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Borehole Imaging

S.A Tirn, P Askling, S Wnstedt, Geologic site characterization for deep nuclear waste disposal in fractured rock based on 3D data visualization, Engineering Geology, Volume 52, Issues 34, April 1999, Pages 319-346.

Reading
Hearst, Nelson, and Paillet, Well Logging for Physical Properties, Chapter 10 Ellis and Singer, Well Logging for Earth Scientists, Chapter 19, Section 19.6

Why Image the Borehole?


Detect irregularities, e.g., washouts Detect fractures Estimate dip

Types of Borehole Images


Dipmeter (resistivity) Acoustic Also called ultrasonic scanner Also called borehole televiewer

Dipmeter

Hearst, Nelson,, and Paillet, Well Logging for Physical Properties, 2000

Cross Correlation to find shifts


The following seismic example is courtesy Mark Stockwell (Shell) The method applies equally well to resistivity logs

First, lets convert a trace to an array of numbers.


Original Seismic Trace Digitized Digital Samples

Next, take a gate around the interpreted pick to compare with the neighboring trace.

Original Seismic Trace

Gate

Correlation
Neighboring Seismic Trace
Do sample-by-sample multiplication

Gate

Cross-correlation
Add up all of the multiplications You get a single number plotted at the gate center.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Correlation
Original Seismic Trace
Do sample-by-sample multiplication

Gate

Output is a single number


Add up all of the multiplications You get a single number.

Now, slide the gate down by one sample and do it again.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Correlation
Original Seismic Trace
Do sample-by-sample multiplication

Gate

Output is a single number


Add up all of the multiplications You get a single number.

Now, slide the gate down by one sample and do it again.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Correlation
Original Seismic Trace
Do sample-by-sample multiplication

Gate

Output is a single number


Add up all of the multiplications Cross-correlation

Now, slide the gate down by one more sample and do it again.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Correlation
Original Seismic Trace
Do sample-by-sample multiplication

Gate

Cross-correlation
Add up all of the multiplications Cross-correlation

As you move the gate up and down, you eventually trace out the cross correlation.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Correlation
Cross-correlation

The largest positive value of the crosscorrelation gives the time shift with the best match of the gate to the trace.

The magnitude of the largest positive value of the cross-correlation is a numerical measure of how alike the two traces are.

If the receivers are horizontal, the shifts tell the dip of the boundary

Borehole Televiewer
Single device serves as both sound source and receiver of reflected sound

Conventional Display

3D Display