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Welding Inspector Duties and Responsibilities Section 1

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Main Responsibilities

1.1

Code compliance

Workmanship control Documentation control


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Personal Attributes

1.1

Important qualities that good Inspectors are expected to have are:

Honesty Integrity

Knowledge

Good communicator

Physical fitness

Good eyesight
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Standard for Visual Inspection 1.1 Basic Requirements


BS EN 970 - Non Non-destructive examination of fusion welds - Visual examination
Welding Inspection Personnel should: be familiar with relevant standards, rules and specifications applicable to the fabrication work to be undertaken be informed about the welding procedures to be used have good vision (which should be checked every 12 months)

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Welding Inspection

1.2

Conditions for Visual Inspection (to BS EN 970) Illumination:


350 lux minimum required (recommends 500 lux - normal shop or office lighting)

Vision Access:
eye should be within 600mm of the surface viewing angle (line from eye to surface) to be not less than 30 30
600mm

30 30

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Welding Inspection
When access is restricted may use: a mirrored boroscope usually by a fibre optic viewing system

1.3

Aids to Visual Inspection (to BS EN 970)

agreement

Other aids: welding gauges (for checking bevel angles, weld profile, fillet sizing, undercut depth) dedicated weldweld-gap gauges and linear misalignment (high(high -low) gauges straight edges and measuring tapes magnifying lens (if magnification lens used it should have magnification between X2 to X5)
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Welding Inspectors Equipment


Measuring devices:

1.3

flexible tape, steel rule Temperature indicating crayons Welding gauges Voltmeter Ammeter Magnifying glass Torch / flash light Gas flowflow-meter
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Welding Inspectors Gauges


10mm 10mm
1 2

1.3

G.A.L.
S.T.D. 16mm

G.A.L.

3 4

S.T.D. 16mm

5 6

Fillet Weld Gauges


0 IN 1/4 1/2 3/4

TWI MultiMulti-purpose Welding Gauge

Misalignment Gauges HiHi -Lo Gauge


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HI-LO Single Purpose Welding Gauge

Welding Inspectors Equipment

1.3

Voltmeter

Ammeter

Tong Tester
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Welding Inspection 1.3


Stages of Visual Inspection (to BS EN 970)
Extent of examination and when required should be defined in the application standard or by agreement between the contracting parties For high integrity fabrications inspection required throughout the fabrication process:

Before welding (Before assemble & After assembly) During welding After welding

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Typical Duties of a Welding Inspector


Before Welding
Preparation: Familiarisation with relevant documents Application Standard/Code - for visual acceptance requirements Drawings - item details and positions/tolerances etc Quality Control Procedures - for activities such as material handling, documentation control, storage & issue of welding consumables Quality Plan/Inspection & Test Plan/Inspection Checklist details of inspection requirements, inspection procedures & records required

1.5

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Typical Duties of a Welding Inspector


Before Welding
Welding Procedures: are applicable to joints to be welded & approved are available to welders & inspectors

1.5

Welder Qualifications: list of available qualified welders related to WPSs certificates are valid and inin-date

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Typical Duties of a Welding Inspector 1.5


Before Welding
Equipment: all inspection equipment is in good condition & calibrated as necessary all safety requirements are understood & necessary equipment available Materials: can be identified & related to test certificates, traceability ! are of correct dimensions are in suitable condition (no damage/contamination)
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Typical Duties of a Welding Inspector 1.5


Before Welding
Consumables: in accordance with WPSs are being controlled in accordance with Procedure Weld Preparations: comply with WPS/drawing free from defects & contamination Welding Equipment: in good order & calibrated as required by Procedure
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Typical Duties of a Welding Inspector 1.5


Before Welding
FitFit -up complies with WPS Number / size of tack welds to Code / good workmanship PrePre -heat if specified minimum temperature complies with WPS

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Typical Duties of a Welding Inspector


During Welding
Weather conditions suitable if site / field welding

1.5

Welding Process(es) in accordance with WPS

Welder is approved to weld the joint

PrePre -heat (if required) minimum temperature as specified by WPS maximum interpass temperature as WPS

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Typical Duties of a Welding Inspector


During Welding
Welding consumables in accordance with WPS in suitable condition controlled issue and handling Welding Parameters current, voltage & travel speed as WPS Root runs if possible, visually inspect root before singlesingle-sided welds are filled up
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1.6

Typical Duties of a Welding Inspector


During Welding
InterInter -run cleaning in accordance with an approved method (& back gouging) to good workmanship standard Distortion control welding is balanced & overover-welding is avoided

1.6

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Typical Duties of a Welding Inspector


After Welding
Weld Identification identified/numbered as required is marked with welders identity

1.6

Visual Inspection ensure weld is suitable for all NDT visually inspect & sentence to Code requirements

Dimensional Survey ensure dimensions comply with Code/drawing

Other NDT ensure all NDT is completed & reports available


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Typical Duties of a Welding Inspector


After Welding
Repairs monitor repairs to ensure compliance with Procedure, ensure NDT after repairs is completed PWHT monitor for compliance with Procedure check chart records confirm Procedure compliance Pressure / Load Test ensure test equipment is suitably calibrated monitor to ensure compliance with Procedure
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1.6

ensure all records are available

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Typical Duties of a Welding Inspector


After Welding
Documentation ensure any modifications are on asas-built drawings ensure all required documents are available Collate / file documents for manufacturing records Sign all documentation and forward it to QC department.

1.6

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Summary of Duties
It is the duty of a Welding Inspector to ensure all the welding and associated actions are carried out in accordance with the specification and any applicable procedures.

A Welding Inspector must:


Observe To observe all relevant actions related to weld quality throughout production. Record To record, or log all production inspection points relevant to quality, including a final report showing all identified imperfections Compare To compare all recorded information with the acceptance criteria and any other relevant clauses in the applied application standard
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Welding Inspector
Terms & Definitions Section 2

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Welding Terminology & Definitions


What is a Weld?
A localised coalescence of metals or nonnon-metals produced either by heating the materials to the welding temperature, with or without the application of pressure, or by the application of pressure alone (AWS) A permanent union between materials caused by heat, and or pressure (BS499) An Autogenous weld: A weld made with out the use of a filler material and can only be made by TIG or Oxy Oxy-Gas Welding

2.1

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Welding Terminology & Definitions


What is a Joint?
The junction of members or the edges of members that are to be joined or have been joined (AWS) A configuration of members (BS499)

2.1

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Joint Terminology 2.2

Edge

Open & Closed Corner

Lap

Cruciform
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Tee

Butt

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Welded Butt Joints 2.2


Butt Welded butt joint A_________Welded A_________

Fillet Welded butt joint A_________Welded A_________

Compound Welded butt joint A____________Welded A____________

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Welded Tee Joints 2.2

Fillet Welded T joint A_________Welded A_________

Butt Welded T joint A_________Welded A_________

Compound Welded T joint A____________Welded A____________

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Weld Terminology 2.3

Butt weld

Fillet weld

Spot weld

Edge weld

Plug weld Compound weld

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Butt Preparations Sizes

2.4

Partial Penetration Butt Weld


Actual Throat Thickness Design Throat Thickness

Full Penetration Butt Weld


Actual Throat Thickness

Design Throat Thickness

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Weld Zone Terminology 2.5


A
Face

Weld metal Heat Affected Zone Weld Boundary

C
Root

A, B, C & D = Weld Toes


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Weld Zone Terminology 2.5


Weld cap width

Excess Cap height or Weld Reinforcement

Actual Throat Thickness

Design Throat Thickness

Excess Root Penetration

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Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) 2.5


Maximum Temperature solid weld metal solidsolid -liquid Boundary grain growth zone recrystallised zone partially transformed zone tempered zone unaffected base material

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Joint Preparation Terminology 2.7


Included angle
Angle of bevel Root Radius

Included angle

Root Face Root Gap Root Gap

Root Face

SingleSingle -V Butt
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SingleSingle-U Butt
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Joint Preparation Terminology


Angle of bevel Angle of bevel

2.8 & 2.9

Root Radius

Root Face Root Gap

Root Gap

Root Face Land

Single Bevel Butt


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SingleSingle -J Butt
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Single Sided Butt Preparations

2.10

Single sided preparations are normally made on thinner materials, or when access form both sides is restricted

Single Bevel

Single Vee

SingleSingle -J

SingleSingle -U

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Double Sided Butt Preparations

2.11

Double sided preparations are normally made on thicker materials, or when access form both sides is unrestricted

Double -Bevel

Double -Vee

Double - J
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Double - U
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Weld Preparation
Terminology & Typical Dimensions:
bevel angle included angle

V-Joints

root face root gap

Typical Dimensions bevel angle root face root gap 30 to 35 35 ~1.5 to ~2.5mm ~2 to ~4mm

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Butt Weld - Toe Blend


6 mm

Most codes quote the weld toes shall blend smoothly This statement is not quantitative and therefore open to individual interpretation The higher the toe blend angle the greater the amount of stress concentration The toe blend angle ideally should be between 20o-30o

80

Poor Weld Toe Blend Angle


3 mm

20

Improved Weld Toe Blend Angle


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Fillet Weld Features

2.13

Excess Weld Metal Vertical Leg Length Design Throat

Horizontal leg Length

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Fillet Weld Throat Thickness

2.13

a
a = Design Throat Thickness b = Actual Throat Thickness

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Deep Penetration Fillet Weld Features 2.13

a
a = Design Throat Thickness b = Actual Throat Thickness

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Fillet Weld Sizes

2.14

Calculating Throat Thickness from a known Leg Length: Length :

Design Throat Thickness = Leg Length x 0.7

Question: The Leg length is 14mm. What is the Design Throat?

Answer: 14mm x 0.7 = 10mm Throat Thickness


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Fillet Weld Sizes

2.14

Calculating Leg Length from a known Design Throat Thickness Thickness: :

Leg Length = Design Throat Thickness x 1.4

Question: The Design Throat is 10mm. What is the Leg length?

Answer: 10mm x 1.4 = 14mm Leg Length


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Features to Consider 2

2.14

Importance of Fillet Weld Leg Length Size


(a) (b)

4mm 4mm

8mm 2mm

Approximately the same weld volume in both Fillet Welds, but the effective throat thickness has been altered, reducing considerably the strength of weld B
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Fillet Weld Sizes


(a)
Excess

2.14

Importance of Fillet weld leg length Size


(b) 6mm (a) 4mm (b) 6mm
Excess

4mm

Area = 4 x 4 = 8mm2 2

Area = 6 x 6 = 18mm2 2

The c.s.a. of (b) is over double the area of (a) without the extra excess weld metal being added
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Fillet Weld Profiles


Fillet welds - Shape

2.15

Mitre Fillet

Convex Fillet
A concave profile is preferred for joints subjected to fatigue loading

Concave Fillet

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Fillet Features to Consider


a = Nominal throat thickness

2.15

EFFECTIVE THROAT THICKNESS


s = Effective throat thickness

Deep penetration fillet welds from high heat input welding process MAG, FCAW & SAW etc
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Welding Positions
PA PB PC PD PE PF PG H-L045 J-L045
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2.17

1G / 1F 2F 2G 4F 4G 3G / 5G 3G / 5G 6G 6G

Flat / Downhand HorizontalHorizontal-Vertical Horizontal HorizontalHorizontal-Vertical (Overhead) Overhead VerticalVertical-Up VerticalVertical-Down Inclined Pipe (Upwards) Inclined Pipe (Downwards)
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Welding Positions

2.17

ISO

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Welding position designation 2.17


Butt welds in plate (see ISO 6947)

Flat - PA Vertical up - PF

Overhead - PE

Vertical down - PG
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Horizontal - PC
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Welding position designation 2.17


Butt welds in pipe (see ISO 6947)

Flat - PA
axis: horizontal pipe: rotated

Vertical up - PF Vertical down - PG


axis: horizontal pipe: fixed axis: horizontal pipe: fixed

H-L045
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J-L045

Horizontal - PC
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axis: inclined at 45 axis: inclined at 45 axis: vertical pipe: fixed pipe: fixed pipe: fixed

Welding position designation 2.17


Fillet welds on plate (see ISO 6947)

Flat - PA

Horizontal - PB

Overhead - PD

Vertical up - PF
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Vertical down - PG
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Welding position designation 2.17


Fillet welds on pipe (see ISO 6947)

Flat - PA
axis: inclined at 45 pipe: rotated

Horizontal - PB
axis: vertical pipe: fixed

Overhead - PD
axis: vertical pipe: fixed

Horizontal - PB Vertical up - PF Vertical down - PG


axis: horizontal pipe: rotated
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axis: horizontal pipe: fixed

axis: horizontal pipe: fixed


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Plate/Fillet Weld Positions

2.17

PA / 1G

PA / 1F PF / 3G

PB / 2F

PC / 2G

PD / 4F
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PE / 4G

PG / 3G
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Pipe Welding Positions

2.17

PA / 1G
Weld: Flat Pipe: rotated Axis: Horizontal

PF / 5G
Weld: Vertical upwards Pipe: Fixed Axis: Horizontal 45o

PG / 5G
Weld: Vertical Downwards Pipe: Fixed Axis: Horizontal 45o

PC / 2G
Weld: Horizontal Pipe: Fixed Axis: Vertical
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H-LO 45 / 6G
Weld: Upwards Pipe: Fixed Axis: Inclined

J-LO 45 / 6G
Weld: Downwards Pipe: Fixed Axis: Inclined
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Travel Speed Measurement

2.18

Definition: the rate of weld progression measured in case of mechanised and automatic welding processes in case of MMA can be determined using ROL and arc time

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Welding Inspector
Welding Imperfections Section 3

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Welding Imperfections
All welds have imperfections

3.1

Imperfections are classed as defects when they are of a type, or size, not allowed by the Acceptance Standard

A defect is an unacceptable imperfection A weld imperfection may be allowed by one Acceptance Standard but be classed as a defect by another Standard and require removal/rectification

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Welding Imperfections
Standards for Welding Imperfections

3.1

BS EN ISO 6520 6520-1(1998) Welding and allied processes Classification of geometric imperfections in metallic materials Part 1: Fusion welding Imperfections are classified into 6 groups, namely: 1 Cracks 2 Cavities 3 Solid inclusions 4 Lack of fusion and penetration 5 Imperfect shape and dimensions 6 Miscellaneous imperfections

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Welding Imperfections
Standards for Welding Imperfections

3.1

EN ISO 5817 (2003) Welding - FusionFusion-welded joints in steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys (beam welding excluded) - Quality levels for imperfections This main imperfections given in EN ISO 65206520-1 are listed in EN ISO 5817 with acceptance criteria at 3 levels, namely Level B (highest) Level C (intermediate) Level D (general) This Standard is directly applicable to visual testing of welds ...(weld surfaces & macro examination)

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Welding imperfections classification

3.1

Cracks

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Cracks

3.1

Cracks that may occur in welded materials are caused generally by many factors and may be classified by shape and position.
Classified by Shape Longitudinal Transverse Chevron Lamellar Tear Classified by Position HAZ Centerline Crater Fusion zone Parent metal

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Note: Cracks are classed as Planar Defects.

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Cracks

3.1

Longitudinal parent metal

Transverse weld metal

Longitudinal weld metal Lamellar tearing


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Cracks

3.1

Transverse crack
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Longitudinal crack
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Cracks

3.2

Main Crack Types


Solidification Cracks Hydrogen Induced Cracks Lamellar Tearing Reheat cracks

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Cracks
Solidification Cracking

3.2

Occurs during weld solidification process Steels with high sulphur impurities content (low ductility at elevated temperature) Requires high tensile stress Occur longitudinally down centre of weld

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Cracks

3.3

Hydrogen Induced Cold Cracking


Requires susceptible hard grain structure, stress, low temperature and hydrogen Hydrogen enters weld via welding arc mainly as result of contaminated electrode or preparation Hydrogen diffuses out into parent metal on cooling Cracking developing most likely in HAZ

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Lamellar Tearing
Location: Parent metal Steel Type: Any steel type possible

3.5

Susceptible Microstructure: Poor through thickness ductility

Lamellar tearing has a step like appearance due to the solid inclusions in the parent material (e.g. sulphides and silicates) linking up under the influence of welding stresses Low ductile materials in the short transverse direction containing high levels of impurities are very susceptible to lamellar tearing It forms when the welding stresses act in the short transverse direction of the material (through thickness direction)

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Gas Cavities
Gas pore Cluster porosity Causes:

3.6

Loss of gas shield Damp electrodes Contamination Blow hole Herringbone porosity Arc length too large Damaged electrode flux Moisture on parent material Welding current too low Gas pore <1.5mm Blow hole.>1.6mm

Root piping

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Gas Cavities

3.7

Porosity

Root piping

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Gas Cavities

3.8

Cluster porosity
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Herringbone porosity
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Crater Pipe

3.9

Weld crater

Crater pipe

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Crater Pipe

3.9

Crater pipe is a shrinkage defect and not a gas defect, it has the appearance of a gas pore in the weld crater

Crater cracks (Star cracks)

Causes:

Too fast a cooling rate Deoxidization reactions and liquid to solid volume change Contamination
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Crater pipe

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Solid Inclusions

3.10

Slag inclusions are defined as a nonnon-metallic inclusion caused by some welding process
Causes: Slag originates from welding flux
Slag inclusions Lack of sidewall fusion with associated slag

MAG and TIG welding process produce silica inclusions Slag is caused by inadequate cleaning

Parallel slag lines

Lack of interun fusion + slag

Other inclusions include tungsten and copper inclusions from the TIG and MAG welding process
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Solid Inclusions

3.11

Interpass slag inclusions

Elongated slag lines

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Welding Imperfections
Typical Causes of Lack of Fusion: welding current too low bevel angle too steep root face too large (single-sided weld) root gap too small (single-sided weld) incorrect electrode angle linear misalignment welding speed too high

3.13

welding process related particularly dip-transfer GMAW flooding the joint with too much weld metal (blocking Out)

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Lack of Fusion
Causes:

3.13

Poor welder skill Incomplete filled groove + Lack of sidewall fusion Incorrect electrode manipulation Arc blow 1 2 1. Lack of sidewall fusion 2. Lack of interinter-run fusion Incorrect welding current/voltage Incorrect travel speed Incorrect interinter-run cleaning

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Lack of Fusion

3.13

Lack of sidewall fusion + incomplete filled groove


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Weld Root Imperfections

3.15

Lack of Root Fusion

Lack of Root Penetration


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Cap Undercut

3.18

Intermittent Cap Undercut


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Undercut

3.18

Root undercut
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Cap undercut
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Surface and Profile

3.19

Incomplete filled groove


Poor cap profiles and excessive cap reinforcements may lead to stress concentration points at the weld toes and will also contribute to overall poor toe blend

Poor cap profile

Excessive cap height


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Surface and Profile

3.19

Excess cap reinforcement

Incomplete filled groove

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Weld Root Imperfections

3.20

Excessive root penetration


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Overlap

3.21

An imperfection at the toe or root of a weld caused by metal flowing on to the surface of the parent metal without fusing to it

Causes: Contamination Slow travel speed Incorrect welding technique Current too low

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Overlap
Toe Overlap

3.21

Toe Overlap

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SetSet -Up Irregularities

3.22

Linear misalignment is measured from the lowest plate to the highest point. Plate/pipe Linear Misalignment (Hi(Hi -Lo) Angular misalignment is measured in degrees

Angular Misalignment

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SetSet -Up Irregularities

3.22

Linear Misalignment
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SetSet -Up Irregularities

3.22

Linear Misalignment

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Incomplete Groove

3.23

Lack of sidewall fusion + incomplete filled groove


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Weld Root Imperfections


Causes:

3.24

A shallow groove, which may occur in the root of a butt weld

Excessive back purge

pressure during TIG welding Excessive root bead grinding before the application of the second pass welding current too high for 2nd pass overhead welding root gap too large - excessive weaving
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Concave Root

Weld Root Imperfections

3.24

Concave Root

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Weld Root Imperfections

3.24

Concave root
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Excess root penetration


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Weld Root Imperfections


A localized collapse of the weld pool due to excessive penetration resulting in a hole in the root run

3.25

Causes:

High Amps/volts Small Root face Large Root Gap Slow Travel Speed

Burn through

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Weld Root Imperfections

3.25

Burn Through

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Oxidized Root (Root Coking)


Causes:

Loss or insufficient back purging gas (TIG)

Most commonly occurs when welding stainless steels

Purging gases include argon, helium and occasionally nitrogen

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Miscellaneous Imperfections
Causes:

3.26

Accidental striking of the arc onto the parent material Faulty electrode holder Poor cable insulation Poor return lead clamping

Arc strike
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Miscellaneous Imperfections
Causes:

3.27

Excessive current Damp electrodes Contamination Incorrect wire feed speed when welding with the MAG welding process Arc blow
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Spatter
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Mechanical Damage

3.28

Mechanical damage can be defined as any surface material damage cause during the manufacturing process.
Grinding Hammering Chiselling Chipping Breaking off welded attachments (torn surfaces) Using needle guns to compress weld capping runs
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Mechanical Damage
Chipping Marks

3.28

Mechanical Damage/Grinding Mark


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Welding Inspector
Destructive Testing Section 4

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Quantitative and Qualitative Tests 4.1


Quantitative Tests:
For measuring a quantity ( a mechanical property ) Mechanical tests - tensile test - hardness test - Charpy VV-notch test (& CTOD)

Qualitative Tests:
For assessing joint quality (good fusion & free from defects) Qualitative tests - bend tests - macro examination - fillet fracture & nick nick-break tests

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Qualitative and Quantitative Tests 4.1


The following mechanical tests have units and are termed quantitative tests to measure Mechanical Properties Tensile tests (Transverse Welded Joint, All Weld Metal) Toughness testing (Charpy, Izod, CTOD) Hardness tests (Brinell, Rockwell, Vickers) The following mechanical tests have no units and are termed qualitative tests for assessing joint quality Macro testing Bend testing Fillet weld fracture testing Butt weld nicknick-break testing
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Mechanical Test Samples 4.1


Tensile Specimens CTOD Specimen

Bend Test Specimen Charpy Specimen Fracture Fillet Specimen

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Destructive Testing 4.1


WELDING PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION TESTING top of fixed pipe 2 Typical Positions for Test Pieces Specimen Type Macro + Hardness 3 Transverse Tensile Bend Tests Charpy Impact Tests 4 5
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Position 5 2, 4 2, 4 3 3

Additional Tests

Definitions
Mechanical Properties of metals are related to the amount of deformation which metals can withstand under different circumstances of force application.

Malleability Ductility Toughness Hardness Tensile Strength

Ability of a material to withstand deformation under static compressive loading without rupture

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Definitions
Mechanical Properties of metals are related to the amount of deformation which metals can withstand under different circumstances of force application.

Malleability Ductility Toughness Hardness Tensile Strength

Ability of a material undergo plastic deformation under static tensile loading without rupture. Measurable elongation and reduction in cross section area

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Definitions
Mechanical Properties of metals are related to the amount of deformation which metals can withstand under different circumstances of force application.

Malleability Ductility Toughness Hardness Tensile Strength

Ability of a material to withstand bending or the application of shear stresses by impact loading without fracture.

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Definitions
Mechanical Properties of metals are related to the amount of deformation which metals can withstand under different circumstances of force application.

Malleability Ductility Toughness Hardness Tensile Strength

Measurement of a materials surface resistance to indentation from another material by static load

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Definitions
Mechanical Properties of metals are related to the amount of deformation which metals can withstand under different circumstances of force application.

Malleability Ductility Toughness Hardness Tensile Strength

Measurement of the maximum force required to fracture a materials bar of unit crosscross-sectional area in tension

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Transverse Joint Tensile Test

4.2

Weld on plate

Weld on pipe
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Multiple cross joint specimens


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Tensile Test

4.3

AllAll -Weld Metal Tensile Specimen

Transverse Tensile Specimen

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STRA (Short Transverse Reduction Area)


For materials that may be subject to Lamellar Tearing

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UTS Tensile test

4.4

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Charpy VV-Notch Impact Test 4.5

Objectives: measuring impact strength in different weld joint areas assessing resistance toward brittle fracture Information to be supplied on the test report: Material type Notch type Specimen size Test temperature Notch location Impact Strength Value

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Ductile / Brittle Transition Curve


Temperature range

4.6

Ductile fracture 47 Joules

Transition range

Ductile/Brittle transition point 28 Joules Energy absorbed

Brittle fracture - 50 - 40 - 30 - 20 - 10 0 Testing temperature - Degrees Centigrade Three specimens are normally tested at each temperature
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Comparison Charpy Impact Test Results 4.6


Impact Energy Joules
Room Temperature 1. 2. 3. 197 Joules 191 Joules 186 Joules -20oC Temperature 1. 2. 3. 49 Joules 53 Joules 51 Joules

Average = 191 Joules

Average = 51 Joules

The test results show the specimens carried out at room temperature absorb more energy than the specimens carried out at -20oC
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Charpy VV-notch impact test specimen 4.7


Specimen dimensions according ASTM E23

ASTM: American Society of Testing Materials


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Charpy VV-Notch Impact Test 4.8


Specime n Pendulu m (striker)

Anvil (support)
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Charpy Impact Test


22.5o 2 mm 10 mm

4.9

100% Brittle
Machined notch Fracture surface 100% bright crystalline brittle fracture

8 mm

100% Ductile
Machined notch Large reduction in area, shear lips Randomly torn, dull gray fracture surface
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Hardness Testing
Definition

4.10

Measurement of resistance of a material against penetration of an indenter under a constant load There is a direct correlation between UTS and hardness

Hardness tests:
Brinell Vickers Rockwell
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Hardness Testing
Objectives:

4.10

measuring hardness in different areas of a welded joint assessing resistance toward brittle fracture, cold cracking and corrosion sensitivity within a H2S (Hydrogen Sulphide) environment.

Information to be supplied on the test report:


material type location of indentation type of hardness test and load applied on the indenter hardness value

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Vickers Hardness Test


Vickers hardness tests:

4.11

indentation body is a square based diamond pyramid (136 included angle) the average diagonal (d) of the impression is converted to a hardness number from a table it is measured in HV5, HV10 or HV025
Diamond indentor Indentation Adjustable shutters

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Vickers Hardness Test Machine

4.11

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Brinell Hardness Test

4.11

Hardened steel ball of given diameter is subjected for

a given time to a given load Load divided by area of indentation gives Brinell hardness in kg/mm2 More suitable for on site hardness testing 30KN

=10mm steel ball


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Rockwell Hardness Test


Rockwell B
1KN 1.5KN

Rockwell C

=1.6mm steel ball

120Diamond Cone

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Hardness Testing
usually the hardest region fusion line or fusion boundary

4.12

1.5 to 3mm

HAZ

Hardness Test Methods Vickers Rockwell Brinell

Typical Designations 240 HV10 Rc 22 200 BHNBHN-W

Hardness specimens can also be used for CTOD samples


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Crack Tip Opening Displacement testing 4.12


Test is for fracture toughness Square bar machined with a notch placed in the centre. Tested below ambient temperature at a specified temperature. Load is applied at either end of the test specimen in an attempt to open a crack at the bottom of the notch Normally 3 samples
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Fatigue Fracture

4.13

Location: Any stress concentration area Steel Type: All steel types Susceptible Microstructure: All grain structures Test for Fracture Toughness is CTOD (Crack Tip Opening Displacement)

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Fatigue Fracture

4.13

Fatigue cracks occur under cyclic stress conditions Fracture normally occurs at a change in section, notch and weld defects i.e stress concentration area All materials are susceptible to fatigue cracking Fatigue cracking starts at a specific point referred to as a initiation point The fracture surface is smooth in appearance sometimes displaying beach markings The final mode of failure may be brittle or ductile or a combination of both
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Fatigue Fracture
Precautions against Fatigue Cracks

Toe grinding, profile grinding. The elimination of poor profiles The elimination of partial penetration welds and weld defects Operating conditions under the materials endurance limits The elimination of notch effects e.g. mechanical damage cap/root undercut The selection of the correct material for the service conditions of the component
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Fatigue Fracture
Fatigue fracture occurs in structures subject to repeated application of tensile stress. Crack growth is slow (in same cases, crack may grow into an area of low stress and stop without failure).

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Fatigue Fracture
Secondary mode of failure ductile fracture rough fibrous appearance Fatigue fracture surface smooth in appearance

Initiation points / weld defects


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Fatigue Fracture
Fatigue fracture distinguish features:
Crack growth is slow It initiate from stress concentration points load is considerably below the design or yield stress level The surface is smooth The surface is bounded by a curve Bands may sometimes be seen on the smooth surface beachmarks. They show the progress of the crack front from the point of origin The surface is 90 90 to the load Final fracture will usually take the form of gross yielding (as the maximum stress in the remaining ligament increase!) Fatigue crack need initiation + propagation periods
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Bend Tests
Object of test:

4.15

To determine the soundness of the weld zone. Bend testing can also be used to give an assessment of weld zone ductility. There are three ways to perform a bend test:

Face bend Root bend Side bend

Side bend tests are normally carried out on welds over 12mm in thickness
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Bending test

4.16

Types of bend test for welds (acc. BS EN 910):

t up to 12 mm

Root / face bend

Thickness of material - t t over 12 mm

Side bend

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Fillet Weld Fracture Tests


Object of test:

4.17

To break open the joint through the weld to permit examination of the fracture surfaces Specimens are cut to the required length A saw cut approximately 2mm in depth is applied along the fillet welds length Fracture is usually made by striking the specimen with a single hammer blow Visual inspection for defects

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Fillet Weld Fracture Tests


Hammer

4.17

2mm Notch

Fracture should break weld saw cut to root

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Fillet Weld Fracture Tests

4.17

This fracture indicates lack of fusion

This fracture has occurred saw cut to root

Lack of Penetration
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NickNick -Break Test


Object of test:

4.18

To permit evaluation of any weld defects across the fracture surface of a butt weld.
Specimens are cut transverse to the weld A saw cut approximately 2mm in depth is applied

along the welds root and cap


Fracture is usually made by striking the specimen with

a single hammer blow


Visual inspection for defects

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NickNick -Break Test


Notch cut by hacksaw 2 mm 19 mm 2 mm Approximately 230 mm

4.18

Weld reinforcement may or may not be removed

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Nick Break Test

4.18

Alternative nicknick-break test specimen, notch applied all way around the specimen

Lack of root penetration or fusion

Inclusions on fracture line

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Summary of Mechanical Testing 4.19


We test welds to establish minimum levels of mechanical properties, and soundness of the welded joint We divide tests into Qualitative & Quantitative methods:

Quantitative: (Have units/numbers) To measure mechanical properties Hardness (VPN & BHN) Toughness (Joules & ft.lbs) Strength (N/mm2 & PSI, MPa) Ductility / Elongation (E%)

Qualitative: (Have no units/numbers) For assessing joint quality Macro tests Bend tests Fillet weld fracture tests Butt Nick break tests

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Welding Inspector
WPS Welder Qualifications Section 5

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Welding Procedure Qualification 5.1


Question: What is the main reason for carrying out a Welding Procedure Qualification Test ? (What is the test trying to show ?) Answer: To show that the welded joint has the properties properties* * that satisfy the design requirements (fit for purpose)

* properties properties mechanical properties are the main interest - always strength but toughness & hardness may be important for some applications test also demonstrates that the weld can be made without defects

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Welding Procedures
Producing a welding procedure involves: Planning the tasks Collecting the data Writing a procedure for use of for trial Making a test welds Evaluating the results Approving the procedure Preparing the documentation

5.1

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Welding Procedures 5.2


In most codes reference is made to how the procedure are to be devised and whether approval of these procedures is required. The approach used for procedure approval depends on the code: Example codes: AWS D.1.1: Structural Steel Welding Code BS 2633: Class 1 welding of Steel Pipe Work API 1104: Welding of Pipelines BS 4515: Welding of Pipelines over 7 Bar

Other codes may not specifically deal with the requirement of a procedure but may contain information that may be used in writing a weld procedure
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EN 1011Process of Arc Welding Steels


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Welding Procedure Qualification 5.3


(according to EN ISO 15614)

The welding engineer writes qualified Welding Procedure Specifications (WPS) for production welding

Production welding conditions must remain within the range of qualification allowed by the WPQR

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Welding Procedure Qualification


(according to EN Standards)

5.3

welding conditions are called welding variables welding variables are classified by the EN ISO Standard as:

Essential variables Non Non-essential variables Additional variables


Note: additional variables = ASME supplementary essential The range of qualification for production welding is based on the limits that the EN ISO Standard specifies for essential variables* (* and when applicable - the additional variables)
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Welding Procedure Qualification


(according to EN Standards)

5.3

WELDING ESSENTIAL VARIABLES


Question: Why are some welding variables classified as essential ? Answer: A variable, that if changed beyond certain limits (specified by the Welding Standard) may have a significant effect on the properties* properties * of the joint * particularly joint strength and ductility

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Welding Procedure Qualification 5.3


(according to EN Standards)

SOME TYPICAL ESSENTIAL VARIABLES Welding Process Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) Material Type Electrode Type, Filler Wire Type (Classification) Material Thickness Polarity (AC, DC+ve / DC-ve) Pre Pre-Heat Temperature Heat Input Welding Position

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Welding Procedures
Type (Grouping) Thickness Diameter (Pipes) Surface condition)

5.3

Components of a welding procedure Parent material

Welding process
Type of process (MMA, MAG, TIG, SAW etc) Equipment parameters Amps, Volts, Travel speed

Welding Consumables
Type of consumable/diameter of consumable Brand/classification Heat treatments/ storage
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Welding Procedures
Edge preparation Root gap, root face Jigging and tacking Type of baking

5.3

Components of a welding procedure Joint design

Welding Position
Location, shop or site Welding position e.g. 1G, 2G, 3G etc Any weather precaution

Thermal heat treatments


Preheat, temps Post weld heat treatments e.g. stress relieving
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Welding Procedures
Object of a welding procedure test

5.3

To give maximum confidence that the welds mechanical and metallurgical properties meet the requirements of the applicable code/specification. Each welding procedure will show a range to which the procedure is approved (extent of approval) If a customer queries the approval evidence can be supplied to prove its validity

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Welding Procedures
Summary of designations: pWPS: Preliminary Welding Procedure Specification
(Before procedure approval)

WPAR (WPQR): Welding Procedure Approval Record


(Welding procedure Qualification record)

WPS: Welding Procedure Specification


(After procedure approval)

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Example: Welding Procedure Specification (WPS)

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Welder Qualification

5.4

Numerous codes and standards deal with welder qualification, e.g. BS EN 287. Once the content of the procedure is approved the next stage is to approve the welders to the approved procedure. A welders test know as a Welders Qualification Test (WQT). Object of a welding qualification test: To give maximum confidence that the welder meets the quality requirements of the approved procedure (WPS). The test weld should be carried out on the same material and same conditions as for the production welds.

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Welder Qualification
(according to EN Standards) Question: What is the main reason for qualifying a welder ?

5.4 & 5.5

Answer: To show that he has the skill to be able to make production welds that are free from defects Note: when welding in accordance with a Qualified WPS

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Welder Qualification (according to EN 287 )

5.5

The welder is allowed to make production welds within the range of qualification shown on the Certificate The range of qualification allowed for production welding is based on the limits that the EN Standard specifies for the welder qualification essential variables A Certificate may be withdrawn by the Employer if there is reason to doubt the ability of the welder, for example a high repair rate not working in accordance with a qualified WPS

The qualification shall remain valid for 2 years provided there is certified confirmation of welding to the WPS in that time. A Welders Qualification Certificate automatically expires if the welder has not used the welding process for 6 months or longer.
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Welding Procedure Qualification 5.7


(according to EN ISO 15614) Welding Engineer writes a preliminary Welding Procedure Specification (p (pWPS) for each test weld to be made A welder makes a test weld in accordance with the pWPS A welding inspector records all the welding conditions used for the test weld (referred to as the asas-run conditions) An Independent Examiner/ Examining Body/ Third Party inspector may be requested to monitor the qualification process The finished test weld is subjected to NDT in accordance with the methods specified by the EN ISO Standard - Visual, MT or PT & RT or UT
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Welding Procedure Qualification 5.7


(according to EN ISO 15614) Test weld is subjected to destructive testing (tensile, bend, macro) The Application Standard, or Client, may require additional tests such as impact tests, hardness tests (and for some materials - corrosion tests) A Welding Procedure Qualification Record (WPQR) is prepared giving details of: The welding conditions used for the test weld Results of the NDT Results of the destructive tests The welding conditions that the test weld allows for production welding The Third Party may be requested to sign the WPQR as a true record
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Welder Qualification
(according to EN 287 )

5.9

An approved WPS should be available covering the range of qualification required for the welder approval.

The welder qualifies in accordance with an approved WPS A welding inspector monitors the welding to make sure that the welder uses the conditions specified by the WPS EN Welding Standard states that an Independent Examiner, Examining Body or Third Party Inspector may be required to monitor the qualification process

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Welder Qualification
(according to EN 287 )

5.9

The finished test weld is subjected to NDT by the methods specified by the EN Standard - Visual, MT or PT & RT or UT The test weld may need to be destructively tested - for certain materials and/or welding processes specified by the EN Standard or the Client Specification A Welders Qualification Certificate is prepared showing the conditions used for the test weld and the range of qualification allowed by the EN Standard for production welding The Qualification Certificate is usually endorsed by a Third Party Inspector as a true record of the test

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Welder Qualification
Welders name and identification number Date of test and expiry date of certificate Standard/code e.g. BS EN 287 Test piece details Welding process. Welding parameters, amps, volts Consumables, flux type and filler classification details Sketch of run sequence Welding positions Joint configuration details Material type qualified, pipe diameter etc Test results, remarks Test location and witnessed by Extent (range) of approval

5.10

Information that should be included on a welders test certificate are, which the welder should have or have access to a copy of !

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Welder Qualification
Tests methods required for welder qualification (BS EN 287)

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Welding Inspector
Materials Inspection Section 6

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Material Inspection
One of the most important items to consider is Traceability. The materials are of little use if we can not, by use of an effective QA system trace them from specification and purchase order to final documentation package handed over to the Client. All materials arriving on site should be inspected for: Size / dimensions Condition Type / specification In addition other elements may need to be considered depending on the materials form or shape
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Pipe Inspection
We inspect the condition
(Corrosion, Damage, Wall thickness Ovality, Laminations & Seam)

Specification Welded seam

LP5

Size

Other checks may need to be made such as: distortion tolerance, number of plates and storage.
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Plate Inspection
We inspect the condition (Corrosion, Mechanical damage, Laps, Bands & Laminations) Specification
5L

Size

Other checks may need to be made such as: distortion tolerance, number of plates and storage.

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Parent Material Imperfections


Mechanical damage Lamination Lap

Segregation line Laminations are caused in the parent plate by the steel making process, originating from ingot casting defects. Segregation bands occur in the centre of the plate and are low melting point impurities such as sulphur and phosphorous. Laps are caused during rolling when overlapping metal does not fuse to the base material.

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Lapping

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Lamination

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Laminations

Plate Lamination
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Welding Inspector
Codes & Standards Section 7

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Codes & Standards


The 3 agencies generally identified in a code or standard: The customer, or client The manufacturer, or contractor The 3rd party inspection, or clients representative

Codes often do not contain all relevant data, but may refer to other standards

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Standard/Codes/Specifications
STANDARDS

SPECIFICATIONS Examples plate, pipe forgings, castings valves electrodes

CODES Examples pressure vessels bridges pipelines tanks

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Welding Inspector
Welding Symbols Section 8

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Weld symbols on drawings


Advantages of symbolic representation:
simple and quick plotting on the drawing does not overover-burden the drawing no need for additional view gives all necessary indications regarding the specific joint to be obtained

Disadvantages of symbolic representation:


used only for usual joints requires training for properly understanding of symbols
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Weld symbols on drawings


The symbolic representation includes:
an arrow line a reference line an elementary symbol

The elementary symbol may be completed by:


a supplementary symbol a means of showing dimensions some complementary indications
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Dimensions
Convention of dimensions
In most standards the cross sectional dimensions are given to the left side of the symbol, and all linear dimensions are give on the right side

BS EN ISO 22553
a = Design throat thickness s = Depth of Penetration, Throat thickness z = Leg length (min material thickness)

AWS A2.4
In a fillet weld, the size of the weld is the leg length In a butt weld, the size of the weld is based on the depth of the joint preparation

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Weld symbols on drawings


A method of transferring information from the design office to the workshop is:
Please weld here

The above information does not tell us much about the wishes of the designer. We obviously need some sort of code which would be understood by everyone. Most countries have their own standards for symbols. Some of them are AWS A2.4 & BS EN 22553 (ISO 2553)

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Weld symbols on drawings


Joints in drawings may be indicated: by detailed sketches, showing every dimension

by symbolic representation

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Elementary Welding Symbols


(BS EN ISO 22553 & AWS A2.4)

Convention of the elementary symbols:


Various categories of joints are characterised by an elementary symbol. The vertical line in the symbols for a fillet weld, single/double bevel butts and a J-butt welds must always be on the left side.

Weld type
Square edge butt weld Single-v Singlebutt weld
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Sketch

Symbol

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Elementary Welding Symbols


Weld type
Single-V butt Singleweld with broad root face Single bevel butt weld Single bevel butt weld with broad root face Backing run
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Sketch

Symbol

Elementary Welding Symbols


Weld type
Single-U Singlebutt weld Single-J Singlebutt weld Surfacing

Sketch

Symbol

Fillet weld
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ISO 2553 / BS EN 22553

Plug weld

Square Butt weld

Resistance spot weld

Steep flanked Single-V Butt

Resistance seam weld


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Surfacing
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Arrow Line
(BS EN ISO 22553 & AWS A2.4): Convention of the arrow line:
Shall touch the joint intersection Shall not be parallel to the drawing Shall point towards a single plate preparation (when only one plate has preparation)

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Reference Line
(AWS A2.4) Convention of the reference line:
Shall touch the arrow line Shall be parallel to the bottom of the drawing

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Reference Line
(BS EN ISO 22553) Convention of the reference line:
Shall touch the arrow line Shall be parallel to the bottom of the drawing There shall be a further broken identification line above or beneath the reference line (Not necessary where the weld is symmetrical!)

or

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Double side weld symbols


(BS EN ISO 22553 & AWS A2.4) Convention of the double side weld symbols:
Representation of welds done from both sides of the joint intersection, touched by the arrow head

Fillet weld

Double bevel

Double J

Double V

Double U

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ISO 2553 / BS EN 22553


Reference lines Arrow line Other side Arrow side

Arrow side

Other side

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ISO 2553 / BS EN 22553


MR M

Single-V Butt with Singlepermanent backing strip

Single-U Butt with Singleremovable backing strip

SingleSingle -V Butt flush cap


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SingleSingle -U Butt with sealing run


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ISO 2553 / BS EN 22553

SingleSingle -bevel butt

DoubleDouble-bevel butt

SingleSingle -bevel butt


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SingleSingle -J butt
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ISO 2553 / BS EN 22553


s10

10

15

Partial penetration singlesingle-V butt S indicates the depth of penetration


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ISO 2553 / BS EN 22553


a = Design throat thickness s = Depth of Penetration, Throat thickness z = Leg length(min material thickness) a = (0 (0.7 x z)

z z6
6mm leg

a s

a4
4mm Design throat

s6
6mm Actual throat
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ISO 2553 / BS EN 22553

Arrow side

Arrow side

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ISO 2553 / BS EN 22553


s6

6mm fillet weld

Other side

s6

Other side

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ISO 2553 / BS EN 22553


n = number of weld elements l = length of each weld element (e) = distance between each weld element

n x l (e)
Welds to be staggered

2 x 40 (50) 3 x 40 (50)

111
Process

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ISO 2553 / BS EN 22553


All dimensions in mm
z5 z6
5 5 80 80 80

3 x 80 (90) 3 x 80 (90) 90)

6 6

90

90

90

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ISO 2553 / BS EN 22553


All dimensions in mm
z8 z6
6 6 8 8 90 90 80 80

3 x 80 (90) 3 x 80 (90) 90)


80

90

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Supplementary symbols
(BS EN ISO 22553 & AWS A A2 2.4) Convention of supplementary symbols
Supplementary information such as welding process, weld profile, NDT and any special instructions Toes to be ground smoothly (BS EN only)

Site Weld

Concave or Convex Weld all round

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Supplementary symbols
(BS EN ISO 22553 & AWS A2.4) Convention of supplementary symbols
Supplementary information such as welding process, weld profile, NDT and any special instructions
Ground flush

MR
Removable backing strip

M
Permanent backing strip

111
Welding process numerical BS EN

Further supplementary information, such as WPS number, or NDT may be placed in the fish tail
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ISO 2553 / BS EN 22553


a b

c
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d
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ISO 2553 / BS EN 22553

Mitre

Convex

Concave

Toes shall be blended


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ISO 2553 / BS EN 22553


a = Design throat thickness s = Depth of Penetration, Throat thickness z = Leg length(min material thickness) a = (0.7 x z)

z z6
6mm leg

a s

a4
4mm Design throat

s6
6mm Actual throat
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ISO 2553 / BS EN 22553 Complimentary Symbols

Field weld (site weld)

Welding to be carried out all round component (peripheral weld)

NDT The component requires NDT inspection

WPS Additional information, the reference document is included in the box


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ISO 2553 / BS EN 22553


Numerical Values for Welding Processes:
111: 121: 131: 135: 136: 141: 311: 72: 15:
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MMA welding with covered electrode SubSub -arc welding with wire electrode MIG welding with inert gas shield MAG welding with nonnon-inert gas shield Flux core arc welding TIG welding OxyOxy -acetylene welding ElectroElectro -slag welding Plasma arc welding
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AWS A2.4 Welding Symbols

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AWS Welding Symbols

Depth of Bevel 1 (1(1-1/8) 1/8 60o

Root Opening

Effective Throat

Groove Angle

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AWS Welding Symbols


Welding Process

GSFCAW 1 (1(1-1/8) 1/8 60o

GMAW GTAW SAW

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AWS Welding Symbols


Welds to be staggered

3 10 3 10
3
SMAW Process

10
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AWS Welding Symbols


Sequence of Operations 3rd Operation 2nd Operation 1st Operation
1(1-1/8) 1/8 60o

FCAW

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AWS Welding Symbols


Sequence of Operations RT MT MT
1(1-1/8)

FCAW
1/8 60o

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AWS Welding Symbols


Dimensions- Leg Length

6 leg on member A 6/8

Member A

6 8

Member B
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AWS A 2.4 rules


Welds on arrow side of joint go underneath the reference line while welds the other side of the joint, go on top of the reference line Symbols with a vertical line component must be drawn with the vertical line to the left side of the symbol All CSA dimensions are shown to the left of the symbol All linear dimensions are shown on the right of the symbol i.e. number of welds, length of welds, length of any spaces Included angle and root opening are shown on top of the symbol
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AWS A 2.4 rules-example

10

3 x 50 (70)

70 50 10
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Fillet welds
Fillet weld dimensions according AWS A 2.4

8
8

5x8
5 8

5 leg on vertical member

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Intermittent fillet welds


Chain intermittent fillet weld
pitch (e) length (l) z

z z

l-e l-e

Symbol to AWS A2.4


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Intermittent fillet welds


Staggered intermittent fillet weld
pitch (e) e/2 length (l)

z z

l-e l-e

Symbol to AWS A2 A2.4


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Welding Inspector
Intro To Welding Processes Section 9

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Welding Processes
Welding is regarded as a joining process in which the work pieces are in atomic contact

Pressure welding
Forge welding Friction welding Resistance Welding

Fusion welding
Oxy Oxy-acetylene MMA (SMAW) MIG/MAG (GMAW) TIG (GTAW) Sub Sub-arc (SAW) Electro Electro-slag (ESW) Laser Beam (LBW) Electron Electron-Beam (EBW)

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Welding Processes
The four essential factors for fusion welding:
1. Fusion is achieved by melting using a high intensity heat source 2. The welding process must be capable of removing any oxide and contamination from the joint 3. Atmosphere contamination must be avoided 4. The welded joint must possess the mechanical properties required by the specification being adapted

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Welding Process Comparison


Process
MMA TIG MIG/MAG

Electrical characteristic
Drooping / constant current Drooping / constant current Flat / constant voltage

Electrode current type


DC+ve, DC-ve, DC+ve, DC+ve, DC-ve, DC-ve, AC AC

MAG FCAW Flat / constant voltage Sub-arc Drooping / constant current >1000amp Flat / constant voltage <1000amp Electro-slag Flat / constant voltage

DC+ve,

DC-ve,

AC

DC+ve,

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Constant Current Power Source (Drooping Characteristic)


100 90 80 70

O.C.V. Striking voltage (typical) for arc initiation Required for: MMA, TIG, Plasma arc and SAW > 1000 AMPS

Voltage

60 50 40 30 20 10 20 40 60 80 100 120 130 140 160 180

Normal Operating Voltage Range

Large voltage variation, e.g. + 10v 10 v (due to changes in arc length) Small amperage change resulting in virtually constant current e.g. + 5A.
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Amperage

ARC CHARACTERISTICS
Constant Voltage Characteristic O CV
Large arc gap Small arc gap

Small change in voltage = large change in amperage

The self adjusting arc. Volts Amps


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Large & momentary change in current due to arc gap


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Monitoring Heat Input


Heat Input: The amount of heat generated in the welding arc per unit length of weld. Expressed in kilo Joules per millimetre length of weld (kJ/mm). Heat Input (kJ/mm)= Volts x Amps Travel speed(mm/s) x 1000
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Monitoring Heat Input

Weld and weld pool temperatures

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Monitoring Heat Input

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Monitoring Heat Input


Monitoring Heat Input As Required by BS EN ISO 1561415614-1:2004 In accordance with EN 1011 1011-1:1998
When impact requirements and/or hardness requirements are specified, impact test shall be taken from the weld in the highest heat input position and hardness tests shall be taken from the weld in the lowest heat input position in order to qualify for all positions

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Welding Inspector
MMA Welding Section 10

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Manual Metal Arc Introduction


The MMA welding Process was first developed in the late 19th century using bare wire consumables. MMA is a simple process in terms of equipment The process can by used in AC, DC+ or DC The process is a manual process and demands a high skill from the welder. The process is widely used throughout the welding industry both for shop and site working conditions

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MMA - Principle of operation

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MMA welding
Main features:
Shielding provided by decomposition of flux covering Electrode consumable Manual process

Welder controls:
Arc length Angle of electrode Speed of travel Amperage settings
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Manual Metal Arc Basic Equipment

Control panel (amps, volts) Electrode oven Electrodes Return lead

Power source Holding oven Inverter power source Electrode holder

Welding visor filter glass

Power cables

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MMA Welding Plant


Transformer: Changes mains supply voltage to a voltage suitable for welding. Has no moving parts and is often termed static plant. Rectifier: Changes a.c. to d.c., can be mechanically or statically achieved. Generator: Produces welding current. The generator consists of an armature rotating in a magnetic field, the armature must be rotated at a constant speed either by a motor unit or, in the absence of electrical power, by an internal combustion engine. Inverter: An inverter changes d.c. to a.c. at a higher frequency.

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MMA Welding Variables


Voltage The arc voltage in the MMA process is measured as close to the arc as possible. It is variable with a change in arc length O.C.V. The open circuit voltage is the voltage required to initiate, or rere-ignite the electrical arc and will change with the type of electrode being used e.g 7070-90 volts Current The current used will be determined by the choice of electrode, electrode diameter and material type and thickness. Current has the most effect on penetration. Polarity Polarity is generally determined by operation and electrode type e.g DC +ve, DC ve or AC
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MMA Welding Checks


OCV open circuit volts A check should be made to ensure that the equipment can produce the OCV required by the consumable and that any voltage selector has been moved to the correct position Current & polarity A check should be made to ensure the current type and range is as detailed on the WPS Other variables Checks should be made for correct electrode angle, arc gap and travel speed Safety Check should be made on the current carrying capacity, or duty cycle of the equipment and all electrical insulation is sound and in place. Correct extraction systems should be in use to avoid exposure to toxic fume.
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Constant Current Power Source (Drooping Characteristic)


100 90 80 70

O.C.V. Striking voltage (typical) for arc initiation

Voltage

60 50 40 30 20 10 20 40 60 80 100 120 130 140 160 180

Normal Operating Voltage Range

Large voltage variation, e.g. + 10v (due to changes in arc length) Small amperage change resulting in virtually constant current e.g. + 5A.
200

Amperage
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MMA welding parameters


Travel speed
Too low wide weld bead contour lack of penetration burn burn-through Travel speed Too high lack of root fusion incomplete root penetration undercut poor bead profile, difficult slag removal

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MMA welding parameters


Type of current:
voltage drop in welding cables is lower with AC inductive looses can appear with AC if cables are coiled cheaper power source for AC no problems with arc blow with AC DC provides a more stable and easy to strike arc, especially with low current, better positional weld, thin sheet applications welding with a short arc length (low arc voltage) is easier with DC, better mechanical properties DC provides a smoother metal transfer, less spatter

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MMA welding parameters


Welding current
approx. 35 A/mm of diameter governed by thickness, type of joint and welding

position
Too low poor starting slag inclusions weld bead contour too high lack of fusion/penetration
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Welding current

Too high spatter excess penetration undercut burn burn-through

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MMA welding parameters


Arc length = arc voltage
Too low arc can be extinguished stubbing Arc voltage Too high spatter porosity excess penetration undercut burn burn-through

Polarity: DCEP generally gives deeper penetration

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MMA - Troubleshooting

MMA quality (left to right)


current, arc length and travel speed normal; current too low; current too high; arc length too short; arc length too long; travel speed too slow; travel speed too high

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MMA electrode holder

Collet or twist type


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Tongs type with springspring -loaded jaws


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MMA Welding Consumables MMA Covered Electrodes


The three main electrode covering types used in MMA welding

Cellulosic - deep penetration/fusion Rutile - general purpose Basic - low hydrogen


(Covered in more detail in Section 14) 14)

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MMA welding typical defects


Most welding defects in MMA are caused by a lack of welder skill (not an easily controlled process), the incorrect settings of the equipment, or the incorrect use, and treatment of electrodes Typical Welding Defects: Slag inclusions Arc strikes Porosity Undercut Shape defects (overlap, excessive root penetration, etc.)

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Manual Metal Arc Welding (MMA)


Advantages:
Field or shop use Range of consumables All positions Portable Simple equipment High welder skill required High levels of fume Hydrogen control (flux) Stop/start problems Comparatively uneconomic when compared with some other processes i.e MAG, SAW and FCAW

Disadvantages:

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Welding Inspector
TIG Welding Section 11

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Tungsten Inert Gas Welding


The TIG welding process was first developed in the USA during the 2nd world war for the welding of aluminum alloys The process uses a nonnon-consumable tungsten electrode The process requires a high level of welder skill The process produces very high quality welds. The TIG process is considered as a slow process compared to other arc welding processes The arc may be initiated by a high frequency to avoid scratch starting, which could cause contamination of the tungsten and weld

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TIG - Principle of operation

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Tungsten Inert Gas Welding


USA: GTAW
Ceramic Nozzle

Welding Torch

Current Conductor

Shielding gas Tungsten Electrode Contact Tube Gas Shield Filler Wire Arc

Weld Pool
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TIG Welding Variables


Gas type and flow rate Generally two types of gases are used in TIG welding, argon and helium, though nitrogen may be considered for welding copper and hydrogen may be added for the welding of austenitic stainless steels. The gas flow rate is also important. Argon (Ar) Inert Suitable for welding carbon steel,stainless steel, aluminium and magnesium Lower cost, lower flow rates More suitable for thinner materials and positional welding
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Helium Argon mixes Suitable for welding carbon steel, stainless steel, copper, aluminium and magnesium High cost, high flow rates More suitable for thicker materials and materials of high thermal conductivity.
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TIG Welding Variables


Voltage
The voltage of the TIG welding process is variable only by the type of gas being used, and changes in the arc length

Current
The current is adjusted proportionally to the tungsten electrodes diameter being used. The higher the current the deeper the penetration and fusion

Polarity
The polarity used for steels is always DC ve as most of the heat is concentrated at the +ve pole, this is required to keep the tungsten electrode at the cool end of the arc. When welding aluminium and its alloys AC current is used
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TIG power source


POWER SOURCE 440v 50Hz 3 phase or 240v single phase input Transformers for AC aluminium alloys Rectifiers for DC - steels Transformer/rectifier for AC/DC Inverters for AC/DC more portable - expensive

TORCH TORCH HOSE RETURN LEAD INERT GAS SUPPLY (Cylinder & regulator) FLOWMETER (graduated in ltr/min)

Sizes/types vary depending on current/application Flexible may carry current, gas, cooling water. Note that current actually flows from this lead Correct type for application.(ar, he, ar/he mixture) Argon/hydrogen for austenitic stainless steel To deliver correct gas flow (velocity) depending on welding position and joint configuration.

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Types of current
DC can be DCEN or DCEP DCEN gives deep penetration can be sine or square wave requires a HF current (continuos or periodical) provide cleaning action requires special power source low frequency - up to 20 pulses/sec (thermal pulsing) better weld pool control weld pool partially solidifies 256 of 691 between pulses

AC Type of welding current Pulsed current

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Choosing the proper electrode


Current type influence

+ + + + +

+ +

Current type & polarity Heat balance Penetration Oxide cleaning action Electrode capacity
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DCEN 70% at work 30% at electrode Deep, narrow No Excellent (e.g. 3,2 mm/400A)

AC (balanced) 50% at work 50% 50 % at electrode Medium Yes - every half cycle Good (e.g. 3,2 mm/225A)

DCEP 35% at work 65% 65 % at electrode Shallow, wide Yes Poor (e.g. 6,4 mm/120A)
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ARC CHARACTERISTICS
Constant Current/Amperage Characteristic
OCV

Large change in voltage = Smaller change in amperage

Volts
Large arc gap Welding Voltage Small arc gap

Amps
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TIG - arc initiation methods


Arc initiation method Lift arc
simple method tungsten electrode is in contact with the workpiece! high initial arc current due to the short circuit impractical to set arc length in advance electrode should tap the workpiece - no scratch! ineffective in case of AC used when a high quality is not essential
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HF start
need a HF generator (spark(sparkgap oscillator) that generates a high voltage AC output (radio frequency) costly reliable method required on both DC (for start) and AC (to rere-ignite the arc) can be used remotely HF produce interference requires superior insulation
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Pulsed current
Current (A) Pulse Cycle Peak Background time time current current

usually peak current is 22-10 times background current useful on metals sensitive to high heat input reduced distortions in case of dissimilar thicknesses equal penetration can be achieved

Average current Time

one set of variables can be used in all positions used for bridging gaps in open root joints require special power source
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Choosing the proper electrode


Polarity Influence cathodic cleaning effect

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Tungsten Electrodes
Old types: (Slightly Radioactive)
Thoriated: DC electrode -ve - steels and most metals 1% thoriated + tungsten for higher current values 2% thoriated for lower current values Zirconiated: AC - aluminum alloys and magnesium

New types: (Not Radioactive)


Cerium: DC electrode -ve - steels and most metals Lanthanum: AC - Aluminum alloys and magnesium

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TIG torch setset-up


Electrode extension

Stickout Electrode extension

2-3 times electrode diameter

Low electron emission Unstable arc


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Too small

Electrode extension

Too large

Overheating Tungsten inclusions


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Choosing the correct electrode


Polarity Influence cathodic cleaning effect

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Tungsten Electrodes
Old types: (Slightly Radioactive)
Thoriated: DC electrode -ve - steels and most metals 1% thoriated + tungsten for higher current values 2% thoriated for lower current values Zirconiated: AC - aluminum alloys and magnesium

New types: (Not Radioactive)


Cerium: DC electrode -ve - steels and most metals Lanthanum: AC - Aluminum alloys and magnesium

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Tungsten electrode types


Pure tungsten electrodes:
colour code - green no alloy additions low current carrying capacity maintains a clean balled end can be used for AC welding of Al and Mg alloys poor arc initiation and arc stability with AC compared with other electrode types used on less critical applications low cost
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Tungsten electrode types


Thoriated tungsten electrodes:
colour code - yellow yellow/ /red red/ /violet 20% higher current carrying capacity compared to pure tungsten electrodes longer life - greater resistance to contamination thermionic - easy arc initiation, more stable arc maintain a sharpened tip recommended for DCEN, seldom used on AC (difficult to maintain a balled tip) This slightly radioactive
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Tungsten electrode types


Ceriated tungsten electrodes:
colour code - grey (orange acc. AWS A A-5.12) operate successfully with AC or DC Ce not radioactive - replacement for thoriated types

Lanthaniated tungsten electrodes:


colour code - black/ /gold gold/ /blue operating characteristics similar with ceriated electrode

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Tungsten electrode types


Zirconiated tungsten electrodes:
colour code - brown brown/ /white operating characteristics fall between those of pure and thoriated electrodes retains a balled end during welding - good for AC welding high resistance to contamination preferred for radiographic quality welds

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Electrode tip for DCEN


Penetration increase
2-2,5 times electrode diameter

Increase Vertex angle Decrease Bead width increase

Electrode tip prepared for low current welding


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Electrode tip prepared for high current welding


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Electrode tip for AC


DC -ve AC

Electrode tip ground


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Electrode tip ground and then conditioned


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TIG Welding Variables


Tungsten electrodes
The electrode diameter, type and vertex angle are all critical factors considered as essential variables. The vertex angle is as shown DC -ve AC

Vetex angle Note: too fine an angle will promote melting of the electrodes tip
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Note: when welding aluminium with AC current, the tungsten end is chamfered and forms a ball end when welding
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Choosing the proper electrode


Factors to be considered: Electrode tip not properly heated Excessive melting or volatilisation

Too low

Welding current

Too high

Unstable arc

Penetration

Tungsten inclusions

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TIG Welding Gases


Gas type and flow rate Generally two types of gases are used in TIG welding, argon and helium, though nitrogen may be considered for welding copper and hydrogen may be added for the welding of austenitic stainless steels. The gas flow rate is also important. Argon (Ar) Inert Suitable for welding carbon steel,stainless steel, aluminium and magnesium Lower cost, lower flow rates More suitable for thinner materials and positional welding
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Helium Argon mixes Suitable for welding carbon steel, stainless steel, copper, aluminium and magnesium High cost, high flow rates More suitable for thicker materials and materials of high thermal conductivity.
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Shielding gas requirements


Preflow and postflow
Shielding gas flow Welding current

Preflow

Postflow

Flow rate too low

Flow rate too high

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Special shielding methods


Pipe root run shielding Back Purging to prevent excessive oxidation during welding, normally argon.

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TIG torch setset-up


Electrode extension

Stickout Electrode extension

2-3 times electrode diameter

Low electron emission Unstable arc


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Too small

Electrode extension

Too large

Overheating Tungsten inclusions


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TIG Welding Consumables


Welding consumables for TIG:
Filler wires, Shielding gases, tungsten electrodes (non(non-

consumable).
Filler wires of different materials composition and

variable diameters available in standard lengths, with applicable code stamped for identification
Steel Filler wires of very high quality, with copper

coating to resist corrosion.


shielding gases mainly Argon and Helium, usually of

highest purity (99.9%).

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Tungsten Inclusion
May be caused by Thermal Shock of heating to fast and small fragments break off and enter the weld pool, so a slope up device is normally fitted to prevent this could be caused by touch down also. Most TIG sets these days have slopeup devices that brings the current to the set level over a short period of time so the tungsten is heated more slowly and gently

A Tungsten Inclusion always shows up as bright white on a radiograph


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TIG typical defects


Most welding defects with TIG are caused by a lack of welder skill, or incorrect setting of the equipment. i.e. current, torch manipulation, welding speed, gas flow rate, etc. Tungsten inclusions (low skill or wrong vertex angle) Surface porosity (loss of gas shield mainly on site) Crater pipes (bad weld finish technique i.e. slope out) Oxidation of S/S weld bead, or root by poor gas cover Root concavity (excess purge pressure in pipe) Lack of penetration/fusion (widely on root runs)

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Tungsten Inert Gas Welding


Advantages
High quality Good control All positions Lowest H2 process Minimal cleaning Autogenous welding (No filler material) Can be automated
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Disadvantages
High skill factor required Low deposition rate Small consumable range High protection required Complex equipment Low productivity High ozone levels +HF
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Welding Inspector
MIG/MAG Welding Section 12

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Gas Metal Arc Welding


The MIG/MAG welding process was initially developed in the USA in the late 1940s for the welding of aluminum alloys. The latest EN Welding Standards now refer the process by the American term GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding) Welding) The process uses a continuously fed wire electrode The weld pool is protected by a separately supplied shielding gas The process is classified as a semisemi-automatic welding process but may be fully automated The wire electrode can be either bare/solid wire or flux cored hollow wire

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MIG/MAG - Principle of operation

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Gas Metal Arc Welding


Advantages
 High productivity  Easily automated  All positional (dip & pulse)  Material thickness range  Continuous electrode Wide range of application

Disadvantages
 Lack of fusion (dip)  Small range of consumables  Protection on site  Complex equipment  Not so portable

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MIG/MAG process variables


Welding current

Increasing welding current Increase in depth and width Increase in deposition rate

Polarity

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MIG/MAG process variables


Arc voltage

Increasing arc voltage Reduced penetration, increased width Excessive voltage can cause porosity, spatter and undercut

Travel speed
Increasing travel speed Reduced penetration and width, undercut
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MAG Welding Variable Parameters


Shielding Gases:
The gasses used in MIG/MAG welding can be either 100% CO2 or Argon + CO2 mixes. 100% CO2: Can not sustain true spray transfer, but gives very good penetration. The arc is unstable which produces a lot of spatter and a coarse weld profile. Argon + CO2 mixes mixes: : Argon can sustain spray transfer above 24 volts, and gives a very stable arc with a reduction in spatter. Argon being a cooler gas produces less penetration than CO2. Argon in normally mixed with CO2 at a mixture of between 55-25%

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Gas Metal Arc Welding


Types of Shielding Gas MIG (Metal Inert Gas)
Inert Gas is required for all nonnon-ferrous alloys (Al, Cu, Ni) Most common inert gas is Argon Argon + Helium used to give a hotter arc - better for thicker joints and alloys with higher thermal conductivity

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MIG/MAG shielding gases


Type of material Shielding gas CO2 , Ar+(5Ar+(5-20)%CO2

Carbon steel

Stainless steel

Ar+2%O2

Aluminium

Ar

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MIG/MAG shielding gases


Ar Ar-He He CO2

Argon (Ar): higher density than air; low thermal conductivity the arc has a high energy inner cone; good wetting at the toes; low ionisation potential Helium (He): lower density than air; high thermal conductivity uniformly distributed arc energy; parabolic profile; high ionisation potential Carbon Dioxide (CO2): cheap; deep penetration profile; cannot support spray transfer; poor wetting; high spatter
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MIG/MAG shielding gases


Gases for dip transfer:
CO2: carbon steels only: only: deep penetration; fast welding speed; high spatter levels Ar + up to 25% CO2: carbon and low alloy steels: steels: minimum spatter; good wetting and bead contour 90% He + 7.5% Ar + 2.5% CO2:stainless steels: steels: minimises undercut; small HAZ Ar: Al, Mg, Cu, Ni and their alloys on thin sections Ar + He mixtures: Al, Mg, Cu, Ni and their alloys on thicker sections (over 3 mm)
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MIG/MAG shielding gases


Gases for spray transfer
Ar + (5(5-18)% CO2: carbon steels: steels: minimum spatter; good wetting and bead contour Ar + 2% O2: low alloy steels: minimise undercut; provides good toughness Ar + 2% O2 or CO2: stainless steels: steels: improved arc stability; provides good fusion Ar: Al, Mg, Cu, Ni, Ti and their alloys Ar + He mixtures: Al, Cu, Ni and their alloys: alloys: hotter arc than pure Ar to offset heat dissipation Ar + (25(25-30)% N2: Cu alloys: alloys: greater heat input
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Gas Metal Arc Welding


Types of Shielding Gas MAG (Metal Active Gas)
Active gases used are Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Argon with a small % of active gas is required for all steels (including stainless steels) to ensure a stable arc & good droplet wetting into the weld pool Typical active gases are Ar + 20% 20% CO2 Ar + 2% O2 100% 100 % CO2
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for CC-Mn & low alloy steels for stainless steels can be used for C - steels
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MIG/MAG Gas Metal Arc Welding


Electrode orientation

Penetration Undercut

Deep

Moderate Shallow

Excess weld metal Maximum Moderate Minimum Severe Moderate Minimum

Electrode extension
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Increased extension

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MIG / MAG - selfself-regulating arc


Stable condition
Arc length L = 6,4 mm Arc voltage = 24V Welding current = 250A WFS = 6,4 m/min Melt off rate = 6,4 m/min

Sudden change in gun position


Arc length L = 12,7 mm Arc voltage = 29V Welding current = 220A WFS = 6,4 m/min Melt off rate = 5,6 m/min

19 mm

25 mm

Voltage (V)

Current (A)
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MIG/MAG - selfself-regulating arc


Sudden change in gun position
Arc length L = 12, 12,7 mm Arc voltage = 29V 29V Welding current = 220A 220A WFS = 6,4 m/min Melt off rate = 5,6 m/min

ReRe -established stable condition


Arc length L = 6,4 mm Arc voltage = 24V 24V Welding current = 250A 250A WFS = 6,4 m/min Melt off rate = 6,4 m/min

25 mm L

25 mm

Voltage (V)

Current (A)
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Terminating the arc


Crater fill Burnback time delayed current cutcut-off to prevent wire freeze in the weld end crater depends on WFS (set as short as possible!)
Contact tip 3 mm 8 mm 14 mm Insulatin g slag Burnback time 0.05 sec Workpiec e
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Current - 250A Voltage - 27V WFS - 7,8 m/min Wire diam. - 1,2 mm Shielding gas Ar+18%CO2
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0.10 sec

0.15 sec

MIG/MAG - metal transfer modes

Contact tip extension (0-3,2 mm)

Electrode extension 6-13 mm

Contact tip recessed (3(3-5 mm)

Electrode extension 1919 -25 mm

SetSet -up for dip transfer


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SetSet -up for spray transfer


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Gas Metal Arc Welding


MODES OF METAL TRANSFER The current and voltage settings determine the way molten droplets of weld metal transfer from the tip of the wire to the weld pool There are 3 principle modes of droplet transfer, namely dip transfer (short(short-circuiting) spray transfer pulsed transfer

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MIG/MAG - metal transfer modes


Voltage
Electrode diameter = 1,2 mm WFS = 8,3 m/min Current = 295 A Voltage = 28V

Globular transfer

Spray transfer
Electrode diameter = 1,2 mm WFS = 3,2 m/min Current = 145 A

Dip transfer

Voltage = 1818-20V

Current

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Current/voltage conditions

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Gas Metal Arc Welding


Dip Transfer
Dip transfer occurs when current & voltage settings are low (typically < ~ 200amps & ~ 22volts) There is just enough energy to give an arc and cause fusion at the tip of the wire A droplet grows to a size larger than the wire diameter and eventually extinguishes the arc - causing a shortshort-circuit The short circuit causes the current rises very quickly giving energy to violently pinchpinch-off the droplet This is akin to blowing a fuse and causes spatter When the droplet detaches, the arc is rere-established and the current falls This cycle occurs at up to ~ 200 times per second

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MIG/MAGMIG/MAG -methods of metal transfer


Dip transfer
Transfer occur due to short circuits between wire and weld pool, high level of spatter, need inductance control to limit current raise Can use pure CO2 or ArAr- CO2 mixtures as shielding gas Metal transfer occur when arc is extinguished Requires low welding current/arc voltage, a low heat input process. Resulting in low residual stress and distortion Used for thin materials and all position welds
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Gas Metal Arc Welding


Dip Transfer
Transferransfer-mode advantages The low energy conditions allow welding in all positions It can be used for putting in the root run on singlesingle-sided welds It can be used for welding thin materials Transferransfer-mode disadvantages It frequently gives lack of fusion and may not be allowed in semisemi -automatic mode for high high-integrity applications It tends to give spatter (this can be reduced/controlled by having an inductance control on the power source)
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Gas Metal Arc Welding


Spray Transfer When current & voltage are raised together higher energy is available for fusion (typically > ~ 25 volts & ~ 250 amps) This causes a fine droplets of weld metal to be sprayed from the tip of the wire into the weld pool Transferransfer-mode advantages High energy gives good fusion High rates of weld metal deposition are given These characteristics make it suitable for welding thicker joints Transferransfer-mode disadvantages It cannot be used for positional welding

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MIG/MAGMIG/MAG -methods of metal transfer


Spray transfer
Transfer occur due to pinch effect NO contact between wire and weld pool! Requires argonargon-rich shielding gas Metal transfer occur in small droplets, a large volume weld pool Requires high welding current/arc voltage, a high heat input process. Resulting in high residual stress and distortion Used for thick materials and flat/horizontal position welds
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MIG/MAGMIG/MAG -methods of metal transfer


Pulsed transfer Controlled metal transfer, one droplet per pulse, No transfer between droplet and weld pool! Requires special power sources Metal transfer occur in small droplets (diameter equal to that of electrode) Requires moderate welding current/arc voltage, a reduced heat input . Resulting in smaller residual stress and distortion compared to spray transfer Pulse frequency controls the volume of weld pool, used for root runs and out of position welds
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MIG/MAG - metal transfer modes


Pulsed transfer
Controlled metal transfer. one droplet per pulse. NO transfer during background current! Requires special power sources Metal transfer occur in small droplets (diameter equal to that of electrode) Requires moderate welding current/arc voltage, reduced heat input smaller residual stress and distortions compared to spray transfer Pulse frequency controls the volume of weld pool, used for root runs and out of position welds
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Gas Metal Arc Welding


Pulsed Transfer
Transferransfer-mode advantages Good fusion Small weld pool allows allall-position welding

Transferransfer-mode disadvantages More complex & expensive power source Difficult to set parameters - requires power source manufacturer to provide pulse programmes to suit wire type, dia. and type of gas

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MIG/MAGMIG/MAG -methods of metal transfer


Globular transfer
Transfer occur due to gravity or short circuits between drops and weld pool Requires CO2 shielding gas Metal transfer occur in large drops (diameter larger than that of electrode) hence severe spatter Requires high welding current/arc voltage, a high heat input process. Resulting in high residual stress and distortion Non desired mode of transfer!

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Gas Metal Arc Welding


Dip Transfer: (Voltage < 22) / (Amperage < 200)
Thin materials positional welding

Globular Transfer: Between Dip & Spray Transfer


Limited commercial, Used only in some mechanized MAG

process using CO2 shielding gas Spray Transfer: (Voltage > 27) / (Amperage > 220)
Thicker materials, limited to flat welding positions, high

deposition Pulse Transfer: Both spray and dip transfer in


one mode of operation, frequency range 5050-300

pulses/second
Positional welding and root runs
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MAG Welding Variable Parameters


Inductance:
Applicable to MIG/MAG process in dip transfer mode. The electrode is fed slowly through the arc until it

touches the weld pool, at this point the output from the power supply is short circuited and a very high current flows through the electrode. If this was allowed to continue, the wire would melt and eject excessive amounts of spatter.
The inclusion or the choke in the welding circuit

controls the rate at which the current rises so that the electrode tip is melted uniformly without excessive spatter
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The effect of inductance


Maximum inductance
Hotter arc, more penetration reduced spatter More fluid weld pool, flatter and smoother weld Recommended on thicker materials and stainless steels

Minimum inductance
Colder arc, used only for arc stability when welding wide gaps Convex weld, more spatter Improved weld pool control Recommended on thin materials

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ARC CHARACTERISTICS
Constant Voltage Characteristic O CV
Large arc gap Small arc gap

Small change in voltage = large change in amperage

Volts

The self adjusting arc.

Amps
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Flat or Constant Voltage Characteristic


Flat or Constant Voltage Characteristic Used With MIG/MAG, ESW & SAW < 1000 amps
O.C.V. Arc Voltage Virtually no Change.

33 32 31

Voltage

Small Voltage Change. Large Current Change

100

Amperage

200

300

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MIG/MAG welding gun assembly


Contact tip Gas diffuser The PushPush-Pull gun

Union nut

Gas nozzle

Trigger Handle

WFS remote control potentiometer

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MAG Welding Variable Parameters


Wire feed speed:
Increasing the wire feed speed automatically increases the current in the wire

Voltage:
The voltage is the most important setting in the spray transfer mode, as it controls the arc length. In dip transfer it controls the rise in current

Current:
The current is automatically increased as the wire feed is increased. Current mainly affects penetration

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Gas Metal Arc Welding


PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS Requires a constant voltage power source, gas supply, wire feeder, welding torch/gun and hose package Wire is fed continuously through the conduit and is burntburnt-off at a rate that maintains a constant arc length/arc voltage Wire feed speed is directly related to burnburn-off rate Wire burnburn-off rate is directly related to current When the welder holds the welding gun the process is said to be a semisemi-automatic process The process can be mechanised and also automated In Europe the process is usually called MIG or MAG

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Gas Metal Arc Welding


Types of Filler Wire Filler wires have similar composition to the base material Wires can be solid, flux cored or metal cored Flux cored wires are designed to run in spray mode and therefore they give good fusion Flux cored wires cannot be used for root runs on unbacked joints The slag formed from flux cored wire enables welding to be done in allall -positions Most flux cored wires have a folded seam that can allow moisture to get into the flux Controlled storage & handling is required for seamed wires Metal cored wires have the same general characteristics as solid wires - they can be operated in dip or spray mode Some flux cored wires do not require a gas shield (Innershield)

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Checks when MAG Welding


The welding equipment A visual check should be made on the equipment to ensure it is in good working order The electrodes The diameter, specification and the quality of the wire are essential for inspection. The level of deoxidisation in the wire, single, double or triple dede-oxidised. The quality of the wire winding and the copper coating should also be inspected to minimize wire feed problems.
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Checks when MAG Welding


Wire liner Check that the liner is the correct type and size for the wire being used. Steel liners for steel and Teflon liners for aluminium. Contact tips Check the tip is the correct size for the wire being used and check the amount of wear. Excessive wear will affect wire speed and electrical current pickpick-up Gas and gas flowflow-rates Type of gas and the flow rate need to be checked to ensure they comply with the WPS Other welding variables Check WFS, amps, volts and travel speed
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MIG/MAG typical defects


Most welding imperfections in MIG/MAG are caused by lack of welder skill, or incorrect settings of the equipment Worn contact tips will cause poor power pick up, or transfer Bad power connections will cause a loss of voltage in the arc Silica inclusions (in Fe steels) due to poor interinter-run cleaning Lack of fusion (primarily with dip transfer) Porosity (from loss of gas shield on site etc) Solidification problems (cracking, centerline pipes, crater pipes) especially on deep narrow welds

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WELDING PROCESS Flux Core Arc Welding (Not In The Training Manual)

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Flux cored arc welding


FCAW methods

With gas shielding Outershield

Without gas shielding Innershield

With metal powder Metal core

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Outershield - principle of operation

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Innershield - principle of operation

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ARC CHARACTERISTICS
Constant Voltage Characteristic O CV
Large arc gap Small arc gap

Small change in voltage = large change in amperage

Volts

The self adjusting arc.

Amps
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Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW)


Flux core Insulated extension nozzle Current carrying guild tube Wire joint Flux cored hollow wire Flux powder Arc shield composed of vaporized and slag forming compounds

Flux core wires

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Solidified weld metal and slag

Molten weld pool

Metal droplets covered with thin slag coating


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Flux cored arc welding


FCAW methods

With gas shielding Outershield

Without gas shielding Innershield (114)

With metal powder Metal core

With active gas shielding (136)


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With inert gas shielding (137 (137) )


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FCAW - differences from MIG/MAG


usually operates in DCEP but some Innershield wires operates in DCEN power sources need to be more powerful due to the higher currents doesn't work in deep transfer mode require knurled feed rolls

Innershield wires use a different type of welding gun


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Backhand (drag) technique


Advantages
preferred method for flat or horizontal position slower progression of the weld deeper penetration weld stays hot longer, easy to remove dissolved gasses

Disadvantages
produce a higher weld profile difficult to follow the weld joint can lead to burnburn-through on thin sheet plates
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Forehand (push) technique


Advantages
preferred method for vertical up or overhead position arc is directed towards the unwelded joint , preheat effect easy to follow the weld joint and control the penetration

Disadvantages
produce a low weld profile, with coarser ripples fast weld progression, shallower depth of penetration the amount of spatter can increase

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FCAW advantages
less sensitive to lack of fusion requires smaller included angle compared to MMA high productivity all positional smooth bead surface, less danger of undercut basic types produce excellent toughness properties good control of the weld pool in positional welding especially with rutile wires seamless wires have no torsional strain, twist free ease of varying the alloying constituents no need for shielding gas
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FCAW disadvantages
limited to steels and NiNi-base alloys slag covering must be removed FCAW wire is more expensive on a weight basis than solid wires (exception: some high alloy steels) for gas shielded process, the gaseous shield may be affected by winds and drafts more smoke and fumes are generated compared with MIG/MAG in case of Innershield wires, it might be necessary to break the wire for restart (due to the high amount of insulating slag formed at the tip of the wire)

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FCAW advantages/disadvantages
Advantages: 1) Field or shop use 2) High productivity 3) All positional 4) Slag supports and shapes the weld Bead 5) No need for shielding gas Disadvantages: 1) High skill factor 2) Slag inclusions 3) Cored wire is Expensive 4) High level of fume (Inner(Inner -shield) 5) Limited to steels and nickel alloys
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Welding Inspector
Submerged Arc Welding Section 13

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Submerged Arc Welding Introduction


Submerged arc welding was developed in the Soviet Union during the 2nd world war for the welding of thick section steel. The process is normally mechanized. The process uses amps in the range of 100 to over 2000, which gives a very high current density in the wire producing deep penetration and high dilution welds. A flux is supplied separately via a flux hopper in the form of either fused or agglomerated. The arc is not visible as it is submerged beneath the flux layer and no eye protection is required.

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SAW Principle of operation

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Principles of operation
Factors that determine whether to use SAW chemical composition and mechanical properties required for the weld deposit thickness of base metal to be welded joint accessibility position in which the weld is to be made frequency or volume of welding to be performed

SAW methods

Semiautomatic
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Mechanised

Automatic
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Submerged Arc Welding


Filler wire spool Flux hopper Power supply

+ Slide rail

Wire electrode Flux

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SAW process variables


welding current current type and polarity welding voltage travel speed electrode size electrode extension width and depth of the layer of flux

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SAW process variables


Welding current controls depth of penetration and the amount of base metal melted & dilution

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SAW operating variables


Current type and polarity Usually DCEP, deep penetration, better resistance to porosity DCEN increase deposition rate but reduce penetration (surfacing) AC used to avoid arc blow; can give unstable arc
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SAW Consumables
(Covered in detail in Section 14)

Fused fluxes advantages:


good chemical homogeneity easy removal of fines without affecting flux composition normally not hygroscopic & easy storage and handling readily recycled without significant change in particle size or composition

Fused fluxes disadvantages:


difficult to add deoxidizers and ferroferro-alloys (due to segregation or extremely high loss) high temperatures needed to melt ingredients limit the range of flux compositions
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SAW Consumables
Agglomerated fluxes advantages: easy addition of deoxidizers and alloying elements usable with thicker layer of flux when welding colour identification

Agglomerated fluxes disadvantages: tendency to absorb moisture possible gas evolution from the molten slag leading to porosity possible change in flux composition due to segregation or removal of fine mesh particles
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SAW equipment
Power sources can be: transformers for AC transformertransformer -rectifiers for DC

Static characteristic can be: Constant Voltage (flat) - most of the power sources Constant Current (drooping)

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SAW equipment
Constant Voltage (Flat Characteristic) power sources: most commonly used supplies for SAW can be used for both semiautomatic and automatic welding selfself -regulating arc simple wire feed speed control wire feed speed controls the current and power supply controls the voltage applications for DC are limited to 1000A due to severe arc blow (also thin wires!)

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ARC CHARACTERISTICS
Constant Voltage Characteristic O CV
Large arc gap Small arc gap

Small change in voltage = large change in amperage

Volts

The self adjusting arc.

Amps
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SAW equipment
Constant Current (Drooping Characteristic) power sources: Over 1000 1000A A - very fast speed required - control of burn off rate and stick out length can be used for both semiautomatic and automatic welding not selfself-regulating arc must be used with a voltagevoltage-sensing variable wire feed speed control more expensive due to more complex wire feed speed control arc voltage depends upon wire feed speed whilst the power source controls the current cannot be used for highhigh-speed welding of thin steel
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SAW equipment
Welding heads can be mounted on a: Tractor type carriage provides travel along straight or gently curved joints can ride on tracks set up along the joint (with grooved wheels) or on the workpiece itself can use guide wheels as tracking device due to their portability, are used in field welding or where the piece cannot be moved

Courtesy of ESAB AB

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Courtesy of ESAB AB

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SAW operating variables


Welding current too high current: excessive excess weld metal (waste of electrode), increase weld shrinkage and causes greater distortions excessively high current: digging arc, undercut, burn through; also a high and narrow bead & solidification cracking too low current: incomplete fusion or inadequate penetration excessively low current: unstable arc

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SAW operating variables


Welding voltage
welding voltage controls arc length increase in voltage produce a flatter and wider bead increase in voltage increase flux consumption increase in voltage tend to reduce porosity an increased voltage may help bridging an excessive root gap an increased voltage can increase pickpick-up of alloying elements from an alloy flux
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SAW operating variables


Welding voltage low voltage produce a stiffer arc & improves penetration in a deep weld groove and resists arc blow excessive low voltage produce a high narrow bead & difficult slag removal

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SAW operating variables


Welding voltage excessively high voltage produce a hathat-shaped bead & tendency to crack excessively high voltage increase undercut & make slag removal difficult in groove welds excessively high voltage produce a concave fillet weld that is subject to cracking
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SAW operating variables


Travel speed increase in travel speed: decrease heat input & less filler metal applied per unit of length, less excess weld metal & weld bead becomes smaller

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SAW operating variables


Travel speed excessively high speed lead to undercut, arc blow and porosity

excessively low speed produce hathat-shaped beads danger of cracking excessively low speed produce rough beads and lead to slag inclusions
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SAW operating variables


Electrode size at the same current, small electrodes have higher current density & higher deposition rates

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SAW operating variables


Electrode extension
increased electrode extension adds resistance in the welding circuit I increase in deposition rate, decrease in penetration and bead width

to keep a proper weld shape, when electrode extension is increased, voltage must also be increased when burnburn-through is a problem (e.g. thin gauge), increase electrode extension excessive electrode extension: it is more difficult to maintain the electrode tip in the correct position
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SAW operating variables


Depth of flux depth of flux layer influence the appearance of weld usually, depth of flux is 2525-30 mm if flux layer is to deep the arc is too confined, result is a rough ropelike appearing weld if flux layer is to deep the gases cannot escape & the surface of molten weld metal becomes irregularly distorted if flux layer is too shallow, flashing and spattering will occur, give a poor appearance and porous weld
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SAW

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SAW

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SAW

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SAW technological variables


Travel angle effect - Butt weld on plates

Penetration Excess weld metal Tendency to undercut


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Deep Maximum Severe

Moderate Moderate Moderate

Shallow Minimum Minimum


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SAW technological variables


Earth position Direction of travel +

welding towards earth produces backward arc blow deep penetration convex weld profile

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SAW technological variables


Earth position Direction of travel welding away earth produces forward arc blow normal penetration depth smooth, even weld profile +

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Weld backing
Backing strip

Backing weld

Copper backing

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Starting/finishing the weld

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SAW variants
Twin wire SAW welding two electrodes are feed into the same weld pool wire diameter usually 1,6 to 3,2 mm electrodes are connected to a single power source & a single arc is established normally operate with DCEP offers increased deposition rate by up to 80% compared to single wire SAW
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SAW variants

Wires can be oriented for maximum or minimum penetration

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SAW variants
Tandem arc SAW process usually DCEP on lead and AC on trail to reduce arc blow requires two separate power sources the electrodes are active in the same puddle BUT there are 2 separate arcs increased deposition rate by up to 100% compared with single wire SAW
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SAW variants
SAW tandem arc with two wires

Courtesy of ESAB AB

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SAW variants

Single pool - highest deposition rate

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Twin pool - travel speed limited by undercut; very resistant to porosity and cracks 372 of 691

SAW variants
Tandem arc SAW process - multiple wires only for welding thick sections (>30 mm) not suitable for use in narrow weld preparations (root passes) one 4 mm wire at 600 A, 6.8 kg/hr
Courtesy of ESAB AB

tandem two 4 mm wires at 600 A, 13.6 kg/hr


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SAW variants
Strip cladding needs a special welding head

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SAW variants
Narrow gap welding for welding thick materials less filler metal required requires special groove preparation and special welding head requires special fluxes, otherwise problems with slag removal defect removal is very difficult
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SAW variants
Cold wire welding the cold wire is not connected to power source increase deposition rates up to 75% high deposition rate at fixed heat input results in lower penetration!

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SAW variants
Hot wire welding the hot wire is connected to power source & much more efficient than cold wire (current is used entirely to heat the wire!) increase deposition rates up to 100% requires additional welding equipment, additional control of variables, considerable setset -up time and closer operator attention
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SAW variants
SAW with metal powder addition
increased deposition rates up to 70%; increased welding speed gives smooth fusion, improved bead appearance, reduced penetration and dilution from parent metal & higher impact strength metal powders can modify chemical composition of final weld deposit does not increase risk of cracking do not require additional arc energy metal powder can be added ahead or directly into the weld pool
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SAW variants
SAW with metal powder addition magnetic attachment of powder

SAW with metal cored wires

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SAW variants
Storage tank SAW of circular welds

Courtesy of ESAB AB
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Submerged Arc Welding Process (SAW)


Submerged arc welds are difficult to predict as the weld is made up of three elements. The dilution may be as much as 60% resulting in a high susceptibility to solidification cracking

15%

60%

25%

Flux elements
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Electrode

Dilution
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Advantages of SAW
high current density, high deposition rates (up to 10 times those for MMA), high productivity deep penetration allowing the use of small welding grooves fast travel speed, less distortion deslagging is easier uniform bead appearance with good surface finish and good fatigue properties can be easily performed mechanised, giving a higher duty cycle and low skill level required provide consistent quality when performed automatic or mechanised Virtually assured radiographically sound welds arc is not visible little smoke/fumes are developed
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Disadvantages of SAW
limited mainly between flat and horizontal positions limited to carbon, low alloy, creep resisting, stainless steels and nickel alloys due to the high heat input, impact strength of weld metal/HAZ may be low; also high dilution slag must be cleared away after welding due to the danger of slag inclusions need flux storage, handling and recirculation control difficult to apply onon-site due to complicated equipment high capital costs weld line must be regular (straight or circumferential seams only) with accurate fitfit-up

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Submerged Arc Welding


Advantages
Low weldweld-metal cost Easily automated Low levels of ozone High productivity No visible arc light Minimum cleaning

Disadvantages
Restricted welding positions Arc blow on DC current Shrinkage defects Difficult penetration control Limited joints

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Welding Inspector
Welding Consumables Section 14

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BS EN 499 MMA Covered Electrodes


E 50 3 2Ni B 7 2 H10
Covered Electrode Yield Strength N/mm2 Toughness Chemical composition Flux Covering Weld Metal Recovery and Current Type Welding Position Hydrogen Content
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Welding consumables
Welding consumables are any products that are used up in the production of a weld

Welding consumables may be:


Covered electrodes, filler wires and electrode wires. Shielding or oxyoxy-fuel gases. Separately supplied fluxes. Fusible inserts.

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Welding Consumable Standards


MIG/MAG (GMAW) TIG MMA (SMAW)

(GTAW)
BS 2901: Filler wires BS EN 440: Wire electrodes AWS A5.9: Filler wires BS EN 439: Shielding gases

BS EN 499: Steel electrodes AWS A5.1 NonNon-alloyed steel electrodes

AWS A5.4 Chromium electrodes

SAW
BS 4165: Wire and fluxes BS EN 756: Wire electrodes BS EN 760: Fluxes AWS A5.17: Wires and fluxes

AWS A5.5 Alloyed steel electrodes

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Welding Consumable Gases


welding gases
GMAW, FCAW, TIG, OxyOxy- Fuel Supplied in cylinders or storage tanks for large quantities Colour coded cylinders to minimise wrong use Subject to regulations concerned handling, quantities and positioning of storage areas Moisture content is limited to avoid cold cracking Dew point (the temperature at which the vapour begins to condense) must be checked

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Welding Consumables
Each consumable is critical in respect to:
Size, (diameter and length) Classification / Supplier Condition Treatments e.g. baking / drying Handling and storage is critical for consumable

control
Handling and storage of gases is critical for safety

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Quality Assurance
Welding Consumables:
filler material must be stored in an area with controlled temperature and humidity poor handling and incorrect stacking may damage coatings, rendering the electrodes unusable there should be an issue and return policy for welding consumables (system procedure) control systems for electrode treatment must be checked and calibrated; those operations must be recorded filler material suppliers must be approved before purchasing any material

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MMA Welding Consumables MMA Covered Electrodes


The three main electrode covering types used in MMA welding

Cellulosic - deep penetration/fusion Rutile - general purpose Basic - low hydrogen

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MMA Welding Consumables


Welding consumables for MMA:
Consist of a core wire typically between 350350-450mm in

length and from 2.5mm - 6mm in diameter


The wire is covered with an extruded flux coating The core wire is generally of a low quality rimming steel The weld quality is refined by the addition of alloying

and refining agents in the flux coating


The flux coating contains many elements and

compounds that all have a variety of functions during welding


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MMA Welding Consumables


Function of the Electrode Covering:
To facilitate arc ignition and give arc stability To generate gas for shielding the arc & molten metal from air contamination To dede-oxidise the weld metal and flux impurities into the slag To form a protective slag blanket over the solidifying and cooling weld metal To provide alloying elements to give the required weld metal properties To aid positional welding (slag design to have suitable freezing temperature to support the molten weld metal) To control hydrogen contents in the weld (basic type)

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Covered electrode inspection


1: Electrode size (diameter and length)

2: Covering condition: adherence, cracks, chips and concentricity

3: Electrode designation
EN 499-E 51 3 B

Arc ignition enhancing materials (optional!) See BS EN ISO 544 for further information
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MMA Welding Consumables


Plastic foil sealed cardboard box
rutile electrodes general purpose basic electrodes

Tin can
cellulosic electrodes

Vacuum sealed pack


extra low hydrogen electrodes
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Courtesy of Lincoln Electric

Courtesy of Lincoln Electric

MMA Welding Consumables


Cellulosic electrodes:
covering contains cellulose (organic material). produce a gas shield high in hydrogen raising the arc voltage. Deep penetration / fusion characteristics enables welding at high speed without risk of lack of fusion. generates high level of fumes and H2 H2 cold cracking. Forms a thin slag layer with coarse weld profile. not require baking or drying (excessive heat will damage electrode covering!). Mainly used for stove pipe welding hydrogen content is 80 80-90 ml/ ml/100 100 g of weld metal.
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MMA Welding Consumables


Cellulosic Electrodes Disadvantages:
weld beads have high hydrogen risk of cracking (need to keep joint hot during welding to allow H to escape) not suitable for higher strength steels - cracking risk too high (may not be allowed for Grades stronger than X70) not suitable for very thick sections (may not be used on thicknesses > ~ 35mm) not suitable when low temperature toughness is required (impact toughness satisfactory down to ~ -20 20C)

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MMA Welding Consumables


Cellulosic Electrodes

Advantages:
Deep penetration/fusion Suitable for welding in all positions Fast travel speeds Large volumes of shielding gas Low control
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Disadvantages:
High in hydrogen High crack tendency Rough weld appearance High spatter contents Low deposition rates

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MMA Welding Consumables


Rutile electrodes:
covering contains TiO2 slag former and arc stabiliser. easy to strike arc, less spatter, excellent for positional welding. stable, easyeasy-to to-use arc can operate in both DC and AC. slag easy to detach, smooth profile. Reasonably good strength weld metal. Used mainly on general purpose work. Low pressure pipework, support brackets. electrodes can be dried to lower H2 content but cannot be baked as it will destroy the coating. hydrogen content is 2525-30 ml/100 g of weld metal.

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MMA Welding Consumables


Rutile electrodes Disadvantages:
they cannot be made with a low hydrogen content cannot be used on high strength steels or thick joints cracking risk too high they do not give good toughness at low temperatures these limitations mean that they are only suitable for general engineering - low strength, thin steel

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MMA Welding Consumables


Rutile Electrodes

Advantages:
Easy to use Low cost / control Smooth weld profiles Slag easily detachable High deposition possible with the addition of iron powder

Disadvantages:
High in hydrogen High crack tendency Low strength Low toughness values

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MMA Welding Consumables


Rutile Variants
High Recovery Rutile Electrodes Characteristics:
coating is bulked out with iron powder iron powder gives the electrode high recovery extra weld metal from the iron powder can mean that weld deposit from a single electrode can be as high as 180% of the core wire weight give good productivity large weld beads with smooth profile can look very similar to SAW welds

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MMA Welding Consumables


High Recovery Rutile Electrodes Disadvantages:
Same as standard rutile electrodes with respect to hydrogen control large weld beads produced cannot be used for allall-positional welding the very high recovery types usually limited to PA & PB positions more moderate recovery may allow PC use

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MMA Welding Consumables


Basic covering:
Produce convex weld profile and difficult to detach slag. Very suitable for for high pressure work, thick section steel and for high strength steels. Prior to use electrodes should be baked, typically 350 350 C for 2 hour plus to reduce moisture to very low levels and achieve low hydrogen potential status. Contain calcium fluoride and calcium carbonate compounds. cannot be rere-baked indefinitely! low hydrogen potential gives weld metal very good toughness and YS. have the lowest level of hydrogen (less than 5 ml/100 g of weld metal).
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MMA Welding Consumables


Basic Electrodes Disadvantages:
Careful control of baking and/or issuing of electrodes is essential to maintain low hydrogen status and avoid risk of cracking Typical baking temperature 350 350C for 1 to 2hours. Holding temperature 120 to 150 150C. Issue in heated quivers typically 70 70C. Welders need to take more care / require greater skill. Weld profile usually more convex. Deslagging requires more effort than for other types.

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MMA Welding Consumables


Advantages Basic Electrodes Disadvantages
High cost High control High welder skill required Convex weld profiles Poor stop / start properties

High toughness values Low hydrogen contents Low crack tendency

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BS EN 499 MMA Covered Electrodes


E 50 3 2Ni B 7 2 H10
Covered Electrode Yield Strength N/mm2 Toughness Chemical composition Flux Covering Weld Metal Recovery and Current Type Welding Position Hydrogen Content
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BS EN 499 MMA Covered Electrodes


Electrodes classified as follows:
E 35 - Minimum yield strength 350 N/mm2 Tensile strength 440 - 570 N/mm2 E 38 - Minimum yield strength 380 N/mm2 Tensile strength 470 - 600 N/mm2 E 42 - Minimum yield strength 420 N/mm2 Tensile strength 500 - 640 N/mm2 E 46 - Minimum yield strength 460 N/mm2 Tensile strength 530 - 680 N/mm2 E 50 - Minimum yield strength 500 N/mm2 Tensile strength 560 - 720 N/mm2
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BS EN 499 electrode designation


Recovery and type of current designation
Symbol 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Weld metal recovery (%) e105 e105 >105 e125 >105 e125 >125 e160 >125 e160 >160 >1 60 >160 Type of current AC/DC DC AC/DC DC AC/DC DC AC/DC DC 4 5 3 1 2

Welding position designation


Symbol Welding position All positions All positions except vertical down Flat butt/fillet, horizontal fillet Flat butt/fillet Flat butt/fillet, horizontal fillet, vertical down

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AWS A5.1 Alloyed Electrodes


E 60 1 3
Covered Electrode Tensile Strength (p.s.i) Welding Position Flux Covering

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AWS A5.5 Alloyed Electrodes


E 70 1 8 M G
Covered Electrode Tensile Strength (p.s.i) Welding Position Flux Covering Moisture Control Alloy Content

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MMA Welding Consumables


TYPES OF ELECTRODES (for C, C-Mn Steels) BS EN 499 AWS A5.1

Cellulosic Rutile

E XX X C E XX X R

EXX10 EXX10 EXX11 EXX1 1 EXX12 EXX12 EXX13 EXX1 3

Rutile Heavy Coated E XX X RR EXX2 EXX24 4 Basic


E XX X B EXX15 EXX15 EXX16 EXX1 6 EXX18 EXX1 8
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Electrode efficiency
up to 180% for iron powder electrodes

Mass of weld metal deposited Electrode Eficiency = Mass of core wire melted

7575 -90% for usual electrodes


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Covered electrode treatment


Cellulosic electrodes
Use straight from the box - No baking/drying!

Rutile electrodes Vacuum packed basic electrodes


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If necessary, dry up to 120 120 C- No baking!

Use straight from the pack within 4 hours - No rebaking!

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Covered electrode treatment


Basic electrodes Baking in oven 2 hours at 350 350C!

Limited number of rebakes!

After baking, maintain in oven at 150 150C

If not used within 4 hours, return to oven and rebake!

Use from quivers at 75 75 C

Weld

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Welding Consumables

TIG Consumables

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TIG Welding Consumables


Welding consumables for TIG:
Filler wires, Shielding gases, tungsten electrodes (non(non-

consumable).
Filler wires of different materials composition and

variable diameters available in standard lengths, with applicable code stamped for identification
Steel Filler wires of very high quality, with copper

coating to resist corrosion.


shielding gases mainly Argon and Helium, usually of

highest purity (99.9%).

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TIG Welding Consumables


Welding rods: supplied in cardboard/plastic tubes

Courtesy of Lincoln Electric

must be kept clean and free from oil and dust might require degreasing

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Fusible Inserts
PrePre -placed filler material

Before Welding

After Welding

Other terms used include:  EB inserts (Electric Boat Company)  Consumable socket rings (CSR)

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Fusible Inserts
Consumable inserts: used for root runs on pipes used in conjunction with TIG welding available for carbon steel, Cr r-Mo steel, austenitic stainless steel, nickel and coppercopper-nickel alloys different shapes to suit application

Radius
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Fusible Inserts
Application of consumable inserts

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Shielding gases for TIG welding


Argon
low cost and greater availability heavier than air - lower flow rates than Helium low thermal conductivity - wide top bead profile low ionisation potential - easier arc starting, better arc stability with AC, cleaning effect for the same arc current produce less heat than helium - reduced penetration, wider HAZ to obtain the same arc arc power, argon requires a higher current - increased undercut
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Shielding gases for TIG welding


Helium
costly and lower availability than Argon lighter than air - requires a higher flow rate compared with argon (2(2-3 times) higher ionisation potential - poor arc stability with AC, less forgiving for manual welding for the same arc current produce more heat than argon - increased penetration, welding of metals with high melting point or thermal conductivity to obtain the same arc arc power, helium requires a lower current - no undercut
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Shielding gases for TIG welding


Hydrogen not an inert gas - not used as a primary shielding gas increase the heat input - faster travel speed and increased penetration better wetting action - improved bead profile produce a cleaner weld bead surface added to argon (up to 5%) - only for austenitic stainless steels and nickel alloys flammable and explosive

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Shielding gases for TIG welding


Nitrogen not an inert gas high availability - cheap added to argon (up to 5%) - only for back purge for duplex stainless, austenitic stainless steels and copper alloys not used for mild steels (age embritlement) strictly prohibited in case of Ni and Ni alloys (porosity)

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Welding Consumables

MIG / MAG Consumables


(Gases Covered previously)

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MIG/MAG Welding Consumables


Welding consumables for MIG/MAG
Spools of Continuous electrode wires and shielding

gases
variable spool size (1(1-15Kg) and Wire diameter (0.6 (0.6-

1.6mm) supplied in random or orderly layers


Basic Selection of different materials and their alloys

as electrode wires.
Some Steel Electrode wires copper coating purpose

is corrosion resistance and electrical pickpick-up


Gases can be pure CO2, CO2+Argon mixes and

Argon+2%O2 mixes (stainless steels).


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MIG/MAG Welding Consumables


Welding wires: carbon and low alloy wires may be copper coated stainless steel wires are not coated

Courtesy of Lincoln Electric

Courtesy of ESAB AB

wires must be kept clean and free from oil and dust flux cored wires does not require baking or drying
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MIG/MAG Welding Consumables


Wire designation acc. BS EN 440:
Type of shielding gas Tensile properties Standard number

EN 440 - G 46 3 M G3Si1
Weld deposit produced by gas shielded metal arc welding Impact properties Type of wire electrode
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MIG/MAG Welding Consumables


Wire designation acc. AWS A-5.18:
Chemical composition of the solid wire or of the weld metal in case of composite electrodes Minimum UTS of weld metal (ksi) Standard number

AWS A-5.18 ER 70 S-6


Designate an electrode/rod (ER) or only an electrode (E) Solid (S) or composite (C) wire

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MIG/MAG shielding gases


Gas shielded metal arc welding

MIG process (131) BS EN 439

MAG process (135)

Group I - Ar, He and ArAr-He mixtures

Group R Ar + H2 (<35%)

Group M - Ar + CO2/O2 (<50/15%)

Group C CO2, CO2 + O2 (<30%)

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Welding Consumables

Flux Core Wire Consumables


(Not in training manual)

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Flux Core Wire Consumables

Functions of metallic sheath: provide form stability to the wire serves as current transfer during welding

Function of the filling powder: stabilise the arc add alloy elements produce gaseous shield produce slag add iron powder
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Types of cored wire

Seamless cored wire

Butt joint cored wire

Overlapping cored wire

not sensitive to moisture pickpick -up can be copper coated, better current transfer thick sheath, good form stability, 2 roll drive feeding possible difficult to manufacture
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good resistance to moisture pickpick-up can be copper coated thick sheath difficult to seal the sheath

sensitive to moisture pickpickup cannot be copper coated thin sheath easy to manufacture
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Core elements and their function


Aluminium - deoxidize & denitrify Calcium - provide shielding & form slag Carbon - increase hardness & strength Manganese - deoxidize & increase strength and toughness Molybdenum - increase hardness & strength Nickel - improve hardness, strength, toughness & corrosion resistance Potassium - stabilize the arc & form slag Silicon - deoxidize & form slag Sodium - stabilize arc & form slag Titanium - deoxidize, denitrify & form slag
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Welding Consumables

SAW Consumables

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SAW Consumables
Welding fluxes:
are granular mineral compounds mixed according to various formulations shield the molten weld pool from the atmosphere clean the molten weld pool can modify the chemical composition of the weld metal prevents rapid escape of heat from welding zone influence the shape of the weld bead (wetting action) can be fused, agglomerated or mixed must be kept warm and dry to avoid porosity

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SAW Consumables
Welding flux:
might be fused or agglomerated supplied in bags must be kept warm and dry handling and stacking requires care
Courtesy of Lincoln Electric

Fused fluxes are normally not hygroscopic but particles can hold surface moisture so only drying Agglomerated fluxes contain chemically bonded water. Similar Similar treatment as basic electrodes If flux is too fine it will pack and not feed properly. It cannot be recycled indefinitely
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SAW Consumables
Welding flux: supplied in bags/pails (approx. 25 kg) or bulk bags (approx. 1200 kg) might be fused, agglomerated or mixed

Courtesy of Lincoln Electric

Courtesy of Lincoln Electric

Courtesy of Lincoln Electric

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SAW Consumables
Fused Flux Flaky appearance Lower weld quality Low moisture intake Low dust tendency Good rere-cycling Very smooth weld profile

Fused Flux:
Baked at high temperature, glossy, hard and black in colour, cannot add ferro-manganese, non moisture absorbent and tends to be of the acidic type
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SAW Consumables
TYPES OF FLUX FUSED (ACID TYPE) name indicates method of manufacture minerals are fused (melted) and granules produced by allowing to cool to a solid mass and then crushing or by spraying the molten flux into water flux tends to be glassglass-like (high in Silica) granules are hard and may appear shiny granules do not absorb moisture granules do not tend break down into powder when being rere-circulated are effectively a low hydrogen flux welds do not tend to give good toughness at low temperatures
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SAW Consumables
Fused fluxes advantages: good chemical homogeneity easy removal of fines without affecting flux composition normally not hygroscopic handling easy storage and

readily recycled without significant change in particle size or composition Fused fluxes disadvantages: difficult to add deoxidizers and ferroferro-alloys (due to segregation or extremely high loss) high temperatures needed to melt ingredients limit the range of flux compositions
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SAW Consumables
Agglomerated Flux Granulated appearance High weld quality Addition of alloys Lower consumption Easy slag removal Smooth weld profile

Agglomerated Flux:
Baked at a lower temperature, dull, irregularly shaped, friable, (easily crushed) can easily add alloying elements, moisture absorbent and tend to be of the basic type
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SAW Consumables
Agglomerated fluxes advantages: easy addition of deoxidizers and alloying elements usable with thicker layer of flux when welding colour identification

Agglomerated fluxes disadvantages: tendency to absorb moisture possible gas evolution from the molten slag leading to porosity possible change in flux composition due to segregation or removal of fine mesh particles
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SAW Consumables
TYPES OF FLUX AGGLOMERATED (BASIC TYPE) name indicates method of manufacture basic minerals are used in powder form and are mixed with a binder to form individual granules granules are soft and easily crushed to powder granules will absorb moisture and it is necessary to protect the flux from moisture pickpick-up - usually by holding in a heated silo granules tend to break down into powder when being rerecirculated are a low hydrogen flux - if correctly controlled welds give good toughness at low temperatures
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SAW Consumables
Mixed fluxes - two or more fused or bonded fluxes are mixed in any ratio necessary to yield the desired results Mixed fluxes advantages: several commercial fluxes may be mixed for highly critical or proprietary welding operations Mixed fluxes disadvantages: segregation of the combined fluxes during shipment, storage and handling segregation occurring in the feeding and recovery systems during welding inconsistency in the combined flux from mix to mix
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SAW filler material


Welding wires can be used to weld: carbon steels low alloy steels creep resisting steels stainless steels nickel nickel-base alloys special alloys for surfacing applications Welding wires can be: solid wires metal metal-cored wires
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SAW filler material


Welding wires: carbon and low alloy wires are copper coated stainless steel wires are not coated

Courtesy of Lincoln Electric

Courtesy of Lincoln Electric

wires must be kept clean and free from oil and dust
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SAW filler material


Copper coating functions: to assure a good electric contact between wire and contact tip to assure a smooth feed of the wire through the guide tube, feed rolls and contact tip (decrease contact tube wear) to provide protection against corrosion

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Ceramic Backing
Ceramic backing:
used to support the weld pool on root runs usually fitted on an aluminium self adhesive tape

allow increased welding current without danger of burnburn-through, increased productivity, consistent quality different profiles to suit different applications no backing/drying required
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Welding Inspector
Non Destructive Testing Section 15

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NonNon -Destructive Testing


A welding inspector should have a working knowledge of NDT methods and their applications, advantages and disadvantages.

Four basic NDT methods


Radiographic inspection (RT) Ultrasonic inspection (UT) Magnetic particle inspection (MT) Dye penetrant inspection (PT)

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NonNon -Destructive Testing


Surface Crack Detection
Liquid Penetrant (PT or Dye Dye-Penetrant) Magnetic Particle Inspection (MT or MPI)

Volumetric & Planar Inspection


Ultrasonics (UT) Radiography (RT)

Each technique has advantages & disadvantages with respect to: Technical Capability and Cost

Note: The choice of NDT techniques is based on consideration of these advantages and disadvantages
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Radiographic Testing (RT)

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Radiographic Testing
The principles of radiography

X or Gamma radiation is imposed upon a test object Radiation is transmitted to varying degrees dependant upon the density of the material through which it is travelling Thinner areas and materials of a less density show as darker areas on the radiograph Thicker areas and materials of a greater density show as lighter areas on a radiograph Applicable to metals,nonmetals,non-metals and composites
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Radiographic Testing

X Rays
Electrically generated

Gamma Rays
Generated by the decay of unstable atoms

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Radiographic Testing
Source Radiation beam Image quality indicator

Test specimen

Radiographic film with latent image after exposure


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Radiographic Testing
Density - relates to the degree of darkness

Densitometer
Contrast - relates to the degree of difference Definition - relates to the degree of sharpness Sensitivity - relates to the overall quality of the radiograph
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Radiographic Sensitivity

7FE12

Step / Hole type IQI


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Wire type IQI


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Radiographic Sensitivity

Step/Hole Type IQI

Wire Type IQI


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Radiographic Techniques
Single Wall Single Image (SWSI)
film inside, source outside

Single Wall Single Image (SWSI) panoramic


film outside, source inside (internal exposure)

Double Wall Single Image (DWSI)


film outside, source outside (external exposure)

Double Wall Double Image (DWDI)


film outside, source outside (elliptical exposure)

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Single Wall Single Image (SWSI)

Film Film

IQIs should be placed source side

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Single Wall Single Image Panoramic

Film IQIs are placed on the film side Source inside film outside (single exposure)
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Double Wall Single Image (DWSI)

Film IQIs are placed on the film side Source outside film outside (multiple exposure) This technique is intended for pipe diameters over 100mm
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Double Wall Single Image (DWSI)


Identification Unique identification
EN W10

IQI placing Pitch marks indicating readable film length

A
ID MR11

Radiograph
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Double Wall Single Image (DWSI)

Radiograph
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Double Wall Double Image (DWDI)

Film
IQIs are placed on the source or film side Source outside film outside (multiple exposure) A minimum of two exposures This technique is intended for pipe diameters less than 100mm
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Double Wall Double Image (DWDI)


Identification Unique identification IQI placing Pitch marks indicating readable film length 1
ID MR12 Shot A Radiograph
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4
EN W10

Double Wall Double Image (DWDI)

Elliptical Radiograph
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Radiography
PENETRATING POWER Question:
What determines the penetrating power of an XX-ray ? the kilokilo-voltage applied (between anode & cathode)

Question:
What determines the penetrating power of a gamma ray ? the type of isotope (the wavelength of the gamma rays)

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Radiography
GAMMA SOURCES Isotope Iridium 192 Cobalt 60
Ytterbium Thulium Cesium

Typical Thickness Range


10 to 50 mm (mostly used) > 50 mm < 10 mm < 10 mm < 10 mm

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Radiographic Testing
Advantages Permanent record Little surface preparation Defect identification No material type limitation Not so reliant upon operator skill Thin materials Disadvantages Expensive consumables Bulky equipment Harmful radiation Defect require significant depth in relation to the radiation beam (not good for planar defects) Slow results Very little indication of depths Access to both sides required
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Radiographic Testing
Comparison with Ultrasonic Examination ADVANTAGES good for nonnon-planar defects good for thin sections gives permanent record easier for 2nd party interpretation can use on all material types high productivity direct image of imperfections

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Radiographic Testing
Comparison with Ultrasonic Examination DISADVANTAGES
health & safety hazard not good for thick sections high capital and relatively high running costs not good for planar defects X-ray sets not very portable requires access to both sides of weld frequent replacement of gamma source needed (half life)
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Ultrasonic Testing (UT)

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Ultrasonic Testing
Main Features:
Surface and subsub-surface detection This detection method uses high frequency sound waves, typically above 2MHz to pass through a material A probe is used which contains a piezo electric crystal to transmit and receive ultrasonic pulses and display the signals on a cathode ray tube or digital display The actual display relates to the time taken for the ultrasonic pulses to travel the distance to the interface and back An interface could be the back of a plate material or a defect For ultrasound to enter a material a couplant must be introduced between the probe and specimen
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Ultrasonic Testing
Pulse echo signals A scan Display Digital UT Set,

Compression probe

checking the material Thickness

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Ultrasonic Testing
initial pulse defect echo Back wall echo

Material Thk defect

10

20

30

40

50

Compression Probe
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CRT Display
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Ultrasonic Testing
UT Set A Scan Display

Angle Probe
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Ultrasonic Testing
initial pulse defect echo
defect
0 10 20 30 40 50

Skip

CRT Display

initial pulse defect echo


defect
0 10 20 30 40 50

Full Skip
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CRT Display
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Ultrasonic Testing
Advantages  Rapid results  Both surface and subsub -surface detection  Safe  Capable of measuring the depth of defects  May be battery powered  Portable Disadvantages  Trained and skilled operator required  Requires high operator skill  Good surface finish required  Defect identification  Couplant may contaminate  No permanent record  Calibration Required  Ferritic Material (Mostly)

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Ultrasonic Testing
Comparison with Radiography ADVANTAGES good for planar defects good for thick sections instant results can use on complex joints can automate very portable no safety problems (parallel working is possible) low capital & running costs

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Ultrasonic Testing
Comparison with Radiography DISADVANTAGES no permanent record (with standard equipment) not suitable for very thin joints <8mm reliant on operator interpretation not good for sizing Porosity good/smooth surface profile needed not suitable for coarse grain materials (e.g., castings) Ferritic Materials (with standard equipment)
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Magnetic Particle testing (MT)

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Magnetic Particle Testing


Main features:
Surface and slight subsub-surface detection Relies on magnetization of component being tested Only FerroFerro-magnetic materials can be tested A magnetic field is introduced into a specimen being tested Methods of applying a magnetic field, yoke, permanent magnet, prods and flexible cables. Fine particles of iron powder are applied to the test area Any defect which interrupts the magnetic field, will create a leakage field, which attracts the particles Any defect will show up as either a dark indication or in the case of fluorescent particles under UVUV-A light a green/yellow indication
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Magnetic Particle Testing


Collection of ink particles due to leakage field

Electro-magnet (yoke) DC or AC

Prods DC or AC
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Magnetic Particle Testing

A crack like indication

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Magnetic Particle Testing

Alternatively to contrast inks, fluorescent inks may be used for greater sensitivity. These inks require a UVUV-A light source and a darkened viewing area to inspect the component

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Magnetic Particle Testing


Typical sequence of operations to inspect a weld
Clean area to be tested Apply contrast paint Apply magnetisism to the component Apply ferroferro-magnetic ink to the component during magnatising Iterpret the test area Post clean and dede-magnatise if required

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Magnetic Particle Testing


Advantages Simple to use Inexpensive Rapid results Little surface preparation required Possible to inspect through thin coatings Disadvantages Surface or slight subsub-surface detection only Magnetic materials only No indication of defects depths Only suitable for linear defects Detection is required in two directions

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Magnetic Particle Testing


Comparison with Penetrant Testing ADVANTAGES much quicker than PT instant results can detect nearnear-surface imperfections (by current flow technique) less surface preparation needed DISADVANTAGES only suitable for ferromagnetic materials electrical power for most techniques may need to dede-magnetise (machine components)

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Penetrant Testing (PT)

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Penetrant Testing
Main features:
Detection of surface breaking defects only. This test method uses the forces of capillary action Applicable on any material type, as long they are non porous. Penetrants are available in many different types: Water washable contrast Solvent removable contrast Water washable fluorescent Solvent removable fluorescent Post Post-emulsifiable fluorescent
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Penetrant Testing
Step 1. PrePre-Cleaning Ensure surface is very Clean normally with the use of a solvent

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Penetrant Testing
Step 2. Apply penetrant After the application, the penetrant is normally left on the components surface for approximately 1515-20 minutes (dwell time). The penetrant enters any defects that may be present by capillary action.

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Penetrant Testing
Step 3. Clean off penetrant the penetrant is removed after sufficient penetration time (dwell time). Care must be taken not to wash any penetrant out off any defects present

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Penetrant Testing
Step 3. Apply developer After the penetrant has be cleaned sufficiently, a thin layer of developer is applied. The developer acts as a contrast against the penetrant and allows for reverse capillary action to take place.

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Penetrant Testing
Step 4. Inspection / development time Inspection should take place immediately after the developer has been applied. any defects present will show as a bleed out during development time. After full inspection has been carried out post cleaning is generally required.

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Penetrant Testing
Fluorescent Penetrant Bleed out viewed under a UVUV-A light source

Bleed out viewed under white light Colour contrast Penetrant


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Penetrant Testing
Advantages
Simple to use Inexpensive Quick results Can be used on any nonnonporous material Portability Low operator skill required

Disadvantages
Surface breaking defect only little indication of depths Penetrant may contaminate component Surface preparation critical Post cleaning required Potentially hazardous chemicals Can not test unlimited times Temperature dependant
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Penetrant Testing
Comparison with Magnetic Particle Inspection ADVANTAGES easy to interpret results no power requirements relatively little training required can use on all materials DISADVANTAGES good surface finish needed relatively slow chemicals - health & safety issue

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Welding Inspector
Weld Repairs Section 16

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Weld Repairs
Weld repairs can be divided into 2 specific areas: Production repairs In service repairs

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Weld Repairs
A weld repair can be a relatively straight forward activity, but in many instances it is quite complex, and various engineering disciplines may need to be involved to ensure a successful outcome. Analysis of the defect types may be carried out by the Q/C department to discover the likely reason for their occurrence, (Material/Process or Skill related).

In general terms, a welding repair involves What!

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Weld Repairs
A weld repair may be used to improve weld profiles or extensive metal removal: Repairs to fabrication defects are generally easier than repairs to service failures because the repair procedure may be followed The main problem with repairing a weld is the maintenance of mechanical properties During the inspection of the removed area prior to welding the inspector must ensure that the defects have been totally removed and the original joint profile has been maintained as close as possible
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Weld Repairs
In the event of repair, it is required:
Authorization and procedure for repair Removal of material and preparation for repair Monitoring of repair Weld Testing of repair - visual and NDT

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Weld Repairs
There are a number of key factors that need to be considered before undertaking any repair:
The most important - is it financially worthwhile? Can structural integrity be achieved if the item is repaired? Are there any alternatives to welding? What caused the defect and is it likely to happen again? How is the defect to be removed and what welding process is to be used? What NDE is required to ensure complete removal of the defect? Will the welding procedures require approval/reapproval/re-approval?
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Weld Repairs
Cleaning the repair area, (removal of paint, grease, etc) A detailed assessment to find out the extremity of the defect. This may involve the use of a surface or sub surface NDE method. Once established the excavation site must be clearly identified and marked out. An excavation procedure may be required (method used i.e. grinding, arcarc-air gouging, preheat requirements etc). NDE should be used to locate the defect and confirm its removal. A welding repair procedure/method statement with the appropriate welding process, consumable, technique, controlled heat input and interpass temperatures etc will need to be approved.
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Weld Repairs
Use of approved welders. Dressing the weld and final visual. A NDT procedure/technique prepared and carried out to ensure that the defect has been successfully removed and repaired. Any post repair heat treatment requirements. Final NDT procedure/technique prepared and carried out after heat treatment requirements. Applying protective treatments (painting etc as required). (*Appropriate means suitable for the alloys being repaired and may not apply in specific situations)
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Weld Repairs
What will be the effect of welding distortion and residual stress? Will heat treatment be required? What NDE is required and how can acceptability of the repair be demonstrated? Will approval of the repair be required if yes, how and by whom?

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Production Weld Repairs


Before the repair can commence, a number of elements need to be fulfilled: If the defect is surface breaking and has occurred at the fusion face the problem could be cracking or lack of sidewall fusion. If the defect is found to be cracking the cause may be associated with the material or the welding procedure If the defect is lack of sidewall fusion this can be apportioned to the lack of skill of the welder. In this particular case as the defect is open to the surface, MPI or DYEE-PEN may be used to gauge the length of the defect and U/T inspection used to gauge the depth.

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Weld Repairs
The specification or procedure will govern how the defective areas are to be removed. The method of removal may be: Grinding Chipping Machining Filing Oxy Oxy-Gas gouging Arc air gouging
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Defect Excavation
ArcArc -air gouging

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ArcArc -air gouging features


Operate ONLY on DCEP Special gouging copper coated carbon electrode Can be used on carbon and low alloy steels, austenitic stainless steels and nonnon-ferrous materials Requires CLEAN/DRY compressed air supply Provides fast rate of metal removal Can remove complex shape defects After gouging, grinding of carbured layer is mandatory Gouging doesnt require a qualified welder!
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Production Weld Repairs


Production Repairs are usually identified during production inspection evaluation of the reports is usually carried out by the Welding Inspector, or NDT operator

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Production Weld Repairs

Plan View of defect

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Production Weld Repairs


Side View of defect excavation
W D

Side View of repair welding

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In Service Weld Repairs


In service repairs Can be of a very complex nature, as the component is very likely to be in a different welding position and condition than it was during production It may also have been in contact with toxic, or combustible fluids hence a permit to work will need to be sought prior to any work being carried out The repair welding procedure may look very different to the original production procedure due to changes in these elements.

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In Service Weld Repairs


Other factors to be taken into consideration consideration: : Effect of heat on any surrounding areas of the component i.e. electrical components, or materials that may become damaged by the repair procedure procedure. . This may also include difficulty in carrying out any required pre or post welding heat treatments and a possible restriction of access to the area to be repaired. repaired . For large fabrications it is likely that the repair must also take place on site and without a shut down of operations, which may bring other elements that need to be considered considered. .
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Weld Repairs
Is welding the best method of repair? Is the repair really like earlier repairs? What is the composition and weldability of the base metal? What strength is required from the repair? Can preheat be tolerated? Can softening or hardening of the HAZ be tolerated? Is PWHT necessary and practicable? Will the fatigue resistance of the repair be adequate? Will the repair resist its environment? Can the repair be inspected and tested?
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Weld repair related problems


heat from welding may affect dimensional stability and/or mechanical properties of repaired assembly due to heat from welding, YS goes down, danger of collapse filler materials used on dissimilar welds may lead to galvanic corrosion local preheat may induce residual stresses cost of weld metal deposited during a weld joint repair can reach up to 10 times the original weld metal cost!

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Welding Inspector
Residual Stress & Distortion Section 17

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Residual stress
Residual stresses are undesirable because: they lead to distortion they affect dimensional stability of the welded assembly they enhance the risk of brittle fracture they can facilitate certain types of corrosion
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Residual Stresses
The heating and subsequent cooling from welding produces expansion and contractions which affect the weld metal and adjacent material. If this contraction is prevented or inhibited residual stress will develop. The tendency to develop residual stresses increases when the heating and cooling is localised. Residual stresses are very difficult to measure with any real accuracy. Residual stresses are self balancing internal forces and not stresses induced whilst applying external load Stresses are more concentrated at the surface of the component. The removal of residual stresses is termed stress relieving.
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Stresses
Normal Stress Stress arising from a force perpendicular to the cross sectional area

Compression

Tension
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Stresses
Shear Stress Stress arising from forces which are parallel to, and lie in the plane of the cross sectional area.

Shear Stress

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Stresses
Hoop Stress Internal stress acting on the wall a pipe or cylinder due to internal pressure.

Hoop Stress
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Residual Stresses
Residual stresses occur in welds in the following directions  Along the weld longitudinal residual stresses  Across the weld transverse residual stresses  Through the weld short transverse residual stresses

Longitudinal

Transverse Short Transverse


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Residual stress
Heating and cooling causes expansion and contraction

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Residual stress
In case of a heated bar, the resistance of the surrounding material to the expansion and contraction leads to formation of residual stress
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Summary
1. Residual stresses are locked in elastic strain, which is caused by local expansion and contraction in the weld area. 2. Residual stresses should be removed from structures after welding. 3. The amount of contraction is controlled by, the volume of weld metal in the joint, the thickness, heat input, joint design and the materials properties 4. Offsetting may be used to finalise the position of the joint. 5. If plates or pipes are prevented from moving by tacking, clamping or jigging etc (restraint), then the amount of residual stresses that remain will be higher.

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Summary
6. The movement caused by welding related stresses is called distortion. 7. The directions of contractional stresses and distortion is very complex, as is the amount and type of final distortion, however we can say that there are three directions: a. Longitudinal b. Transverse c. Short transverse 8. A high percentage of residual stresses can be removed by heat treatments. 9. The peening of weld faces will only redistribute the residual stress, and place the weld face in compression.

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Types of distortion
Angular distortion

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Distortion

Angular Distortion

Transverse Distortion

Bowing Distortion
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Longitudinal Distortion
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Distortion
Factors which affect distortion Material properties and condition Heat input The amount of restrain The amount of weld metal deposited Control of distortion my be achieved in the following way: The used of a different joint design Presetting the joints to be welded so that the metal distorts into the required position. The use of a balanced welding technique The use of clamps, jigs and fixtures.
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Distortion
Distortion will occur in all welded joints if the material are free to move i.e. not restrained Restrained materials result in low distortion but high residual stress More than one type of distortion may occur at one time Highly restrained joints also have a higher crack tendency than joints of a low restraint The action of residual stress in welded joints is to cause distortion

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Distortion
Factors affecting distortion:

parent material properties amount of restrain joint design fit fit-up welding sequence

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Factors affecting distortion


Parent material properties:
thermal expansion coefficient - the greater the value, the greater the residual stress yield strength - the greater the value, the greater the residual stress Youngs modulus - the greater the value (increase in stiffness), the greater the residual stress thermal conductivity - the higher the value, the lower the residual stress transformation temperature - during phase transformation, expansion/contraction takes place. The lower the transformation temperature, the lower the residual stress
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Factors affecting distortion


Joint design:
weld metal volume type of joint - butt vs. fillet, single vs. double side

Amount of restrain:
thickness - as thickness increase, so do the stresses high level of restrain lead to high stresses preheat may increase the level of stresses (pipe welding!)

FitFit -up:
misalignment may reduce stresses in some cases root gap - increase in root gap increases shrinkage
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Factors affecting distortion


Welding sequence:
number of passes - every pass adds to the total contraction heat input - the higher the heat input, the greater the shrinkage travel speed - the faster the welding speed, the less the stress buildbuild -up sequence

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Distortion prevention
Distortion prevention by prepre-setting
a) prepre-setting of fillet joint to prevent angular distortion b) prepre-setting of butt joint to prevent angular distortion c) tapered gap to prevent closure

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Distortion
PrePre -set or Offsetting: The amount of offsetting required is generally a function of trial and error.

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Distortion prevention
Distortion prevention by prepre-bending using strongbacks and wedges

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Distortion
Clamping and jigging: The materials to be welded are prevented from moving by the clamp or jig the main advantage of using a jig is that the elements in a fabrication can be precisely located in the position to be welded. Main disadvantage of jigging is high restraint and high levels of residual stresses.

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Distortion prevention
Distortion prevention by restraint techniques a) use of welding jigs

b) use of flexible clamps


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Distortion prevention
Distortion prevention by restraint techniques c) use of strongbacks with wedges

d) use of fully welded strongbacks


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Distortion prevention
Distortion prevention by design Consider eliminating the welding!!

a) by forming the plate b) by use of rolled or extruded sections


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Distortion prevention
Distortion prevention by design consider weld placement

reduce weld metal volume and/or number of runs

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Distortion prevention
The volume of weld metal in a joint will affect the amount of local expansion and contraction, hence the more weld deposited the higher amount of distortion
Preparation angle 60o

Preparation angle 40o

Preparation angle 0o

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Distortion prevention
Distortion prevention by design use of balanced welding

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Distortion prevention
Distortions prevention by design Allowances to cover shrinkage
- Transverse Shrinkage
Fillet Welds 0.8mm per weld where the leg length does not exceed 3/4 plate thickness Butt weld 1.5 to 3mm per weld for 60 60 V joint, depending on number of runs - Longitudinal Shrinkage Fillet Welds 0.8mm per 3m of weld Butt Welds 3mm per 3m of weld
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Distortion prevention
Distortion prevention by fabrication techniques tack welding
a) tack weld straight through to end of joint b) tack weld one end, then use backback -step technique for tacking the rest of the joint c) tack weld the centre, then complete the tack welding by the backback-step technique

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Distortion prevention
Distortion prevention by fabrication techniques back to back assembly
a) assemblies tacked together before welding b) use of wedges for components that distort on separation after welding

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Distortion prevention
Distortion prevention by fabrication techniques
use of stiffeners

control welding process by: - deposit the weld metal as quickly as possible - use the least number of runs to fill the joint
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Distortion prevention
Distortion prevention by welding procedure reduce the number of runs required to make a weld (e.g. angular distortion as a function of number of runs for a 10 mm leg length weld)

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Distortion prevention
Distortion prevention by welding procedure control welding techniques by use balanced welding about the neutral axis control welding techniques by keeping the time between runs to a minimum

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Distortion prevention
Distortion prevention by welding procedure

control welding techniques by a) BackBack-step welding b) Skip welding


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Distortion prevention
BackBack -step welding technique 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

BackBack -skip welding technique

1.

4.

2.

5.

3.

6.

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Distortion prevention
Distortion - Best practice for fabrication corrective techniques
using tack welds to set up and maintain the joint gap identical components welded back to back so welding can be balanced about the neutral axis attachment of longitudinal stiffeners to prevent longitudinal bowing in butt welds of thin plate structures where there is choice of welding procedure, process and technique should aim to deposit the weld metal as quickly as possible; MIG in preference to MMA or gas welding and mechanised rather than manual welding in long runs, the whole weld should not be completed in one direction; backback-step or skip welding techniques should be used
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Distortion corrective techniques


Distortion - mechanical corrective techniques

Use of press to correct bowing in T butt joint


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Distortion corrective techniques


Distortion - Best practice for mechanical corrective techniques
Use packing pieces which will over correct the distortion so that springspring-back will return the component to the correct shape Check that the component is adequately supported during pressing to prevent buckling Use a former (or rolling) to achieve a straight component or produce a curvature As unsecured packing pieces may fly out from the press, the following safe practice must be adopted: - bolt the packing pieces to the platen - place a metal plate of adequate thickness to intercept the 'missile'
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Distortion corrective techniques


Distortion - thermal corrective techniques

Localised heating to correct distortion

Spot heating for correcting buckling


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Distortion corrective techniques


Distortion - thermal corrective techniques Line heating to correct angular distortion in a fillet weld

Use of wedge shaped heating to straighten plate


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Distortion corrective techniques


Distortion - thermal corrective techniques
Wedge shaped heating to correct distortion

a) standard rolled steel section


General guidelines:

b) buckled edge of plate

c) box fabrication

Length of wedge = two-thirds of the plate width Width of wedge (base) = one sixth of its length (base to apex)
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Distortion corrective techniques


Distortion - thermal corrective techniques
use spot heating to remove buckling in thin sheet structures other than in spot heating of thin panels, use a wedge-shaped heating technique use line heating to correct angular distortion in plate restrict the area of heating to avoid over-shrinking the component limit the temperature to 60 to 650C (dull red heat) in steels to prevent metallurgical damage in wedge heating, heat from the base to the apex of the wedge, penetrate evenly through the plate thickness and maintain an even temperature

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Welding Inspector
Heat Treatment Section 18

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Heat Treatment
Why?
Improve mechanical properties Change microstructure Reduce residual stress level Change chemical composition

How?
Flame oven Electric oven/electric heating blankets induction/HF heating elements

Global
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Where?

Local
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Heat Treatments
Many metals must be given heat treatment before and after welding. The inspectors function is to ensure that the treatment is given correctly in accordance with the specification or as per the details supplied.

Types of heat treatment available:


Preheat Annealing Normalising Quench Hardening Temper Stress Relief
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Heat Treatments
PrePre -heat treatments
are used to increase weldability, by reducing sudden reduction of temperature, and control expansion and contraction forces during welding

Post weld heat treatments


are used to change the properties of the weld metal, controlling the formation of crystalline structures

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Post Weld -Heat Treatments


Post Hydrogen Release (according to BS EN1011 EN1011-2)
Temperature: Approximately 250 250 C hold up to 3 hours Cooling: Slow cool in air Result: Relieves residual hydrogen Procedure: Maintaining prepre-heat / interpass temperature after completion of welding for 2 to 3 hours.

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Post Weld Heat Treatments


A B
(A) Normalised (B) Fully Annealed (C) Water-quenched (D) Water-quenched & tempered

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Post Weld Heat Treatments


The inspector, in general, should ensure that:
Equipment is as specified Temperature control equipment is in good condition Procedures as specified, is being used e.g.
o Method of application o Rate of heating and cooling o Maximum temperature o Soak time o Temperature measurement (and calibration)

DOCUMENTATION AND RECORDS


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Post Weld Heat Treatment


PWHT Procedures - Basic Requirements
Maximum Heating Rate Usually from 300 or 400 400C - need to avoid large temperature gradients that may cause distortion/cracking Maximum rate depends on thickness but typically up to ~ 200 200C/h Soak Temperature depends on steel type - usually specified by Code (~550 to ~750 C ) Minimum Soak Time need to make sure and whole item/full thickness reaches specified temp. Codes typically specify 1h per 25mm related to max. joint thickness Maximum Cooling Rate usually down to 400 or 300 300C - for same reasons as controlled heating rate

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Post Weld Heat Treatment Cycle


Variables for heat treatment process must be carefully controlled Temperature SoakingTemperature SoakingTemperature and time at the attained temperature
heating rate Cooling rate

Time

Heating

Soaking

Cooling

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Post Weld Heat Treatment


Removal of Residual Stress
Crr-Mo steel - typical Yield Strength (N/mm2 ) 500 400 300 200 100 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

C-Mn steel - typical

At PWHT temp. the yield strength of steel reduced so that it it is not strong enough to give restraint. Residual stress reduced to very low level by straining (typically < ~ 0.5% strain)

Temperature ( (C)

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Heat Treatment
Recommendations
Provide adequate support (low YS at high temperature!) Control heating rate to avoid uneven thermal expansions Control soak time to equalise temperatures Control temperature gradients - NO direct flame impingement! Control furnace atmosphere to reduce scaling Control cooling rate to avoid brittle structure formation

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Post Weld Heat Treatment Methods


Advantages:
Easy to set up Good portability repeatability and temperature uniformity

Disadvantages:
Gas furnace heat treatment Limited to size of parts

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Post Weld Heat Treatment Methods


Advantages:
High heating rates Ability to heat a narrow band

Disadvantages:
High equipment cost Large equipment, less portable
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HF (Induction) local heat treatment

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Post Weld Heat Treatment Methods


Advantages:
Ability to vary heat Ability to continuously maintain heat

Disadvantages:
Elements may burn out or arcing during heating
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Local heat treatment using electric heating blankets


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Welding Inspector
Cutting Processes Section 19

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Use of gas flame

Welding

Brazing

Cutting

Gouging

Heating
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Straightening

Blasting

Spraying
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Regulators

Oxygen regulator Single stage Regulator type Two stage


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Fuel gas regulator


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Flashback arrestors
Flashback - recession of the flame into or back of the mixing chamber
SAFETY SAFETY SAFETY Normal flow Reverse flow Built-in check valve stops reverse flow Flashback

Builtin check Flame valve barrie r

Flashback flame quenched at the flashback barrier

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Oxyfuel gas cutting process


A jet of pure oxygen reacts with iron, that has been preheated to its ignition point, to produce the oxide Fe3O4 by exothermic reaction.This oxide is then blown through the material by the velocity of the oxygen stream Different types of fuel gases may be used for the prepre -heating flame in oxy fuel gas cutting: i.e. acetylene, hydrogen, propane. etc By adding iron powder to the flame we are able to cut most metals - Iron Powder Injection The high intensity of heat and rapid cooling will cause hardening in low alloy and medium/high C steels they are thus prepre-heated to avoid the hardening effect
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Oxyfuel gas cutting equipment


The cutting torch

Neutral cutting flame

Neutral cutting flame with oxygen cutting stream


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Oxyfuel gas cutting related terms

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Oxyfuel gas cutting quality


Good cut - sharp top edge, fine and even drag lines, little oxide and a sharp bottom edge

Cut too slow - top edge is melted, deep groves in the lower portion, heavy scaling, rough bottom edge
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Cut too fast pronounced break in the drag line, irregular cut edge
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Oxyfuel gas cutting quality


Good cut - sharp top edge, fine and even drag lines, little oxide and a sharp bottom edge

Preheat flame too low deep groves in the lower part of the cut face
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Oxyfuel gas cutting quality


Good cut - sharp top edge, fine and even drag lines, little oxide and a sharp bottom edge

Nozzle is too high above the works - excessive melting of the top edge, much oxide
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Mechanised oxyfuel cutting


can use portable carriages or gantry type machines and obtain high productivity accurate cutting for complicate shapes

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OFW/C advantages/disadvantages
Advantages: 1) No need for power supply, portable 2) Versatile: preheat, brazing, surfacing, repair, straightening 3) Low equipment cost 4) Can cut carbon and low alloy steels 5) Good on thin materials
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Disadvantages: 1) High skill factor 2) Wide HAZ 3) Safety issues 4) Slow process 5) Limited range of consumables 6) Not suitable for reactive & refractory metals
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Special oxyfuel operations


Gouging Rivet cutting

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Special oxyfuel operations


Thin sheet cutting Rivet washing

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Cutting Processes
Plasma arc cutting Uses high velocity jet of ionised gas through a constricted nozzle to remove the molten metal Uses a tungsten electrode and water cooled nozzle High quality cutting High intensity and UV radiation EYES !
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Cutting Processes AirAir -arc for cutting or gouging

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AirAir -arc gouging features


Operate ONLY on DCEP Special gouging copper coated carbon electrode Can be used on carbon and low alloy steels, austenitic stainless steels and nonnon-ferrous materials Requires CLEAN/DRY compressed air supply Provides fast rate of metal removal Can remove complex shape defects After gouging, grinding of carbured layer is mandatory Gouging doesnt require a qualified welder!
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Welding Inspector
Arc Welding Safety Please discuss Section 20

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Safety
Electrical safety Heat & Light
Visible light UV radiation - effects on skin and eyes

Fumes & Explosive Gasses Noise levels Fire Hazards Scaffolding & Staging Slips, trips and falls Protection of others from exposure
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Welding Inspector
Weldability Of Steels Section 21

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Weldability of Steels
Definition
It relates to the ability of the metal (or alloy) to be welded with mechanical soundness by most of the common welding processes, and the resulting welded joint retain the properties for which it has been designed. is a function of many interinter-related factors but these may be summarised as: Composition of parent material Joint design and size Process and technique Access
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Weldability of Steels
The weldability of steel is mainly dependant on carbon & other alloying elements content. If a material has limited weldability, we need to take special measures to ensure the maintenance of the properties required Poor weldability normally results in the occurrence of cracking A steel is considered to have poor weldability when: an acceptable joint can only be made by using very narrow range of welding conditions great precautions to avoid cracking are essential (e.g., high preheat etc)

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The Effect of Alloying on Steels


Elements may be added to steels to produce the properties required to make it useful for an application. Most elements can have many effects on the properties of steels. Other factors which affect material properties are: The temperature reached before and during welding Heat input The cooling rate after welding and or PWHT

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Steel Alloying Elements


Iron (Fe): Main steel constituent. On its own, is relatively soft, ductile, with low strength. Carbon (C): Major alloying element in steels, a strengthening element with major influence on HAZ hardness. hardness. Decreases weldability. typically < ~ 0.25% Manganese (Mn): Secondary only to carbon for strength, toughness and ductility, secondary dede-oxidiser and also reacts with sulphur to form manganese sulphide. < ~0.8% is residual from steel dede-oxidation up to ~1.6% (in CC-Mn steels) improves strength & toughness Silicon (Si): Residual element from steel dede-oxidation. typically to ~0.35%
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Steel Alloying Elements


Phosphorus (P): Residual element from steelsteel-making minerals. difficult to
reduce below < ~ 0.015% brittleness

Sulphur (S): Residual element from steelsteel-making minerals


< ~ 0.015% in modern steels < ~ 0.003% in very clean steels

Aluminium (Al): De De-oxidant and grain size control


typically ~ 0.02 to ~ 0.05%

Chromium (Cr): For creep resistance & oxidation (scaling) resistance for
elevated temperature service. Widely used in stainless steels for corrosion resistance, increases hardness and strength but reduces ductility.
typically ~ 1 to 9% in low alloy steels
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Steel Alloying Elements


Nickel (Ni): (Ni): Used in stainless steels, high resistance to corrosion from
acids, increases strength and toughness

Molybdenum (Mo): (Mo): Affects hardenability. Steels containing


molybdenum are less susceptible to temper brittleness than other alloy steels. Increases the high temperature tensile and creep strengths of steel. typically ~ 0.5 to 1.0%

Niobium (Nb): (Nb): a grain refiner, typically~ 0.05 05% % Vanadium (V): (V): a grain refiner, typically ~ 0.05 05% % Titanium (Ti): (Ti): a grain refiner, typically ~ 0.05 05% % Copper (Cu): (Cu): present as a residual, (typically < ~ 0.30 30%) %)
added to weathering steels (~ 0.6%) to give better resistance to atmospheric corrosion
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Classification of Steels
Mild steel (CE < 0.4)
Readily weldable, preheat generally not required if low hydrogen processes or electrodes are used Preheat may be required when welding thick section material, high restraint and with higher levels of hydrogen being generated C-Mn, medium carbon, low alloy steels (CE 0.4 to 0.5) Thin sections can be welded without preheat but thicker sections will require low preheat levels and low hydrogen processes or electrodes should be used Higher carbon and alloyed steels (CE > 0.5) Preheat, low hydrogen processes or electrodes, post weld heating and slow cooling may be required
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Process Cracks
Hydrogen Induced HAZ Cracking (C/Mn steels) Hydrogen Induced Weld Metal Cracking (HSLA steels). Solidification or Hot Cracking (All steels) Lamellar Tearing (All steels)

Re-heat Cracking (All steels, very susceptible Cr/Mo/V Re steels)


Inter Inter-Crystalline Corrosion or Weld Decay (stainless

steels)
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Cracking
When considering any type of cracking mechanism, three elements must always be present: Stress Residual stress is always present in a weldment, through unbalanced local expansion and contraction Restraint Restraint may be a local restriction, or through plates being welded to each other Susceptible microstructure The microstructure may be made susceptible to cracking by the process of welding
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Cracks

Hydrogen Induced Cold Cracking

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Hydrogen Induced Cold Cracking


May occur: up to 48 hrs after completion In weld metal, HAZ, parent metal. At weld toes Under weld beads At stress raisers. Also know as: Cold Cracking, happens when the welds cool down. HAZ cracking, normally occurs in the HAZ. Delayed cracking, as it takes time for the hydrogen to migrate. 48 Hours normally but up to 72, Under-bead cracking, normally happens in the HAZ under a weld bead
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Hydrogen Induced Cold Cracking


There is a risk of hydrogen cracking when all of the 4 factors occur together: Hydrogen Stress Temperature Hardness More than 15ml/100g of weld metal More than the yield stress Below 300oC Greater than 400HV Vickers

Susceptible Microstructure

(Martensite)

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Hydrogen Induced Cold Cracking

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Hydrogen Induced Cold Cracking


Precautions for controlling hydrogen cracking
Pre heat, removes moisture from the joint preparations, and slows down the cooling rate Ensure joint preparations are clean and free from contamination The use of a low hydrogen welding process and correct arc length Ensure all welding is carried out is carried out under controlled environmental conditions Ensure good fitfit-up as to reduced stress The use of a PWHT Avoid poor weld profiles
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Hydrogen Induced Cold Cracking


Hydrogen is the smallest atom known Hydrogen enters the weld via the arc Source of hydrogen mainly from moisture pickpick-up on the electrodes coating, welding fluxes or from the consumable gas
Water vapour in the air or H2 in the shielding gas Oxide or grease on the plate H2 H2 H2 Moisture on the electrode or grease on the wire

H2

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Hydrogen Induced Cold Cracking


Cellulosic electrodes produce hydrogen as a shielding gas Hydrogen introduced in weld from consumable, oils, or paint on plate Hydrogen absorbed in a long, or unstable arc

Hydrogen crack

H2

H2

Martensite forms from


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H2 diffuses to in HAZ
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Hydrogen Induced Cold Cracking


Susceptible Microstructure: Hard brittle structure MARTENSITE Promoted by: A) High Carbon Content, Carbon Equivalent (CE) CEV = %C + Mn + Cr+Mo+V + Ni+Cu 6 5 15
B) high alloy content C) fast cooling rate: Inadequate PrePre-Heating Cold Material Thick Material Low Heat Input.

Heat input (Kj/mm) = Amps x Volts x arc time Run out length x 103 (1000)
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Hydrogen Induced Cold Cracking

Typical locations for Cold Cracking


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HICC in HSLA steels


HSLA or MicroMicro-Alloyed Steels are high strength steels (800MPa/N/mm2) that derive their high strength from small percentage alloying (over(over-alloyed Weld metal to match the strength of parent metal) Typically the level of alloying is in the elements such as vanadium molybdenum and titanium, nickel and chromium Strength. Strength . are used. It would be impossible to match this micro alloying in the electrode due to the effect of losses across an electric arc (Ti burn in the arc) It is however important to match the strength of the weld to the strength of the plate, Mn 1.6 Cr Ni Mo

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H2 HAZ Cracks in Alloy steels*

Transverse Weld Cracks in HSLA Steels* Low ductility weld metal

Longitudinal contractional strain


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Hydrogen Scales
List of hydrogen scales from BS EN 1011:part 2. Hydrogen content related to 100 grams of weld metal deposited. Scale A Scale B Scale C Scale D Scale E
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High: >15 ml Medium: 10 ml - 15 ml Low: 5 ml - 10 ml Very low: 3 ml - 5 ml UltraUltra-low: < 3 ml


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Potential Hydrogen Level Processes


list of welding processes in order of potential lowest hydrogen content with regards to 100g of deposited weld metal.

TIG MIG ESW MMA (Basic Electrodes) SAW FCAW


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< 3 ml < 5 ml < 5 ml < 5 ml < 10ml < 15 ml


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Weldability
Solidification Cracking

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Solidification Cracking

Usually Occurs in Weld Centerline


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Solidification Cracking
Also referred as
Hot Cracking: Occurring at high temperatures while the weld is hot Centerline cracking: cracks appear down the centre line of the bead. Crater cracking: Small cracks in weld centers are solidification cracks

Crack type: Solidification cracking Location: Weld centreline (longitudinal)

Steel types: High sulphur & phosphor concentration in steels. Susceptible Microstructure: Columnar grains In direction of solidification
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Solidification Cracking
Factors for solidification cracking

Columnar grain growth with impurities in weld metal (sulphur, phosphor and carbon) The amount of stress/restraint Joint design high depth to width ratios Liquid iron sulphides are formed around solidifying grains. High contractional strains are present High dilution processes are being used. There is a high carbon content in the weld metal

Most commonly occurring in subsub-arc welded joints

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Solidification Cracking

Sulphur in the parent material may dilute in the weld metal to form iron sulphides (low strength, low melting point compounds) During weld metal solidification, columnar crystals push still liquid iron sulphides in front to the last place of solidification, weld centerline. The bonding between the grains which are themselves under great stress and may now be very poor to maintain cohesion and a crack will result, weld centerline.

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Solidification Cracking Avoidance


Intergranular liquid film Columnar grains HAZ Columnar grains HAZ

Shallow, wider weld bead On solidification the bonding between the grains may be adequate to maintain cohesion and a crack is unlikely to occur

Deep, narrower weld bead On solidification the bonding between the grains may now be very poor to maintain cohesion and a crack may result

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Solidification Cracking
Precautions for controlling solidification cracking
The first steps in eliminating this problem would be to choose a low

dilution process, and change the joint design Grind and seal in any lamination and avoid further dilution???? Add Manganese to the electrode to form spherical Mn/S which form between the grain and maintain grain cohesion As carbon increases the Mn/S ratio required increases exponentially and is a major factor. Carbon content % should be a minimised by careful control in electrode and dilution Limit the heat input, hence low contraction, & minimise restraint

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Solidification Cracking
Precautions for controlling solidification cracking
The use of high manganese and low carbon content

fillers
Minimise the amount of stress / restraint acting on the

joint during welding


The use of high quality parent materials, low levels of

impurities (Phosphor & sulphur)


Clean joint preparations contaminants (oil, grease, paints

and any other sulphur containing product)


Joint design selection depth to width ratios
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Solidification Cracking
Solidification cracking in Austenitic Stainless Steel
particularly prone to solidification cracking large grain size gives rise to a reduction in grain boundary area with high concentration of impurities Austenitic structure very intolerant to contaminants (sulphur, phosphorous and other impurities). High coefficient of thermal expansion /Low coefficient of thermal conductivity, with high resultant residual stress same precautions against cracking as for plain carbon steels with extra emphasis on thorough cleaning and high dilution controls.
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Cracks

Lamellar Tearing

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Lamellar Tearing
Factors for lamellar tearing to occur Cracks only occur in the rolled plate ! Close to or just outside the HAZ ! Cracks lay parallel to the plate surface and the fusion boundary of the weld and has a stepped aspect.

Low quality parent materials, high levels of impurities Joint design, direction of stress The amount of stress acting across the joint during welding under very low levels of stress

Note: very susceptible joints may form lamellar tearing


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Lamellar Tearing
Susceptible joint types combined with susceptible rolled plate used to make a joint. High stresses act in the through thickness direction of the plate (know as the short transverse direction). T, K & Y joints normally end up with a tensile residual stress component in the through thickness direction.

Tee fillet weld


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Tee butt weld (double(double -bevel)

Corner butt weld (single(single -bevel)


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Lamellar Tearing
Critical area Critical area

Critical area

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Lamellar Tearing
Modifying a corner joint to avoid lamellar tearing

Susceptible

NonNon -Susceptible

Prior welding both plates may be grooved to avoid lamellar tearing

An open corner joint may be selected to avoid lamellar tearing

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Lamellar Tearing
Precautions for controlling lamellar tearing

The use of high quality parent materials, low levels of impurities The use of buttering runs A gap can be left between the horizontal and vertical members enabling the contraction movement to take place Joint design selection Minimise the amount of stress / restraint acting on the joint during welding Hydrogen precautions
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Lamellar Tearing
Crack type: Location: Steel types: Microstructure: Occurs when: High contractional strains are through the short transverse direction. There is a high sulfur content in the base metal. There is low through thickness ductility in the base metal. There is high restraint on the work
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Lamellar tearing Below weld HAZ High sulphur & phosphorous steels Lamination & Segregation

Short Tensile (Through Thickness) Test


The short tensile test or through thickness test is a test to determine a materials susceptibility to lamellar tearing
Friction Welded Caps Short Tensile Specimen Sample of Parent Material Through Thickness Ductility

The results are given as a STRA value Short Transverse Reduction in Area
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Lamellar Tearing

Restraint

High contractional strains


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Lamellar tear

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Welding Inspector
Practical Visual Inspection Section 22

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Fillet Weld Gauges


10mm

G.A.L.

S.T.D. 16mm

Leg Length Gauge

10mm

G.A.L.
S.T.D. 16mm

Throat Thickness Gauge


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HIHI -LO Welding Gauge


1 2 3 4

5 6

HI-LO Single Purpose Welding Gauge

Root gap dimension

Internal alignment

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Plate / Pipe Inspection

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Plate Inspection Examination


Remember in the CSWIP 3.1 Welding Inspectors examination your are required to conduct a practical examination of a plate test weld, complete a thumb print sketch and a final report on your findings

 Time allowed 1 hour and 15 minutes  The code is provided

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Plate Inspection Points


1) Use a pencil for the arrow lines, but make all written comments and measurements in ink only 2) Report everything that you can observe 3) Do not forget to compare and sentence your report 4) Do not forget to date & sign your report 5) Make any observations, such as recommendations for further investigation for crackcrack -like imperfections.
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Plate Thumb Print Report


After you have observed an imperfection and determined its type, you must be able to take measurements and complete the thumb print report sketch The first thumb print report sketch should be in the form of a repair map of the weld. (i.e. All observations are Identified Sized and Located) The thumb print report sketch used in CSWIP exam will look like the following example.

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Plate Inspection Final Report


After you have completed your thumb print report sketch of your test plate the next step is to complete your final report again the report must be completed in ink (no pencil). The report must be completed to your thumb print sketch, do not leave any boxes empty, every box must be completed or dashed out. out. You must also make any comments you feel are necessary regarding any defects observed. The report form used in CSWIP will look like the following example.
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Pipe Inspection
Remember in the CSWIP 3.1 Welding Inspectors examination your are required to conduct a practical examination of a pipe test weld, complete a thumb print sketch and a final report on your findings

 Time allowed 1 hour and 45 minutes  The code is nominated e.g API 1104

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Welding Inspector
Application & Control of Pre heat Section 23

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Welding Temperatures
Definitions Preheat temperature
is the temperature of the workpiece in the weld zone immediately before any welding operation (including tack welding!) normally expressed as a minimum Interpass temperature
is the temperature in a multi multi-run weld and adjacent parent metal immediately prior to the application of the next run normally expressed as a maximum

Minimum interpass temperature = Preheat temperature


Pre heat maintenance temperature = the minimum temperature in the weld zone which shall be maintained if welding is interrupted and shall be monitored during the interruption.
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PrePre -heat Application


Furnace - Heating entire component - best Electrical elements -Controllable; Portable; Site use; Clean; Component cannot be moved. Gas burners - direct flame impingement; Possible local overheating; Less controllable;Portable; Manual operation possible; Component can be moved. Radiant gas heaters - capable of automatic control; No flame impingement; No contact with component; Portable. Induction heating - controllable; Rapid heating (mins not hours); Large power supply; Expensive equipment
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Measuring pre heat in Welding


The purposes of measuring Demonstration of conformance to specified requirements Welding process control

Parameters to be measured: welding current preheat/interpass arc voltage temperature travel speed force/pressure shielding gas flow rate humidity
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PrePre -heat Application


Application Of Preheat Heat either side of joint Measure temp 2 mins after heat removal Always best to heat complete component rather than local if possible to avoid distortion Preheat always higher for fillet than butt welds due to different combined thicknesses and chill effect factors.

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PrePre -Heat Application

Electrical Heated Elements

Manual Gas Operation

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Welding Temperatures
Point of Measurement
BS EN ISO 13916 t < 50 mm A = 4 x t but max. 50 mm the temperature shall be measured on the surface of the workpiece facing the welder

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Welding Temperatures
Point of Measurement
BS EN ISO 13916 t > 50mm A = 75mm minimum the temperature shall be measured on the face opposite to that being heated allow 2 min per every 25 mm of parent metal thickness for temperature equalisation

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Combined Thickness
The Chilling Effect of the Joint

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Combined Thickness
The Chilling Effect of the Joint

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Combined Thickness
Combined chilling effect of joint type and thickness.

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The Chill Effect of the Material

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Heating Temperature Control


TEMPILSTICKS - crayons, melt at set temps. Will not measure max temp. Pyrometers - contact or remote, measure actual temp. Thermocouples - contact or attached, very accurate, measure actual temp.

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Temperature Test Equipment


Temperature sensitive materials: crayons, paints and pills cheap convenient, easy to use doesnt measure the actual temperature!

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Temperature Test Equipment


Contact thermometer
Accurate Easy to use Gives the actual temperature Requires calibration suitable for moderate temperatures

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Temperature Test Equipment


Thermocouple
based on measuring the thermoelectric potential difference between a hot junction (on weld) and a cold junction accurate method measures over a wide range of temperatures gives the actual temperature need calibration

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Temperature Test Equipment


Thermistors
temperaturetemperature-sensitive resistors whose resistance varies inversely with temperature used when high sensitivity is required gives the actual temperature need calibration can be used up to 999 999C

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Temperature test equipment


Devices for contactless measurement
IR radiation and optical pyrometer measure the radiant energy emitted by the hot body contactless method, can be used for remote measurements very complex for measuring high temperatures

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Welding Inspector
Calibration Section 24

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Calibration, validation and monitoring


Definitions:
Measurement = set of operations for determining a value of a quantity Repeatability = closeness between successive measuring results of the same instrument carried out under the same conditions Accuracy class = class of measuring instruments that are intended to keep the errors within specified limits Calibration = checking the errors in a meter or measuring device Validation = checking the control knobs and switches provide the same level of accuracy when returned to a prepre-determined point Monitoring = checking the welding parameters (and other items) are in accordance with the procedure or specification
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Calibration and validation


Frequency - When it is required? once a year unless otherwise specified whenever there are indications that the instrument does not register properly whenever the equipment has been damaged, misused or subject to severe stress whenever the equipment has been rebuild or repaired See BS EN ISO 17662 for details!
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Welding parameter calibration/validation


Which parameters need calibration/validation? How accurate? depends on the application welding current - 2,5% arc voltage - 5% wire feed speed - 2,5% gas flow rate - 20% ( 25% for backing gas flow rate) temperature (thermocouple) - 5% depends on the welding process see BS EN ISO 17662 and BS 7570 for details

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PAMS (Portable Arc Monitor System)


What does a PAMS measure? Welding current (Hall effect device) Arc voltage (connection leads) Temperature (thermocouple)
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Gas flow rate (heating element sensor)

Wire feed speed (tachometer)

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PAMS (Portable Arc Monitor System)


The purposes of a PAMS For measuring and recording the welding parameters For calibrating and validating the welding equipment

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Use of PAMS
Wire feed speed monitoring

Incorporated pair of rolls connected to a tachogenerator

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Use of PAMS
Shielding gas flow rate monitoring

Heating element sensor

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Summary
a welding power source can only be calibrated if it has meters fitted the inspector should check for calibration stickers, dates etc. a welding power source without meters can only be validated that the control knobs provide repeatability the main role is to carryout in process monitoring to ensure that the welding requirements are met during production
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Welding Inspector
Macro/Micro Examination Section 25

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Macro Preparation
Purpose To examine the weld crosscross-section to give assurance that: The weld has been made in accordance with the WPS The weld is free from defects

Specimen Preparation

Full thickness slice taken from the weld (typically ~10 ~10mm mm thick) Width of slice sufficient to show all the weld and HAZ on both sides plus some unaffected base material One face ground to a progressively fine finish (grit sizes 120 to ~ 400) 400) Prepared face heavily etched to show all weld runs & all HAZ Prepared face examined at up to x10 x10 (& usually photographed for records) Prepared face may also be used for a hardness survey

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Micro Preparation
Purpose To examine a particular region of the weld or HAZ in order to:to: To examine the microstructure Identify the nature of a crack or other imperfection Specimen Preparation A small piece is cut from the region of interest
(typically up to ~ 20mm x 20mm)

The piece is mounted in plastic mould and the surface of interest prepared by progressive grinding (to grit size 600 or 800) Surface polished on diamond impregnated cloths to a mirror finish Prepared face may be examined in asas-polished condition & then lightly etched Prepared face examined under the microscope at up to ~ x 600

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Macro / Micro Examination


Object:
Macro / microscopic examinations are used to give a

visual evaluation of a crosscross-section of a welded joint


Carried out on full thickness specimens The width of the specimen should include HAZ, weld

and parent plate


They maybe cut from a stop/start area on a welders

approval test

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Macro / Micro Examination


Will Reveal:
Weld soundness Distribution of inclusions Number of weld passes Metallurgical structure of weld, fusion zone and HAZ Location and depth of penetration of weld Fillet weld leg and throat dimensions

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Macro
Visual examination for defects Cut transverse from the weld Ground & polished P400 grit paper Acid etch using 55-10% nitric acid solution Wash and dry Visual evaluation under 5x magnification Report on results

Micro
Visual examination for defects & grain structure Cut transverse from a weld Ground & polished P1200 P1200 grit paper, 1 m paste Acid etch using 1-5% nitric acid solution Wash and dry Visual evaluation under 100100 -1000 1000x x magnification Report on results
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Metallographic Examination

Macro examination

Micro examination

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