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Structure 2 Fall 2013

6th Class: October 6, 2013 Modul 8 9 : Noun Clauses & Reported Speech

Paramitha Mansoer
mithamansoer@gmail.com

Universitas Terbuka
Korea Selatan

Class 6 : Noun Clauses


Noun clause adalah kata benda yang digunakan sebagai subjek atau objek pada sebuah kalimat.
Noun clause sbg subjek: His story was interesting. What he said was interesting Noun clause sbg objek: I heard his story. I heard what he said.

There are 3 groups of words that can be use to introduce noun clauses: 1. Question words :When, where, why, how, who, whom, which, whose 2. Whether if 3. That

Learning Activity 1
Noun Clause with Question Words

What is noun clause?


Kata-kata yang dipergunakan untuk memperkenalkan noun clauses. Question words When Where Why How Who Whom Which whose Whether if That

Noun Clause with Question Words


Question Where does she live? What did he say? When do they arrive? Pattern: Where + she + lives Q S P Question Who lives there? What happened? Who is at the door? Pattern: Who + lives there S P Pattern: What + happened S P Noun Clause I dont know who lives there. Please tell me what happened. I dont know who is at the door. Pattern: Who + is at the door S P Noun Clause I dont know where she lives. I couldnt hear what he said. Do you know when they arrive?

Noun Clause with Question Words


Question Who is she? What are these men? Whose house is that? Pattern: Who + is + she V Aux S Question What did he say? Noun Clause I dont know who she is. I dont know what those men are. I wonder whose house that is. Pattern: Who + she + is V S Aux Noun Clause What he said surprised me.

What should they do?

What they should do is obvious.

Noun clause sebagai subjek. Subjek dalam bentuk noun clause menggunakan singular verb.

Learning Activity 2
Noun Clause with Whether or If

Whether or If
Noun clause dengan whether/if dikembangkan dari Yes/No Question.
Yes/No Question Will she come? Does he need help? Noun Clause I dont know whether she will come. I dont know if she will come. I wonder whether he needs help. I wonder if he needs help. With or not I dont know whether she will come or not. I wonder whether or not he needs help. I dont know if she will come or not.

Without or not I dont know whether she will come. I wonder whether he needs help. I dont know if she will come. Pattern: Whether or not Whether . or not If . or not

Or Not tidak mengubah makna kalimat, hanya memberi penekanan.

Learning Activity 3
Question Words Followed by Infinitives

Question Words Followed by Infinitives


Question Words Followed by Infinitives memiliki makna yang sama dengan should can/could.
For example:
Should Can/Could I dont know what I should do. Pramuki cant decide whether she should go or stay home. Please tell me how I can get to the Post Office. Jamal told us where we could find it. QW with Inf I dont know what to do. Pramuki cant decide whether to go or to stay home. Please tell me how to get to the Post Office. Jamal told us where to find it.

Learning Activity 4
Noun Clause with That

Noun Clause with That


Noun Clause with That berasal dari sebuah statement (pernyataan). Statement adalah ekspresi dari suatu gagasan

Noun Clause with That dapat berperan sebagai subjek ataupun objek pada sebuah kalimat
Statement The word is round Noun clause as subject That the world is round is a fact Noun clause as object It is a fact that the world is round

She doesnt understand Korean

That she doesnt understand Korean is obvious

It is obvious (that) she doesnt understand Korean

Learning point: 1. Jika digunakan sebagai subjek, that tidak boleh dihilangkan. 2. Namun bila digunakan sebagai objek, that dapat dihilangkan. Terutama dalam percakapan.

Module 9
Reported Speech

Class 6 : Reported Speech


Reported speech adalah kalimat tidak langsung. Terdapat 3 jenis reported speech: 1. Reported Statement 2. Reported Question, and 3. Reported Order

Learning Activity 5
Reported Statement

Reported Statement
Quoted Statement Reported Statement She said (that) she liked ice cream. She says (that) she likes ice cream. She says that her mum doesnt have time today.

I like ice cream


She says, My mum doesnt have time today.

Pattern pada reported statement: She said that she liked ice cream S + reporting verb + noun clause PERHATIKAN! 1. Conjunction: THAT. 2. Ada/tidaknya perubahan tenses Perubahan tenses dari quoted statement menjadi reported statement 3. Perubahan subjek pada noun clause Subjek pada noun clause mengikuti subjek pada kalimat utama. 4. Perubahan pronoun Perubahan pronoun bergantung kepada siapa menyatakan apa.

Reported Statement
Terjadi perubahan tenses jika:
Apabila reporting verb dalam bentuk past, verb pada noun clause juga dalam bentuk past.
Quoted Statement Reported Statement She said (that) she liked ice cream.

I like ice cream


Direct Speech Simple Present

Reported Speech Simple Past

Present Progressive Past Progressive Simple Past Present Perfect Simple Past Perfect Simple Past Perfect Simple Past Progressive Present Perfect Progressive Past Perfect Progressive Past Perfect Progressive Future I (going to) was / were going to Future I (will) The verbs could, should, would, might, must, neednt, ought to, Conditional I (would) Conditional I (would)

used to do not normally change.

Reported Statement
Tidak terjadi perubahan tenses jika :
Dalam bahasa percakapan ketika pembicaraan sedang berlangsung. Menyatakan general truth / fact.
She said that the world is round.

Apabila reporting verb dalam bentuk present, present prefect, atau future.
Quoted Statement She will say to you, I watch TV everyday I like ice cream Reported Statement She will said that she watches TV everyday She says(that) she likes ice cream.

Say and tell


say + noun clause
Lusi said that she was happy

tell + (pro)noun objek/objek kata ganti + noun clause


Lusi told me that she was happy.

Reported Statement
1. Dono told me, I am going to move to Bengkulu.
Dono told me that he was going to move to Bengkulu. Pattern: S + reporting verb + noun clause Perubahan subjek pada noun clause I he karena merujuk kepada Dono. Perubahan tenses told (past) : am going (present cont) was going (past cont)

2. Dono said, I can come to the meeting.


Dono said that he could come to the meeting. Pattern: S + reporting verb + noun clause Perubahan subjek pada noun clause I he karena merujuk kepada Dono. Perubahan tenses said (past) : can (modal) could (modal)

Reported Statement
3. Ana said, Ill be in touch with you soon.
Ana said that she would be in touch with me soon. Pattern: S + reporting verb + noun clause Perubahan subjek pada noun clause I she karena merujuk kepada Ana. Perubahan tenses said(past) : will be would be you pada direct statement dapat diganti menjadi pronoun object lainnya.

4. Ana said, The new teacher speaks English very well.


Ana said that the new teacher spoke English very well. Pattern: S + reporting verb + noun clause Perubahan tenses said (past) : speak (present) spoke (past)

Learning Activity 6
Reported Question

Reported Question Yes/No Question Menggunakan noun clause untuk melaporkan

pertanyaan Learning point: 1. Menggunakan ask bukan say atau tell. Atau dapat jg menggunakan want to know, wonder atau inquire 2. Menggunakan whether/if untuk memperkenalkan noun clause 3. Pronoun object (kata ganti objek) dapat dihilangkan setelah ask
Question Reported Question

suatu

Sandi asked me whether/if I was alright


Sandi said, Are you alright?

Sandi wanted to know if I was alright


Sandi wondered whether I was alright Sandi inquire whether or not I was alright

Reported Question Question Words Learning point:


1. Menggunakan ask bukan say atau tell. 2. Langsung menggunakan kalimat Tanya 3. Perhatikan perubahan subject dan pronoun!
Question She said, Where do you live?
She said, What is your name? She said, How old she is? She said, What do you do?

Reported Question She asked me where I lived.


She asked me what my name. She asked me how old she was. She asked me what I did.

Reported Question
1. Rita said, What time does the plane leave for Kendari? Rita asked what time the plane left for Kendari. Pattern: S + reporting verb + noun clause Pattern pada noun clause: S + P Pattern pada question sentence: Question word + auxiliary + S + P. Conjunction : what time (question word) Perubahan tenses asked (past) : leave (present) left (past) 2. Rita said, Are prices cheap in the fruit market near Bogor? Rita asked me if/whether prices were cheap in the fruit market near Bogor. Pattern: S + reporting verb + pro(noun) object + noun clause me pada reported question merupakan pronoun object. Dapat diganti dengan pronoun object yang lain. Bisa juga tidak digunakan. Pattern pada noun clause: S + P Pattern pada question sentence: auxiliary + S. Conjunction : whether/if Perubahan tenses asked (past) : are (auxiliary) were (auxiliary).

Reported Question
3. Rita said, How old is Meriam?
Rita asked how old Meriam was. Pattern: S + reporting verb + noun clause Pattern pada noun clause: S + P Pattern pada question sentence: Question word + auxiliary + S + P. Conjunction : how old (question word) Perubahan tenses asked (past) : is (present) was (past)

4. Rita said, Is Toraja a nice place to visit?


Rita asked if/whether Toraja was a nice place to visit. Pattern: S + reporting verb + noun clause Pattern pada noun clause: S + P Pattern pada question sentence: auxiliary + S Conjunction : whether/if Perubahan tenses asked (past) : is (auxiliary) was (auxiliary).

Learning Activity 7
Reported Order

Reported Order
Menggunakan noun clause untuk melaporkan kalimat perintah, ajakan, undangan atau permintaan
Direct Order My teacher said, You should learn more! Reported Order My teacher advised me to learn more. Jamal said, Please come to my party! Jamal invited me to come to his party

Pattern pada reported order: Jamal invited me to come to his party S + reporting verb + (pro)noun object + infinitive phrase

Kata-kata yang dapat berperan sebagai reporting verb:


Allow Beg Challenge Convince Direct Encourage Expect Instruct Persuade Urge

Reported Order
1. Rini said, Say hello to doctor Susi, please.
Rini reminded me to say hello to doctor Susi. Pattern: S + reporting verb + (pro)noun object + infinitive phrase Reporting verb : remind. (pro)noun object : me. Dapat diganti dengan yang lain: us, Ana, dsb. Tidak ada perubahan tenses karena to+infinitives menggunakan verb dasar

2. Jalil said, Leave the door open, please?


Jalil ordered us to leave the door open. Pattern: S + reporting verb + (pro)noun object + infinitive phrase Reporting verb : order. (pro)noun object : us.

Reported Order
3. Agus said, Please send my best wishes to Simbolon.
Agus told us to send his best wishes to Simbolon. Pattern: S + reporting verb + (pro)noun object + infinitive phrase Reporting verb : told. (pro)noun object : us. my best wishes his best wishes karena merujuk pada Agus. Tidak ada perubahan tenses karena to+infinitives menggunakan verb dasar

4. Agus said, Could you read it for me again?


Agus instructed his servant to read the book again for him again. Pattern: S + reporting verb + (pro)noun object + infinitive phrase Reporting verb : instruct (pro)noun object : his servant. for me for him.