Anda di halaman 1dari 3


level Focus Technical side of work Administrative side of work Attention Increasing productivity Improving overall Through work simplification, administration by observing Time and motion studies certain principles Techniques used Scientific measurement of Personal experience passed work through on in the form of universal experimentation and principles of management observation Personality Scientist Practitioner Major-contribution Provided a major basis for Provided a systematic theory accomplishments on the shop of management which can be floor studied, analyzed and applied

Pros and Cons of Hawthorne Experiments

Pros Man is not motivated by money alone, to motivate people, a healthy social climate is necessary If treated well, human beings can expand their energies and show good results Groups have more influence on workers than organization rules Friendly supervision ensures good results, better morale and healthy interpersonal relations. Cons Mayo overstressed experimentation and drew conclusions on the strength of observations about a small sample of employees The experiments lacked a scientific basis. The choice of work, the employees, the work environments etc., was not scientific. The conclusions of Hawthorne experiments were open to doubt, as the sample was not sufficiently representative. Mayo exhibited pro-management bias by thinking that management knows what is best for workers (who are mostly driven by emotions, sentiments etc.). Mayo wanted to humanize the workplace by keeping workers in good humor always. However, there is no guarantee that happy workers will be productive.

Comparison between Classical Theory and Neo-Classical Theory

Basis Structure Behavior Classical Theory Impersonal, mechanical Organizational behavior is a product of rules and regulations Primary focus is on work and the economic needs of workers People try to maximize rewards. Stress is on order and rationality. Authoritarian practices, elaborate rules and regulations used to obtain results. Neo-classical theory Organization is a social system Behavior is a product of feelings, sentiments and attitudes Primary focus is on a small groups, on emotional and human qualities of employees Stresses personal, security and social needs of workers While achieving organizational goals. Democrative practices, Participation to employees in decision-making in order to improve morale and happiness of employees. It recognizes the importance Of human dignity and values. Happy employees trying to produce more





Work alienation, dissatisfaction

Comparison between Human Relations and Scientific Management

Point of Distinction Focus Philosophy Motivation Human Relations People, groups Make workers happy Man wants company, loves Interaction and is guided by group goals Inputs taken from behavioral sciences Groups dominate workplace Individuals follow group norms rather than listening to management Mayo wanted to keep workers in good humour, stressed on friendly supervision and monitoring group norms so as to provide a positive work climate Scientific Management Machines,rules One best way of doing things Man is an economical animal Inputs taken from physical sciences To bring order and achieve results, everyone must follow a set of universal principles in every organization The stress was on standardization, specialization, rules and regulations. So work life became quite dull and monotonous.

Basis Principles

Work life and environment

Systems vs Contingency Theory

Systems Theory Organization environment relationship not explained clearly Takes a general view of organizational variables like structure, personal, technical social, external Considers all organizations similar Vague and complex Stresses synergistic effect of organizations and recognizes the external inputs Merely says interdependence among systems and sub-systems Contingency Theory Spells out the relationship of organization to its environment clearly Takes a specific view of how organization adjusts to its environment demands. Mainly organization adapts its structure rather than tasks. Each organization is unique More practical and action-oriented Relates environment to specific organization structure and design Tries to identify the nature of interdependence between various organizational parts and their impact on other things