the active, reactive, non-active, distortion and appar-

ent power for the case of electric power system nonstationary

waveforms or time-varying harmonics using the wavelet packet

transform (WPT).

Fig. 2. Nonstationary waveform. (a) Time-domain waveform and (b) FFT spectrum.

Section 2 briey reviews the FFT based power components de-

nitions that have been adopted by the IEEE Standard 1459-2000 [1],

while Section 3 provides the basics for the wavelet transform and

wavelet packet transform. Section4contains the newapproachthat

has been developed for dening these power components using

WPT, Section 5 includes numerical examples and nally Section 6

contains our conclusions.

2. Power components according to the IEEE Standard

1459-2000

In nonsinusoidal situations the voltage and current can be

expressed according to [1] as follows:

v(t) = v

1

(t) +v

H

(t), i(t) = i

1

(t) +i

H

(t) (1)

v

1

(t) =

2V

1

sin(t

1

), i

1

(t) =

2I

1

sin(t

1

) (2)

v

H

=

h / = 1

V

h

sin(ht

h

) (3)

i

H

=

h / = 1

I

h

sin(ht

h

) (4)

where the subscript 1 indicates the fundamental component,

while the subscripts H and h refer to the non-fundamental

components andthe harmonic order. Here

1

,

1

represent the fun-

damental voltage and current phase angle, respectively, while

H

and

H

represent the harmonic voltage and current phase angle,

respectively.

The fundamental, harmonic and total active powers are dened

as

P

1

= V

1

I

1

cos

1

, P

H

=

h / = 1

V

h

I

h

cos

h

,

1

=

1

1

(5)

P = P

1

+P

H

(6)

where the RMS value for the voltage and currents are

V =

1

T

_

T

0

v

2

(t)dt, I =

1

T

_

T

0

i

2

(t)dt (7)

V

2

= V

2

1

+V

2

H

, V

2

H

=

h / = 1

V

2

h

(8)

I

2

= I

2

1

+I

2

H

, I

2

H

=

h / = 1

I

2

h

(9)

The fundamental reactive power, Budeanus harmonic reactive

power and Budeanus reactive power are dened as

Q

1

= V

1

I

1

sin

1

, Q

H

=

h / = 1

V

h

I

h

sin

h

, Q

B

= Q

1

+Q

BH

(10)

Theapparent power S, non-activepower NandBudeanus distortion

power D

B

are

S = VI, N =

_

S

2

P

2

, D

B

=

_

N

2

Q

2

B

(11)

S

2

= P

2

+Q

2

B

+D

2

B

(12)

3. Wavelet transform

3.1. Introduction

The wavelet transform is a timefrequency representation of

any waveform s(t) using a stretched (or squeezed) and translated

basis function called wavelet. This basis function is called mother

1410 W.G. Morsi, M.E. El-Hawary / Electric Power Systems Research 79 (2009) 14081415

Fig. 3. Analysis bank for extracting scaling and wavelet coefcients.

wavelet while its stretched (or squeezed) and translated versions

are called daughter wavelets. Choosing scale and time parameters

a and b, respectively, the wavelet coefcients in discrete form can

be obtained from:

C(2

j

, k2

j

) =

_

s(t),

j,k

_

= 2

j/2

_

s(t)

(2

j

t k)dt (13)

where

j,k

is the wavelet function for scale index j and time index

k, such that:

a = 2

j

, b = ka, j, k Z

In order to make the process of wavelet coefcients calculation

faster, Mallat [35] developed the multi-resolution analysis (MRA)

algorithm by introducing the two scale equations:

(2

j

t) =

k

h

j+1

(k)(2

j+1

t k) (14)

(2

j

t) =

k

g

j+1

(k)(2

j+1

t k) (15)

where is the scaling function, h and g are the low pass and high

pass lters. The scaling coefcients c

j,k

and the wavelet coefcients

d

j,k

at eachdecompositionlevel j andsampleindexkcanbeobtained

recursively by

c

j,k

=

l

c

j1,l

h(l 2k) =

s(t),

j1,k

(t)

_

(16)

d

j,k

=

l

c

j1,l

g(l 2k) =

s(t),

j1,k

(t)

_

(17)

Fig. 3 shows one decomposition level for extracting the scaling

and wavelet coefcients using low and high pass lter bank.

3.2. Wavelet packet transform

The wavelet packet transform is a generalization of the wavelet

transform where the decomposition is performed on both the

scaling and wavelet coefcients instead of only decomposing the

scaling coefcients as in the case of discrete wavelet transform

(DWT). This process offers the full decompositiontree whichmakes

the decompositionvery exible while providing uniformfrequency

sub-bands. The wavelet basis at any level j, tree node n and sample

time k can be generated using the following recursive formula [36]:

2n

j,k

(t) =

m

h(m)

n

j1,2km

(t) (18)

2n+1

j,k

(t) =

m

g(m)

n

j1,2km

(t) (19)

For n=0 (node zero),

0

j,k

(t) is the scaling function

j,k

(t) while at

any other node (n / = 0)

n

j,k

(t) is the wavelet function. Fig. 4 shows

the wavelet packet transform decomposition tree with all its tree

nodes (or tree leaves). Note that at the last decomposition level the

tree nodes are called terminal nodes (or terminal tree leaves).

The wavelet packet transform is more suitable than the fast

Fourier transform (FFT) or the short time Fourier transform (STFT)

whichhave xedwindowwidth, for analyzing nonstationary wave-

forms since it provides exible (or variable) window size therefore

preservingbothtime andfrequencyresolutions [3]. This means that

at any decomposition level in the WPT some nodes can be merged

or split in order to meet the required resolution, while in case of

STFT any attempt to change the frequency resolution, time resolu-

tionwill beaffectedaccordingtoHeisenbergs uncertaintyprinciple

[37].

Moreover, WPT is favored over DWT since it can provide

uniform frequency bands, offers exible decomposition through

mergingsplitting process of the nodes. Also since the WPT can be

considered as generalization of the wavelet transform, DWT there-

fore represent a special case of the WPT and can be obtained by

suitable merging of the details while keeping the decomposition

process being applied on the approximations only.

The advantages offered by the WPT come at the expense of the

computational burden; however, the following recursive algorithm

for coefcients calculation may greatly reduce the computational

effort to be the same as the FFT [36]:

d

2n

j

(k) =

m

h(m)d

n

j1

(2k m) (20)

d

2n+1

j

(k) =

m

g(m)d

n

j1

(2k m) (21)

3.3. Wavelet choice

It is clear from (16) and (17) that the values of coefcients vary

depending on the choice of the basis functions and . The prop-

erties of these basis functions along with the required application

mainly determine the choice of suitable basis functions. The follow-

ing properties are required when analyzing electric power system

waveform for computing the power components:

3.3.1. Orthogonality

If the basis functions are orthogonal then the analysis bank

becomes the time reverse of the synthesis bank.

3.3.2. Compactness support

The scaling and wavelet functions are time limited (not extend-

ing fromto +as the case in Fourier foundation). This property

Fig. 4. Wavelet packet transform decomposition tree.

W.G. Morsi, M.E. El-Hawary / Electric Power Systems Research 79 (2009) 14081415 1411

Fig. 5. Scaling function (phi) and wavelet function (psi) for (a) db1, (b) db10 and (c)

db43.

is very useful because it can offer good time localization without

affecting the frequency resolution therefore allowing the correct

detection and representation of waveform containing sudden and

rapid changes due to transients.

3.3.3. Number of vanishing moments

By letting the wavelet decrease very fast with decreasing the

scale a, therefore increasing the number of vanishing moments will

lead to more atness in the lters frequency response. This is very

important for identifying the sub-bands and also this reduces the

transitionbandhencesharper characteristics canbeachieved. Fig. 5

shows the scaling function (phi) and wavelet function (psi) for

Daubechies Wavelets; db1, db10 and db43 while Fig. 6 shows the

frequency response of the low and high pass lters.

Since Daubechies is able to handle all the aforementioned prop-

erties, it canbe concludedthat dbwithhighest number of vanishing

Fig. 6. Frequency response of low and high pass lters for db1, db10 and db43. (a)

and (b) Reconstruction bank while (c) and (d) decomposition bank.

1412 W.G. Morsi, M.E. El-Hawary / Electric Power Systems Research 79 (2009) 14081415

moments can be considered as the best candidate mother wavelet

for calculating the power components in case of nonstationary

power system waveforms.

Noting that going higher than db43 may lead to instability in

the algorithm used for the computation of dbN scaling lter which

affects the lters frequency response. This is due to that computing

the scaling lter requires the extraction of the roots of a polynomial

of order 4N[36]. So for N too large, the extraction process may lead

toinstability that affects the frequency response of the lowandhigh

pass lters. Moreover db higher vanishing moments means that

more lter coefcients will be processed which could inuence the

required memory size and the computational effort.

Accurate measurements of power components is a main objec-

tive because based onthese measured values the consumers will be

charged, the power quality will be evaluated and the amount and

type of compensators will be determined. For these reasons db43

will be favored in this study and its performance will be compared

with other db wavelet of lower number of vanishing moments.

4. Wavelet packet based power components

This section introduces a new approach for calculating and

measuring the active, reactive, non-active, distortion and appar-

ent power based on the wavelet packet transform (WPT). In the

timefrequency domain, voltage and current waveform with 2

N

sample point canbe expressedinterms of the wavelet packet trans-

form coefcients according to the following equations:

v(t) =

2

Nj

1

k=0

d

0

j

(k)

j,k

(t) +

2

j

1

m=1

2

Nj

1

k=0

d

2m

j

(k)

m

j,k

(t)

= v

0

j

+

2

j

1

m=1

v

m

j

(22)

The root mean square (RMS) value of the voltage:

V =

_

1

2

N

2

Nj

1

k=0

(d

0

j

(k))

2

+

1

2

N

2

j

1

m=1

2

Nj

1

k=0

(d

m

j

(k))

2

=

_

(V

0

j

)

2

+

2

j

1

m=1

(V

m

j

)

2

(23)

Also the current is expressed in the timefrequency domain

using WPT as follows:

i(t) =

2

Nj

1

k=0

d

0

j

(k)

j,k

(t) +

2

j

1

n=1

2

Nj

1

k=0

d

2n

j

(k)

n

j,k

(t)

= i

0

j

+

2

j

1

n=1

i

n

j

(24)

The root mean square value of the current:

I =

_

1

2

N

2

Nj

1

k=0

(d

0

j

(k))

2

+

1

2

N

2

j

1

n=1

2

Nj

1

k=0

(d

n

j

(k))

2

=

_

(I

0

j

)

2

+

2

j

1

n=1

(I

n

j

)

2

(25)

where d

m

j

and d

n

j

represent the voltage and current WPT coef-

cients, respectively at level j, voltage node m and current node n.

The active power P can be calculated as

P = P

0

j

+

2

j

1

m = 1, n = 1

m = n

P

m

j

(26)

where P

0

j

is the active power at node zero and level j:

P

0

j

=

1

2

N

2

Nj

1

k=0

d

0

j

(k)d

0

j

(k) (27)

While the active power at any other node where m=n:

P

m

j

=

1

2

N

2

Nj

1

k=0

d

m

j

(k)d

n

j

(k) (28)

The total current can be decomposed into two components: the

active component I

n

aj

that is responsible for active power trans-

mission and residual current component I

n

resj

which represent the

non-active power, and this component should be compensated

I =

_

(I

0

aj

)

2

+(I

0

resj

)

2

+

2

j

1

n=1

(I

n

aj

)

2

+

2

j

1

n=1

(I

n

resj

)

2

(29)

where

I

0

aj

=

_

1

2

N

2

Nj

1

k=0

(d

0

j

(k))(d

0

j

(k))

2

2

Nj

1

k=0

(d

0

j

(k))

2

2

Nj

1

k=0

(d

0

j

(k))

4

(30)

I

n

aj

=

_

1

2

N

2

Nj

1

k=0

(d

n

j

(k))(d

n

j

(k))

2

2

Nj

1

k=0

(d

2n

j

(k))

2

2

Nj

1

k=0

(d

n

j

(k))

4

(31)

(I

0

resj

)

2

=

1

2

N

2

Nj

1

k=0

(d

0

j

(k))

2

+

2

Nj

1

k=0

(d

0

j

(k))

2

(d

0

j

(k))

2

2

Nj

1

k=0

(d

0

j

(k))

2

2

Nj

1

k=0

(d

0

j

(k))

4

2

2

Nj

1

k=0

(d

0

j

(k)

2

Nj

1

k=0

d

0

j

(k)d

0

j

(k)

2

Nj

1

k=0

(d

0

j

(k))

2

2

Nj

1

k=0

d

0

j

(k) (32)

(I

n

resj

)

2

=

1

2

N

2

Nj

1

k=0

(d

2n

j

(k))

2

+

2

Nj

1

k=0

(d

n

j

(k))

2

(d

n

j

(k))

2

2

Nj

1

k=0

(d

2n

j

(k))

2

2

Nj

1

k=0

(d

n

j

(k))

4

2

2

Nj

1

k=0

(d

2n

j

(k)

2

Nj

1

k=0

d

n

j

(k)d

n

j

(k)

2

Nj

1

k=0

(d

n

j

(k))

2

2

Nj

1

k=0

d

2n

j

(k)

(33)

W.G. Morsi, M.E. El-Hawary / Electric Power Systems Research 79 (2009) 14081415 1413

The apparent power can be expressed in the timefrequency

domain using the wavelet packet based voltage, active and residual

current expressions as

S

2

=

2

j

1

m=0

(V

m

j

)

2

(I

m

aj

)

2

+

2

j

1

m=0

(V

m

j

)

2

(I

m

resj

)

2

+

2

j

1

m = 0, n = 0

m / = n

(V

m

j

)

2

(I

n

aj

)

2

+

2

j

1

m = 0, n = 0

m / = n

(V

m

j

)

2

(I

n

resj

)

2

(34)

S

2

=

2

j

1

m=0

V

m

j

I

m

aj

2

j

1

m=0

V

m

j

I

m

resj

2

j

1

m = 0, n = 0

m / = n

V

m

j

I

n

aj

2

+

2

j

1

m = 0, n = 0

m / = n

V

m

j

I

n

resj

(35)

S

2

= [P

2

] +[Q

2

] +[D

2

] (36)

where P is the total active power, Q is the reactive power and D is

the distortion power. Then the non-active power can dened as

N =

_

S

2

P

2

=

_

Q

2

+D

2

(37)

5. Numerical examples

This section includes two numerical examples in order to eval-

uate the proposed approach. The rst example considers the case

of stationary waveform while the second example considers non-

stationary waveform. In both examples the power components

were calculated using both approaches; the FFT based approach

according to the IEEE Standard 1459-2000 [1], and the WPT based

approach. The results were compared to the true values and the

errors associated with each method are calculated. Moreover, two

different mother wavelet are used in both examples (db10 and

db43) withthree decompositionlevels inorder tostudythe effect of

each on the measurement of the power components in both cases;

stationary and nonstationary waveforms.

5.1. Example 1 (stationary waveforms)

In this example the voltage and current waveforms are sta-

tionary; the voltage is sinusoidal (60Hz) with 50V amplitude and

zerophase angle. The current contains the fundamental component

with 25A amplitude, plus the fth harmonic with 10A amplitude.

The fundamental current component lags the fundamental volt-

age component by phase angle of 400. The sampling frequency is

1.92kHz (32 sample per 60Hz fundamental cycle) while the FFT

window is 10 cycles. Figs. 1 and 7 shows the time domain and the

FFT of the voltage and current waveforms, respectively.

TheFFTspectruminthis case, accuratelyidenties andmeasures

the different components included in the stationary waveform of

the voltage and the current. The true values and the calculated val-

ues of the power components based on both the IEEE Standard

1459-2000 (the FFT based approach) and the new approach (the

WPT based approach for db10 and db43) are listed in Table 1.

Fig. 7. Time domain waveform and its FFT spectrum for the current waveform (sta-

tionary case).

Theresults listedinTable1indicatethat theFFTis themost accu-

rate method for measuring power components when considering

stationary waveforms. Also it shows that the WPT based approach

gives better results when using db43 instead of using db10. In order

to compare the relative accuracy between the three methods, the

percentage error is plotted in Fig. 8 while considering the true val-

ues as the reference.

True values of the power components can be obtained using the

following time domain formula:

The active power:

P =

1

T

_

T

0

v(t) i(t)dt (38)

The apparent power is

S = VI, V =

1

T

_

T

0

v

2

(t)dt, I =

1

T

_

T

0

i

2

(t)dt (39)

The non-active power is

N =

_

S

2

P

2

(40)

It can be inferred from Fig. 8 that using db43 for measuring

power components may reduce the error by almost 50%. Also it

can be observed from Fig. 8 that the maximum error between the

Table 1

True values, FFT based values and wavelet packet transform values for stationary

waveform of example 1.

Power component True values FFT based

approach

WPT based approach

db10 db43

Active power 478.80 478.78 477.03 477.48

Reactive power N/A 401.74 408.48 405.44

Distortion power N/A 250.00 235.43 244.33

Non-active power 473.18 473.17 471.47 473.37

Apparent power 673.16 673.14 670.71 672.36

1414 W.G. Morsi, M.E. El-Hawary / Electric Power Systems Research 79 (2009) 14081415

Fig. 8. Percentage error plot of FFT, WPT (db10 and db43) based power components

(stationary case).

three methods is in the distortion power, while the minimumerror

is in the non-active and apparent power.

5.2. Example 2 (nonstationary waveforms)

In this example, the same sinusoidal source of Fig. 1 is used here

but the current consists of the fundamental component lagging the

voltage by 400 plus a fth harmonic component with time varying

amplitude. The fth harmonic amplitude is 10A starting fromtime

zero until time 0.08s and then the amplitude drops to 3A until the

end of the simulation time which is 0.167s. Fig. 9 shows the time

domain waveforms of the current and its FFT.

The time domain waveformshows a change in the waveshape at

0.08s which cannot be perceived in the FFT spectrum because the

FFT cannot provide any information concerning the time response.

Moreover, the FFT shows spectral leakage at the fth harmonic and

an error in estimating the magnitude of the fth harmonic.

Fig. 9. Time domain waveformand its FFT spectrumfor the current waveform(non-

stationary case).

Table 2

True values, FFT based values and wavelet packet transformvalues for nonstationary

waveform of example 2.

Power component True values FFT based

approach

WPT based approach

db10 db43

Active power 478.42 479.92 477.80 477.90

Reactive power N/A 401.04 405.84 403.94

Distortion power N/A 124.19 168.38 173.81

Non-active power 439.95 419.83 439.39 439.74

Apparent power 649.96 637.63 649.12 649.43

Table 2 lists the power components as calculated by the three

different methods. From Table 2 it can be inferred that the WPT

based approach gives better results than the FFT based approach

in this case. Also the value of the apparent power in the FFT based

approachis less thanthe true apparent power while that of the WPT

based approach (either db10 or db43) gives values that are close

to the true value. This indicates that the FFT produces enormous

errors in case of nonstationary waveform when measuring power

components.

The picture becomes clear through Fig. 10 which shows the

absolute percentage error between the three approaches. The g-

ure shows a large error in the distortion power component while

less error is introduced by the WPT approach when using db10. On

the other hand when using db43 the error is greatly reduced and

therefore best results can be obtained.

The error plot in this case may explain the large difference

between the true value of the apparent power and the FFT based

value. The difference comes from the large error introduced due

to the distortion power which stems fromthe spectral leakage that

occurred in the current fth harmonic due to the current waveform

nonstationarity.

This might conclude the unsuitability of the FFT based approach

that was adopted by the IEEE Standard 1459-2000 for measur-

ing the power components for nonstationary waveforms. The new

approach (WPT based approach) using db43 provide values that

are very close to the true values, therefore the new approach is

moresuitableandmoreaccuratethantheFFTbasedapproachwhen

dealingwithnonstationarywaveforms for power components mea-

surements.

Fig. 10. Percentage error plot of FFT, WPT (db10anddb43) basedpower components

(nonstationary case).

W.G. Morsi, M.E. El-Hawary / Electric Power Systems Research 79 (2009) 14081415 1415

6. Conclusions

Inthis paper, a newapproachbased onthe wavelet packet trans-

form has been introduced for measuring power components such

as active, reactive, distortion, non-active and apparent power. In

case of stationary electric power system waveform, the FFT based

approach that was adopted by the IEEE Standard 1459-2000 [1]

gives the best accurate results while the WPT based approach using

db43gives very small errors, whichis acceptable. Onthe other hand

the results of the numerical examples indicate that the use of db10

may introduce errors in the distortion power which leads to dif-

ference in the apparent power compared to the case when using

db43.

Innonstationary waveforms, the results showthat the FFT based

approach introduces very large error, which is due to the spectral

leakage associated with the FFT spectrum. The maximum error is

in the distortion power which greatly affects the apparent power

value, which leads to mismatch between the true value and the FFT

based apparent power values. On the other hand the WPT based

approach using db43 gives very accurate results that are very close

to the true values. The matching between the true value and the

WPT (with db43) value for the apparent power proves the accuracy

of the new approach and hence its suitability in this situation.

Fromthe computational burdenpoint of view, althoughthe WPT

has a computational complexity of n

2

which is greater than that

of the FFT, however, using the recursive algorithm mentioned in

Section 3.2, the computational complexity becomes only nlog

2

n as

the case in FFT.

Therefore, it can be concluded that the current denitions for

measuringpower components accordingtotheIEEEStandard1459-

2000 [1] are only suitable in case of stationary waveforms, however

in nonstationary waveforms they become unsuitable. The new

approach based on WPT and using db43 can be considered as a

comprehensive approach that may be suitable for all situations

including stationary and nonstationary waveforms.

Since the new denitions of these power components based on

WPT proves to be more accurate thanother methods, thenreducing

the error means saving money for the utility while metering the

consumers, help choosing the appropriate compensation devices

for improving the power factor, and applying suitable power qual-

ity mitigation techniques to enhance the power quality especially

under nonstationary operating conditions.

Acknowledgment

The authors are grateful to the Izaak Walton Killam Memorial

pre-doctoral scholarship for its nancial support of this work.

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