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Aggregates for Concrete

Aggregates for Concrete

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Fine Aggregate

Sand and/or crushed stone < 5 mm (0.2 in.) F.A. content usually 35% to 45% by mass or volume of total aggregate

Aggregates for Concrete

Fig. 5-1. Closeup of fine aggregate (sand). (69792)

Slide 3

Coarse Aggregate

Gravel and crushed stone 5 mm (0.2 in.) typically between 9.5 and 37.5 mm (3/8 and 1 in.)

Aggregates for Concrete

Fig. 5-2. Coarse aggregate. Rounded gravel (left) and crushed stone (right). (69791)

Slide 4

Rock and Mineral Constituents in Aggregates


1. 2. 3. 4. Minerals Igneous rocks Metamorphic rocks Sedimentary rocks

Aggregates for Concrete

Table 5-1. Rock and Mineral Constituents in Aggregates For brief descriptions, see Standard Descriptive Nomenclature of Constituents of Natural Mineral Aggregates (ASTM C 294).

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Normal-Weight Aggregate
ASTM C 33 Most common aggregates

Sand Gravel Crushed stone

Aggregates for Concrete

Produce normal-weight concrete 2200 to 2400 kg/m3 (140 to 150 lb/ft3)

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Lightweight Aggregate (1)


ASTM C 330
Expanded Shale Clay Slate Slag

Aggregates for Concrete

Produce structural lightweight concrete 1350 to 1850 kg/m3 (90 to 120 lb/ft3)

Fig. 5-3. Lightweight aggregate. Expanded clay (left) and expanded shale (right). (69793)

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Lightweight Aggregate (2)


Pumice Scoria Perlite Vermiculite Diatomite

Aggregates for Concrete

Produce lightweight insulating concrete 250 to 1450 kg/m3 (15 to 90 lb/ft3)

See also Chapter 18-EB001-Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures-14th Edition for information on Lightweight Concrete

Slide 8

ASTM C 637, C 638 (Radiation Shielding)


Heavyweight Aggregate
Barite Limonite Magnetite Ilmenite Hematite Iron Steel punchings or shot

Aggregates for Concrete

Produce high-density concrete up to 6400 kg/m3 (400 lb/ft3)

See Chapter 18-EB001-Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures-14th Edition for information on Heavyweight Concrete

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Aggregate Characteristics and Tests (1)


Characteristic
Freeze-thaw resistance Sulfate resistance Particle shape and surface texture Grading Fine aggregate degradation Void content Abrasion resistance

Test
ASTM C 131 , ASTM C 535, ASTM C 779

ASTM C 666, ASTM C 682 ASTM C 88 ASTM C 295, ASTM D 3398


ASTM C 117, ASTM C 136

ASTM C 1137 ASTM C 1252 ASTM C 29

Bulk density Aggregates for Concrete

Table 5.2. Characteristics and Tests of Aggregate The majority of the tests and characteristics listed are referenced in ASTM C 33 (AASHTO M 6/M 80). ACI 221R-96 presents additional test methods and properties of concrete influenced by aggregate characteristics.

Slide 10

Aggregate Characteristics and Tests (2)


Characteristic
Relative density Absorption and surface moisture Strength
ASTM C 127 - fine aggregate, ASTM C 128 - coarse aggregate ASTM C 70, ASTM C 127, ASTM C 128, ASTM C 566
ASTM C 39, ASTM C 78

Test

Def. of constituents ASTM C 125, ASTM C 294 Aggregate ASTM C 40, ASTM C 87, ASTM C 117, ASTM C 123, ASTM C 142, ASTM C 295 constituents Alkali Resistance Aggregates for Concrete
ASTM C 227, ASTM C 289, ASTM C 295, ASTM C 342, ASTM C 586, ASTM C 1260, ASTM C 1293

Table 5.2. Characteristics and Tests of Aggregate The majority of the tests and characteristics listed are referenced in ASTM C 33 (AASHTO M 6/M 80). ACI 221R-96 presents additional test methods and properties of concrete influenced by aggregate characteristics.

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Grading of Aggregate
Grading is the particle-size distribution of an aggregate as determined by a sieve analysis using wire mesh sieves with square openings.

ASTM C 33
Fine aggregate7 standard sieves with openings from 150 m to 9.5 mm (No. 100 to 3/8 in.) Coarse aggregate13 sieves with openings from 1.18 mm to 100 mm (0.046 in. to 4 in.)

Aggregates for Concrete

Slide 12

Range of Particle Sizes

Aggregates for Concrete

Fig. 5-4. Range of particle sizes found in aggregate for use in concrete. (8985)

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Fine-Aggregate Grading Limits


Sieve size
9.5 mm 4.75 mm 2.36 mm 1.18 mm 600 m 300 m 150 m Aggregates for Concrete (3/8 in.) (No. 4) (No. 8) (No. 16) (No. 30) (No. 50) (No. 100)

% passing by mass
100 95 to 100 80 to 100 50 to 85 25 to 60 5 to 30 0 to 10

Table 5-3. Fine-Aggregate Grading Limits (ASTM C 33/AASHTO M 6)

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Maximum Size vs. Nominal Maximum Size of Aggregate

Aggregates for Concrete

Maximum size is the smallest sieve that all of a particular aggregate must pass through. Nominal maximum size is the standard sieve opening immediately smaller than the smallest through which all of the aggregate must pass. The nominal maximum-size sieve may retain 5% to 15%

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Nominal Maximum Size of Aggregate


Size should not exceed

1/5 than narrowest dimension between sides of forms 3/4 clear spacing between rebars and between rebars and the form 1/3 depth of slabs

Aggregates for Concrete

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Coarse Aggregate Grading


Size No. 57 25 to 4.75 mm [1 in. to No. 4]
Sieve size
37.5 mm (1 in.) 25.0 mm 12.5 mm (1 in.) ( in.)

Percent passing by mass


100 95 to 100 25 to 60 0 to 10 0 to 5

4.75 mm (No. 4) 2.36 mm (No. 8) Aggregates for Concrete

Fig. 5-5. Making a sieve analysis test of coarse aggregate in a laboratory. (30175-A)

Slide 17

Grading Limits

Aggregates for Concrete

Fig. 5-6. Curves indicate the limits specified in ASTM C 33 for fine aggregate and for one commonly used size number (grading size) of coarse aggregate.

Slide 18

Fullers Curve

P = 100 (d/D)n where:


P = % passing a given sieve for most dense gradation d = size of aggregate in question D = maximum size aggregate n = factor varying from 0.45 to 0.60 but usually 0.5

Aggregates for Concrete

Slide 19

Reduction of Voids

Aggregates for Concrete

Fig. 5-7. The level of liquid in the graduates, representing voids, is constant for equal absolute volumes of aggregates of uniform but different size. When different sizes are combined, the void-content decreases. The illustration is not to scale.

Slide 20

Dispersion of Aggregates

Aggregates for Concrete

Fig. 5-8. Illustration of the dispersion of aggregates in cohesive concrete mixtures.

Slide 21

Fineness Modulus (FM)

Obtained by adding the sum of the cumulative percentages by mass of a sample aggregate retained on each of a specified series of sieves and dividing the sum by 100. The specified sieves are: 150 m (No. 100), 300 m (No. 50), 600 m (No. 30), 1.18 mm (No. 16), 2.36 mm (No. 8), 4.75 mm (No. 4), 9.5 mm (3/8 in.), 19.0 mm (3/4 in.), 37.5 mm (1 in.), 75 mm (3 in.), and 150 mm (6 in.).

Aggregates for Concrete

The FM is an index of the fineness of the aggregate. The higher the FM the coarser the aggregate The FM of any shipment made during the progress of the work should not vary more than 0.20 from the initially approved value. Different aggregate grading may have the same FM

Slide 22

Sieve Analysis and FM of Sand


Sieve size 9.5 mm (3/8 in.) 4.75 mm (No. 4) 2.36 mm (No. 8) 1.18 mm (No. 16) 600 m (No. 30) 300 m (No. 50) 150 m (No. 100) Pan Total Percentage of Percentage Cumulative individual fraction passing, percentage reretained, by mass by mass tained, by mass 0 100 0 2 98 2 13 85 15 20 65 35 20 45 55 24 21 79 18 3 97 3 0 100 283 Fineness modulus = 283 100 = 2.83

Aggregates for Concrete

Table 5-4. Determination of Fineness Modulus of Fine Aggregates

Slide 23

Maximum Aggregate Size and Water Requirement

Aggregates for Concrete

Fig. 5-9. Cement and water contents in relation to maximum size of aggregate for air-entrained and non-air-entrained concrete. Less cement and water are required in mixtures having large coarse aggregate (Bureau of Reclamation 1981).

Slide 24

Maximum Aggregate Size and Cement Requirement

Aggregates for Concrete

Fig. 5-9. Cement and water contents in relation to maximum size of aggregate for air-entrained and non-air-entrained concrete. Less cement and water are required in mixtures having large coarse aggregate (Bureau of Reclamation 1981).

Slide 25

Combined Aggregate Grading

Aggregates for Concrete

Fig. 5-10. Optimum combined aggregate grading for concrete.

Slide 26

Moisture States of Aggregates


Oven dry (OD) Air dry (AD) Saturated surface dry (SSD) Wet (W)

Aggregates for Concrete

Slide 27

Moisture Conditions of Aggregates

Aggregates for Concrete

Fig. 5-12. Moisture conditions of aggregate.

Slide 28

Effect of Moisture Conditions of Aggregate

Absorption capacity (AC)

AC = [ (WSSD WOD) / WOD] x 100% EA = [(WSSD WAD) / WSSD ] x 100%


This is to calculate the wt. of water absorbed (W abs) by the wt. of aggregates (W agg)

Effective absorption

Water absorbed by the aggregate Wabs = (EA) Wagg

Aggregates for Concrete

Slide 29

Effect of Moisture Conditions of Aggregate continued

Surface moisture (SM)


SM = [(Wwet - WSSD) / WSSD] x 100% Used to calculate the additional water (Wadd) added to concrete with the aggregate

Wadd = (SM)Wagg Moisture content (MC) of the aggregate is given by


Aggregates for Concrete

MC = [(Wstock WSSD) / WSSD] x100% Wstock is the weight of the aggregate sample

Slide 30

Effect of Moisture Conditions of Aggregate continued

If moisture content (MC) of the aggregate is given by

MC = [(Wstock WSSD) / WSSD] x100%

Total amount of moisture related to the aggregate (WMC)

WMC = (MC)Wagg

Aggregates for Concrete

Slide 31

Aggregate Porosity

Volume of pores (VP) = VA + VW Bulk volume (VB) = VS + VP


If saturated: VW = VP If oven dried: VA = VP

Porosity = VP / VB = VP / (VS + VP) Void ratio = VP / VS Degree of saturation = VW / VP Absorption = Ww / Ws

Aggregates for Concrete

Slide 32

Bulking of Sand

Aggregates for Concrete

Fig. 5-13. Surface moisture on fine aggregate can cause considerable bulking; the amount varies with the amount of moisture and the aggregate grading (PCA Major Series 172 and PCA ST20).

Slide 33

Drying Shrinkage

Aggregates for Concrete

Fig. 5-17. Concretes containing sandstone or slate produce a high shrinkage concrete. Granite, limestone and quartz, are low shrinkage-producing aggregates (ACI 221R).

Slide 34

Harmful Materials (1)


Substances
Organic impurities Materials finer than the 75-m (No. 200) sieve Affects setting and hardening, may cause deterioration

Effect on concrete

Test designation
ASTM C 40 ASTM C 87 ASTM C 117 ASTM C 123 ASTM C 235

Affects bond, increases water requirement

Coal, lignite, or Affects durability, may other lightweight cause stains and materials popouts Soft particles Affects durability

Aggregates for Concrete

Table 5-6. Harmful Materials in Aggregates

Slide 35

Harmful Materials (2)


Substances
Clay lumps and friable particles

Effect on concrete
Affects workability and durability, may cause popouts

Test designation
ASTM C 142 ASTM C 123 ASTM C 295 ASTM C 227, C 289, C 295, C 342, C 586 C 1260, C 1293

Chert of less than Affects durability, may 2.40 relative cause popouts density Causes abnormal expansion, map cracking, and popouts

Alkali-reactive aggregates

Aggregates for Concrete

Slide 36

Harmful Reactive Substances


Andesites Argillites Certain siliceous limestones and dolomites Chalcedonic cherts Chalcedony Cristobalite Dacites

Alkali-silica reactive substances


Glassy or cryptocrystalline volcanics Granite gneiss Graywackes Metagraywackes Opal Opaline shales Phylites Quartzites

Quartzoses Calcitic dolomites Cherts Dolomitic limestones Rhyolites Fine-grained dolomites Schists Siliceous shales Strained quartz and certain other forms of quartz Synthetic and natural silicious glass Tridymite

Alkali-carbonate reactive substances

Aggregates for Concrete

Table 5-7. Some Potentially Harmful Reactive Minerals, Rock, and Synthetic Materials Several of the rocks listed (granite gneiss and certain quartz formations for example) react very slowly and may not show evidence of any harmful degree of reactivity until the concrete is over 20 years old. Only certain sources of these materials have shown reactivity.

Slide 37

Iron Particles in Aggregates

Aggregates for Concrete

Fig. 5-19. Iron oxide stain caused by impurities in the coarse aggregate. (70024)

Slide 38

Handling and Storing Aggregates

Aggregates for Concrete

Fig. 5-24. Stockpile of aggregate at a ready mix plant. (69552)

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Recycled-Concrete Aggregate

Aggregates for Concrete

Fig. 5-25. Heavily reinforced concrete is crushed with a beamcrusher. (69779) Fig. 5-26. Stockpile of recycled-concrete aggregate. (69813)

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Aggregates for Concrete

Fig. 5-28. Recycled-concrete aggregate. (69812)