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Tekla Structures

Analysis Guide

Product version 17.0 December 2010


2010 Tekla Corporation

2010 Tekla Corporation and its licensors. All rights reserved. This Software Manual has been developed for use with the referenced Software. Use of the Software, and use of this Software Manual are governed by a License Agreement. Among other provisions, the License Agreement sets certain warranties for the Software and this Manual, disclaims other warranties, limits recoverable damages, defines permitted uses of the Software, and determines whether you are an authorized user of the Software. All information set forth in this manual is provided with the warranty set forth in the License Agreement. Please refer to the License Agreement for important obligations and applicable limitations and restrictions on your rights. Tekla does not guarantee that the text is free of technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Tekla reserves the right to make changes and additions to this manual due to changes in the software or otherwise. In addition, this Software Manual is protected by copyright law and by international treaties. Unauthorized reproduction, display, modification, or distribution of this Manual, or any portion of it, may result in severe civil and criminal penalties, and will be prosecuted to the full extent permitted by law. Tekla, Tekla Structures, Xcity, Xengineer, Xpipe, Xroad, Xpower, Xsteel, and Xstreet are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Tekla Corporation in the European Union, the United States, and/or other countries. Other product and company names mentioned in this Manual are or may be trademarks of their respective owners. By referring to a third-party product or brand, Tekla does not intend to suggest an affiliation with or endorsement by such third party and disclaims any such affiliation or endorsement, except where otherwise expressly stated. Portions of this software: D-Cubed 2D DCM 2008 Siemens Industry Software Limited. All rights reserved. EPM toolkit 1995-2004 EPM Technology a.s., Oslo, Norway. All rights reserved. XML parser 1999 The Apache Software Foundation. All rights reserved. Project Data Control Library 2006 - 2007 DlhSoft. All rights reserved. DWGdirect, DGNdirect and OpenDWG Toolkit/Viewkit libraries 1998-2005 Open Design Alliance. All rights reserved. FlexNet Copyright 2010 Flexera Software, Inc. and/or InstallShield Co. Inc. All Rights Reserved. This product contains proprietary and confidential technology, information and creative works owned by Flexera Software, Inc. and/or InstallShield Co. Inc. and their respective licensors, if any. Any use, copying, publication, distribution, display, modification, or transmission of such technology in whole or in part in any form or by any means without the prior express written permission of Flexera Software, Inc. and/or InstallShield Co. Inc. is strictly prohibited. Except where expressly provided by Flexera Software, Inc. and/or InstallShield Co. Inc. in writing, possession of this technology shall not be construed to confer any license or rights under any Flexera Software, Inc. and/or InstallShield Co. Inc. intellectual property rights, whether by estoppel, implication, or otherwise. The software is protected by U.S. Patent Nos. 7,302,368 and 7,617,076. Also elements of the software described in this Manual may be the subject of pending patent applications in the European Union and/or other countries including U.S. patent applications 2004267695, 2005285881, 20060004841, 20060136398, 20080189084, and 20090189887.

Conventions used in this guide


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Contents
Conventions used in this guide ........................................................................................................................... 3

Getting Started with Analysis................................................................... 7


1.1 Basics ..................................................................................................................................................... 7 Carrying out structural analysis.......................................................................................................... 9 Members, bars and area objects...................................................................................................... 10 Nodes and rigid links........................................................................................................................ 10 1.2 Determining member properties ........................................................................................................... 11 Member analysis class..................................................................................................................... Support conditions ........................................................................................................................... Defining support conditions.............................................................................................................. Support condition symbols ............................................................................................................... Analyzing composite beams ............................................................................................................ Viewing analysis results ............................................................................................................ Manual method - limitations ...................................................................................................... Design information ........................................................................................................................... Member position............................................................................................................................... Analysis member offsets .................................................................................................................. Analysis properties of components .................................................................................................. Analysis properties of slab components........................................................................................... Properties of intermediate members ................................................................................................ Defining buckling lengths (columns) ................................................................................................ Effective buckling length ............................................................................................................ Kmode options .......................................................................................................................... 1.3 A closer look at the analysis model.................................................................................................. Objects ...................................................................................................................................... Nodes connecting members and elements ............................................................................... Loads in analysis.............................................................................................................................. Load modeling code......................................................................................................................... Analysis method............................................................................................................................... 1.4 12 14 15 16 18 18 19 19 20 21 22 23 24 24 24 25 26 27 27 28 29 30

Analysis information and settings ......................................................................................................... 26

Additional information resources .......................................................................................................... 30

Loads ........................................................................................................ 31
2.1 Basics ................................................................................................................................................... 31

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Automatic loads and load groups..................................................................................................... 32 2.2 Grouping loads ..................................................................................................................................... 32 Load group properties...................................................................................................................... Load group compatibility .................................................................................................................. Working with load groups................................................................................................................. Checking loads and load groups ............................................................................................... Changing the load group ........................................................................................................... Importing and exporting load groups ......................................................................................... 2.3 Load types........................................................................................................................................ Load forms ....................................................................................................................................... Load magnitude ............................................................................................................................... Temperature loads and strain .......................................................................................................... 2.4 Attaching loads to parts or locations ................................................................................................ Applying loads to parts..................................................................................................................... Loaded length or area ...................................................................................................................... Modifying load distribution................................................................................................................ 2.5 33 33 34 34 35 35 36 37 38 39 39 40 41 41

Load types and properties .................................................................................................................... 35

Distributing loads .................................................................................................................................. 39

Working with loads................................................................................................................................ 42 Changing loaded length or area....................................................................................................... 43 Scaling loads in model views ........................................................................................................... 43 Defining varying wind loads ............................................................................................................. 44

2.6

Load reference...................................................................................................................................... 45 Load Groups... ................................................................................................................................ Create Point Load ............................................................................................................................ Create Line Load.............................................................................................................................. Create Area Load............................................................................................................................. Create Uniform Load........................................................................................................................ Create Temperature Load................................................................................................................ Create Wind Load ............................................................................................................................ 45 47 48 49 50 51 52

Analysis and Design ............................................................................... 55


3.1 3.2 Analysis part properties ........................................................................................................................ 55 Analysis model properties..................................................................................................................... 59 Objects in an analysis model ........................................................................................................... Analysis model filter .................................................................................................................. Member axis..................................................................................................................................... Member end connectivity ................................................................................................................. Model merging with analysis applications ........................................................................................ Analysis method............................................................................................................................... Seismic analysis............................................................................................................................... 60 61 61 62 62 62 63

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Modal analysis.................................................................................................................................. Design codes and methods.............................................................................................................. Design properties ....................................................................................................................... Contents of STAAD.Pro results files and reports ............................................................................. 3.3 Load combination properties ............................................................................................................ Load combination factors ................................................................................................................. Load combination types ................................................................................................................... Creating load combinations.............................................................................................................. Automatic load combination ............................................................................................................. Automatically including loads in combinations ................................................................................. Manual load combination ................................................................................................................. 3.4 Checking objects contained in an analysis model............................................................................ Adding or removing analysis objects................................................................................................ Viewing analysis results ................................................................................................................... Exporting an analysis model ............................................................................................................ Copying an analysis model .............................................................................................................. Copying an analysis part .................................................................................................................. 3.5 Analysis > Analysis & Design Models... ........................................................................................... Create Node ..................................................................................................................................... Create Rigid Link.............................................................................................................................. Merge Selected Nodes..................................................................................................................... New... ............................................................................................................................................... Creating analysis model rules .................................................................................................... Add selected objects ........................................................................................................................ Remove selected objects ................................................................................................................. Load combinations... ........................................................................................................................ Get results ........................................................................................................................................ Reset Editing Of Selected Parts.......................................................................................................

64 65 65 65 66 66 67 68 69 70 70 71 72 72 72 73 73 74 75 76 76 77 80 81 81 81 82 83

Load combination.................................................................................................................................. 66

Working with analysis and design models ............................................................................................ 71

Analysis and design reference.............................................................................................................. 73

TEKLA STRUCTURES 17

Getting Started with Analysis

Introduction

This chapter explains how to prepare a Tekla Structures model for structural analysis and design. It includes a general description of the principles of analysis and design and discusses the theoretical basis of the analysis method used in Tekla Structures. This chapter also explains what is included in the analysis model, and how it is included. You will also learn how to define support conditions for parts. This chapter is for engineers and designers who run structural analysis on concrete and steel structures. We assume that you have created parts. This chapter is divided into the following sections:

Audience

Assumed background Contents

Basics (p. 7) Determining member properties (p. 11) Analysis information and settings (p. 26)

1.1 Basics
In this section

This section presents the basic vocabulary and concepts we use to describe structural analysis in Tekla Structures. The illustrations below show the analysis concepts and procedures.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Getting Started with Analysis

TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Getting Started with Analysis

Parts Loads Node Analysis bar and member Analysis model Physical and load models
Physical model

A physical model includes the parts you have created in the model, and information related to them. Each part in the physical model exists in the completed structure. The load model contains information about loads and load groups. It also contains information about the building code Tekla Structures uses in load combination. To create a load model, see Loads (p. 31). An analysis model is used when structural analysis is run.Tekla Structures generates the required analysis members automatically for the physical model parts when you have an analysis model selected in the Analysis & Design models dialog box. The following analysis objects are generated:

Load model

Analysis model


Analysis application

Nodes and analysis members and elements of the physical parts Support conditions for nodes Connectivity between the members and nodes Loads to members and elements

The analysis model also includes load combinations. Tekla Structures links with a number of analysis applications and also supports export with them in several formats. The analysis application you use to run structural analysis uses data from the analysis model to generate analysis results. For more information on the analysis applications that you can use with Tekla Structures, visit Tekla Extranet at https://extranet.tekla.com. You can also access Tekla Extranet from Tekla Structures at Help > Online Support > Tekla Extranet.

Tekla Structures analyzes parts using properties in the profile and material catalogs, including user-defined properties. If there are no profile or analysis properties in the catalog, Tekla Structures calculates them using the profile dimensions in the model.
Topics

Carrying out structural analysis (p. 9) Members, bars and area objects (p. 10) Nodes and rigid links (p. 10)

Carrying out structural analysis


To carry out structural analysis in Tekla Structures: 1. Create the main load-bearing parts to form the physical model. See About parts. There is no need to detail or create connections at this stage.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Getting Started with Analysis

To create accurate analysis models, make sure that connected parts have common handles, for example, at grid line intersections.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Create the load model. See Loads (p. 31). Create a new analysis model and define its properties. See Analysis model properties (p. 59) and New... (p. 77). The analysis parts are created automatically for the analysis model. Set the support conditions for parts and connections, as well as other analysis properties for individual members. See Determining member properties (p. 11). Create load combinations. See Load combinations... (p. 81). Check the analysis model in a Tekla Structures model view. See Checking objects contained in an analysis model (p. 71). Check the analysis parts and modify their properties if needed.

Now you are ready to run the analysis by exporting the analysis model. See Exporting an analysis model (p. 72).
See also

The following sections discuss the theoretical basis of the analysis method used in Tekla Structures. They also explain what is included in the analysis model, and how it is included.

Members, bars and area objects (p. 10) A closer look at the analysis model (p. 26) Loads in analysis (p. 28) Load modeling code (p. 29) Analysis method (p. 30)

Members, bars and area objects


Every physical part that you select to include in the analysis model is represented by an analysis part, containing various analysis properties.
Frame objects (beams, columns, bracings) consist of one or more bars, and each bar object consists of one or more members. Specifically, a bar consists of one or more members which lie along the same line. In the most typical case, an analysis part consists of one bar, and one or more members if split positions need to be created on the bar. Split positions are created to create proper connectivity with intersections with other parts. An analysis part contains more than one bar if it is a polybeam, or if it is tapered in a way that members do not lie on the same line.

Some analysis engines work on members whereas others work on bars. This affects also the drawing of the analysis model. Either member or bar numbers are drawn in the view. Slabs and walls are modeled as area objects. When transferred to the analysis engine, meshing creates the individual elements of the area object.
See also

Determining member properties (p. 11)

Nodes and rigid links


Nodes Nodes connect analysis members and elements. Tekla Structures creates nodes at:

The ends of members The intersection points of member axes The corners of elements

The following properties affect the exact location of nodes:

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Getting Started with Analysis

Part profiles, i.e. neutral axis and orientation Part reference lines (see Part handles) Location of member axes (see Member position (p. 20) and Member axis (p. 61)) Location and shape of elements

To force members to meet in the analysis model, Tekla Structures may need to merge nodes, shift or extend member axes, create rigid links between nodes, ignore minor members, etc. You can create additional nodes when needed. Sometimes, intermediate nodes are needed along a member, for example, in frequency analysis.

The methods used to create a physical model affect the analysis model. Because of this, you may need to try different modeling methods and analysis model properties in order to create an accurate analysis model of a complex physical model. For more information on where and how Tekla Structures creates nodes, members, and elements, see A closer look at the analysis model (p. 26).
Rigid links

Rigid links are links between nodes that do not permit relative motion between them. Rigid links have the following properties in the analysis model:

Profile = PL300.0*300.0 Material = RigidlinkMaterial Density = 0.0 Modulus of elasticity = 100*109 N/m2 Poissons ratio = 0.30 Thermal dilatation coefficient = 0.0 1/K

The analysis engine may model rigid links by dedicated rigid link objects.

See also

Create Node (p. 75) Create Rigid Link (p. 76)

1.2 Determining member properties


You can define analysis properties for individual parts, or for an entire analysis model. This section describes the properties of the individual analysis members. To define these, use the Analysis, Start releases, End releases, Composite, Spanning, Loading, Design, Position, Bar Attributes and Area Attributes tabs in the analysis part properties dialog boxes, or the Analysis tab in the connection and detail dialog boxes.
Part Properties.

To display the analysis part properties dialog box, select the part and click Analysis > Analysis

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11

For more information on using common properties for the parts in an analysis model, see Analysis model properties (p. 59).
Topics

Member analysis class (p. 12) Member position (p. 20) Analysis member offsets (p. 21) Analysis properties of components (p. 22) Analysis properties of slab components (p. 23) Analyzing composite beams (p. 18) Support conditions (p. 14) Defining support conditions (p. 15) Design information (p. 19) Properties of intermediate members (p. 24) Defining buckling lengths (columns) (p. 24)

Member analysis class


Use the Analysis tab in the analysis part properties dialog boxes to define how Tekla Structures handles individual members in the analysis. The following table lists the options in the Class list. Tekla Structures shows the member analysis class of parts using different colors in the analysis model. The Color column lists these colors.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Getting Started with Analysis

Option
Beam

Description Line object of two nodes. Member can take any load, including temperature.

Color Dark red

Column

Line object of two nodes. Member can take any load, including temperature.

Dark red

Secondary

Line object of two nodes. Member can take any load, including temperature. Members that are classified as
SecondaryKeep axis position always

Dark red

is off by default and secondary parts snap to nearest nodes instead of part end nodes.
Wall

Polygon object of three or more nodes. For rectangular concrete panels and concrete slabs using design codes ACI and BS 8110 only. Tekla Structures analyzes the concrete panel or slab as a shear wall that does not take any direct loads.

Aqua

Slab

Polygon object of three or more nodes. Member can take any load, including temperature.

Aqua

The options above combined with one of the following:


Truss

Member can only take axial forces, not Green bending or torsion moments, or shear forces. Usually used for brace members. Member can only take tensile axial forces, not moments or shear forces. If this member goes into compression, it is ignored in the analysis. Member can only take compressive axial forces, not moments or shear forces. If this member goes into tension, it is ignored in the analysis. Member ignored in the analysis. Self weight load is taken into account, if you have set the Generate self weight load to Yes on the Loading tab. Pink

Truss - Tension only

Truss Compression only

Yellow

Ignore

Member is not shown in the model. Aqua

Shell

Member can take any load, except temperature. Use to analyze slabs, panels, and plates.

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13

Option
Rigid diaphragm

Description Only applies to contour plates and concrete slabs parallel to the global xy plane. Nodes that belong to a part matching the filter will be connected with rigid links which together affect displacement. For example, you can use column_filter to connect only column nodes to rigid diaphragms.

Color Lilac

Plate Membrane Mat foundation

Same as Shell but plate, membrane, or mat foundation elements are used in the analysis application.

Aqua Aqua Aqua

The analysis application that you use may not support all options.

For more information on members with the Truss, Tension only, or Compression only setting, see A closer look at the analysis model (p. 26). To indicate the member analysis class of parts in an object group using colors: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click View > Representation > Object Representation.... Select the object group. In the Color column, select Color by analysis type. Click Modify.

For more information on object representation and object groups, see Object representation settings and Object groups.
See also

Determining member properties (p. 11)

Support conditions
In structural analysis, the stresses and deflections of a part depend on how it is supported by, or connected to, other parts. You normally use restraints or springs to model connections. These determine how analysis members move, deflect, warp, deform, etc., in relation to each other, or to nodes. Member ends and nodes have degrees of freedom (DOF) in three directions. The displacement of a member end can be free or fixed, and the rotation can be pinned or fixed. If the degree of connectivity is between free, or pinned, and fixed, use springs with different elastic constants to model them. Tekla Structures uses part, connection, or detail properties to determine how to connect members in the analysis model. To define the member end conditions, use the Start releases and End releases tabs in the analysis part properties dialog boxes. The connection and detail dialog boxes have Analysis tabs. The analysis properties of a member determine the degrees of freedom for each end of a main part or member. The first end of a part has a yellow handle, the second end has a magenta handle. See also Part handles.
See also

Defining support conditions (p. 15) Determining member properties (p. 11)

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Getting Started with Analysis

Defining support conditions


Parts

Use the Start releases and End releases tabs in the analysis part properties dialog boxes to define support conditions. The Start releases tab relates to the first part end (yellow handle), the End releases tab to the second part end (magenta handle). To define the support conditions of contour plates, concrete slabs, and concrete panels, use the Supported list box on the Area attributes tab in the analysis part properties dialog box. Use the Analysis tab in the connection or detail dialog boxes to define the support conditions for the members and node in a connection. Use the Member selection list box to associate the support conditions with each connection part (Primary, 1. secondary, 2. secondary, etc.). Tekla Structures includes four predefined combinations for member ends, and an option for user-defined settings. The predefined combinations (the first four in the following table) automatically set the appropriate support conditions and degrees of freedom. The combinations are:

Plates

Connections and details

Support conditions

Combinatio n

Support condition Supported

Translational DOFs Fixed

Rotational DOFs Fixed

Supported

Fixed

Pinned

Connected

Fixed

Fixed

Connected

Fixed

Pinned

Use this option to define your own settings for the supports and connections at member ends. You can use springs and almost any combination of degrees of freedom.

To ensure that the part remains stable, and that all loads applied to it pass through to the other structures, avoid using combinations with too many degrees of freedom.

The support conditions of a member end can be:

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Option
Connected

Description Member end is connected to an intermediate analysis node (another part). Indicate degrees of freedom for the node.

Supported

Member end is the ultimate support for a superstructure (for example, the foot of a column in a frame). Indicate degrees of freedom for the support.

Displacements and rotations

U denotes translational degrees of freedom (displacement). R denotes rotational degrees of freedom (rotation). Define the degrees of freedom in the global coordinate system. The options are:

Option
Free Pinned Fixed Spring

More information Only applies to translational degrees of freedom. Only applies to rotational degrees of freedom. Enter translational and rotational spring constants. The units Tekla Structures uses depend on the programs unit settings. Only applies to rotational degrees of freedom. Use to specify the degree of connectivity, if it is between fixed and pinned. Enter a value between 0 (fixed) and 1 (pinned).

Partial release

See also

Support conditions (p. 14) Determining member properties (p. 11) Analysis part properties (p. 55)

Support condition symbols


Tekla Structures displays symbols for nodes that indicate the support conditions of a node.

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Symbol

Support condition No supports

Pinned connection

Fixed connection

Translational direction fixed

Translational direction spring

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17

Symbol

Support condition Rotational fixed

Rotational spring

See also

Support conditions (p. 14) Defining support conditions (p. 15)

Analyzing composite beams


Composite beams consist of a beam and studs, with a concrete slab on top of the beam. You can define the analysis properties of the slabs in composite beams, and define the width of the slab manually or automatically. To define the properties of the concrete slab in a composite beam: 1. 2. 3. 4. Open the Beam Analysis Properties dialog box and go to the Composite tab. Select the Composite beam option in the Composite beam list. Select a Material and enter the Thickness of the slab. To define the effective slab width:

Manual method: Select the To the left from the beam and/or To the right of the beam option button and enter a value in the field next to these buttons. See also Manual method - limitations (p. 19). Automatic method: For the left and right side, select the Automatic, half of span length divided by option button and enter a value in the field next to these buttons. When you run the analysis, Tekla Structures calculates the effective slab width by dividing the span length of the beam by the value you enter.

See also

Viewing analysis results (p. 18)

Viewing analysis results


To view the analysis results for composite beams, right-click the beam and select Inquire on the pop-up menu. The analysis results include:


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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Getting Started with Analysis

Element and node IDs Effective width Slab thickness Slab material Concrete strength Rib width and height

Stud diameter and length

Manual method - limitations



Effective width cannot exceed the distance to the nearest beam. Effective width cannot be more than half the distance to the nearest composite beam. If there is no beam on either side of the composite beam, the slab width is zero. Use the Automatic composite beam option to have Tekla Structures calculate the slab width.

Design information
Use the Design tab in the part properties dialog boxes to view and modify the design properties of individual parts in an analysis model. Design properties are properties which can vary, according to the design code and the material of the main part (for example, design settings, factors, and limits).

The properties you see when you first open the dialog box are the properties that apply to the entire analysis model you have selected in the Analysis & Design Models dialog box. See also Design codes and methods (p. 65). To set different design properties for specific parts, modify the values in the appropriate analysis part properties dialog box. For example, if the analysis model contains parts with different material grades, define the most common material grade using the analysis model properties. Then change the material grade of specific parts using the appropriate analysis part properties dialog box. To omit individual members from the design check when you run the analysis, set the following properties to No:

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See also

Steel parts: Check design - Enable design check of member Concrete parts: Calculate required area - Enable design check of member

Determining member properties (p. 11) Defining buckling lengths (columns) (p. 24) Effective buckling length (p. 24) Kmode options (p. 25)

Member position
Location of member axes

The locations of the member axes of parts define where the analysis members actually meet, and their length in the analysis model. They also affect where Tekla Structures creates nodes. See Members, bars and area objects (p. 10) and A closer look at the analysis model (p. 26). Use the options in the Axis list on the Position tab in the analysis part properties dialog boxes to define the member axis location of individual parts for analysis purposes. The options are:

Option
Neutral axis

Description The neutral axis is the member axis for this part. The location of the member axis changes if the profile of the part changes. The part reference line is the member axis for this part. See also Part handles. The part reference line is the member axis for this part. The location of the neutral axis defines axis eccentricity. The member axis is bound to the top plane. The member axis is bound to the middle plane. The member axis is bound to the bottom plane. The member axis is bound to the left plane. The member axis is bound to the right plane. The member axis is bound to the middle plane of left/right.

Reference axis Reference axis (eccentricity by neutral axis) Top plane Middle plane Bottom plane Left plane Right plane Middle plane (of left/ right)

Tekla Structures uses the options above for each part when you select the Model default option for the member axis location in the analysis model properties. See New... (p. 77) and Member axis (p. 61).

If you select the Neutral axis option, Tekla Structures takes the part location and end offsets into account when it creates nodes. See End offsets. If you select either of the Reference axis options, Tekla Structures creates nodes at part handles.
Keeping axis position

Use the options in the Keep axis position list to define whether the axis position is changed according to changes in the physical model. The options are:

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Getting Started with Analysis

Option
No Partial - keep in major direction Partial - keep in minor direction Yes Yes - Keep end positions also Connectivity

Description The axis is free to move when snapping end positions to nearby objects. Use this option for secondary members. The axis is free to move partially, but the member is not moved in major direction. The axis is free to move partially, but the member is not moved in minor direction. The axis are not moved, but end positions can move along axis (thus extending or shortening the member). The axis and the end positions of the member are not changed.

Use the Connectivity options to define the snapping conditions.

Option
Automatic Manual

Description The member snaps or connects with rigid links to other members. The member does not snap or connect with rigid links to other members. Automatic connectivity to other members is created only if the member position matches exactly the other member.

Bound member location

Use the options in Axis modifier X, Y and Z to define whether the member location is bound to global coordinates, grid line or neither. The options are:

Option
None Fixed coordinate Nearest grid

Description The member location is not bound. The member location is bound to the coordinate you enter in the X, Y or Z box. The member is bound to the nearest grid line (the snap zone is 1000 mm).

Offset

Use the Offset X, Y and Z boxes to define the member location in global coordinates. Use the options in the Longitudinal offset mode list to define if the part end offsets of the physical part are considered when Tekla Structures creates the analysis part. For more information see Analysis part properties (p. 55).

See also

Determining member properties (p. 11)

Analysis member offsets


Use offsets at the ends of analysis members to shorten or lengthen members in their local x directions, for analysis purposes and to take the eccentricity effects into account. For example, if a beam only actually spans the clear distance between two supporting columns, you can use offsets to only include the clear distance in the analysis, instead of the distance between the center points of the columns. Another example is an eccentric connection between a precast concrete column and beam. To take the eccentricity of the load from the beam into account, use the analysis offsets of the beam.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Getting Started with Analysis

21

Use the Bar attributes tab in the analysis part properties or connection dialog boxes to define the offset at each end of a member. For more information, see Analysis part properties (p. 55).
See also

Determining member properties (p. 11) Analysis part properties (p. 55)

Analysis properties of components


Use the Analysis tab in the connection or detail dialog boxes to define how Tekla Structures handles connections and details in the analysis.

The analysis properties of connections and details are:

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Getting Started with Analysis

Property
Use analysis restraints

Description Set to Yes to use the analysis properties of the connection or detail in the analysis, instead of the analysis properties of the parts in the connection. You must also select Yes in the Member end release method by connection list box in the Analysis Model Properties dialog box when you create the analysis model. See Member end connectivity (p. 62).

Member selection

Use to associate the analysis properties with each connection part (Primary, 1. secondary, 2. secondary, etc.). See Support conditions (p. 14) and Defining support conditions (p. 15). See Analysis member offsets (p. 21). Tekla Structures uses this profile in the analysis, instead of the one in the physical model, in order to take the stiffness of the connection or detail into account. This means that in the analysis, Tekla Structures overrides the profile of the part in the physical model, for this length.

Restraint combination Support condition Longitudinal member offset Analysis profile

Analysis profile length

See also

Determining member properties (p. 11)

Analysis properties of slab components


Use the Analysis tab in the Slab generation with polygon plate (61) and Slab generation with points (62) dialog boxes to define the analysis properties of parts created using these components. The following table lists the analysis properties of slab components. The option you select in the Analysis type list box limits the other properties you can define (see the Only use for column).

Property
Analysis type

Description How Tekla Structures analyzes the slabs.

Only use for

Ignore: Slabs are not analyzed. Beam: Analyze each slab as a beam. Plate: Analyze each slab as a plate. Rigid diaphragm: Analyze slabs as a

rigid diaphragm. See also Member analysis class (p. 12).


Beam axis Restraints

The location of the beam axis. See also Member position (p. 20). The support conditions of beam ends. The options are Pinned and Fixed.

Beam Beam

TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Getting Started with Analysis

23

Property
Plate plane

Description The plane on which to create the elements and nodes. If you select Top plane, Tekla Structures creates the elements on the top surface of the slab. The shape of the elements.
x and y: The approximate dimensions of the elements, in the local x and y direction of the slab. For triangular elements, the approximate dimensions of the bounding box around each element. Holes: The approximate size of the

Only use for Plate

Element type Element size

Plate Plate

elements around openings.

Filter

Nodes that belong to a part matching the filter will be connected to the rigid diaphragm. For example, you can use column_filter to connect only column nodes to rigid diaphragms.

Rigid diaphragm

Properties of intermediate members


When creating an analysis model, Tekla Structures may need to produce more than one analysis member for each physical part. This can result in intermediate members and member ends. Tekla Structures determines the analysis properties of intermediate members as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
See also

The member analysis type and member axis location of the analysis members are the same as of the original part. The analysis offsets of the part ends apply to the corresponding analysis member ends. Intermediate member ends do not have analysis offsets. The support conditions of all intermediate member ends are Connected. The translational and rotational degrees of freedom are all Fixed. This reflects the nature of the physical part, which is a continuous length. The effective buckling length of each analysis member is K*L. K is the length factor for buckling. L is length, a value described by the Kmode design property. For more information, see Defining buckling lengths (columns) (p. 24). The other design properties are the same for the analysis members as for the original part.

Determining member properties (p. 11)

Defining buckling lengths (columns)


Tekla Structures allows you to define buckling lengths for column segments, which represent the building levels. Tekla Structures automatically divides columns into segments at the point where a support in the buckling direction exists, or where the column profile changes.
See also

Effective buckling length (p. 24) Kmode options (p. 25)

Effective buckling length


Effective buckling length is K*L, where K is the length factor and L is the buckling length. To calculate a parts effective buckling length: 1. Open the analysis part properties dialog box and go to the Design tab.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Getting Started with Analysis

2. 3.

Select an option for Kmode. For more information about the available options, see Kmode options (p. 25). Enter one or more values in the K - Length factor for buckling field. The number of values you can enter depends on the option you selected in the Kmode field. For multiple values: Enter a value for each column segment starting with the lowest segment, and

Use spaces to separate multiple values:

4.

You can also use multiplication to repeat factors, for example, 3*2.00.

Go to the L - Buckling length field: To automatically calculate length values, leave the fields blank.

To override one or more length values, enter values in the relevant buckling length fields. The number of values you need to enter depends on the option you selected in the Kmode field. You can use multiplication to repeat buckling lengths, for example, 3*4000.

5.

Create the analysis model and use the Tools > Inquire > Object command on a part. The Inquire Object dialog box opens and displays the member number and the effective buckling length for each segment:

Kmode options
Use the Kmode options to define how Tekla Structures calculates buckling lengths. The options are:

Option
Physical member Column segment Column segment, multiple values

Description L is the length of the column. L is the length of one column segment. L is the length of one column segment with user-defined factors and lengths for each column segment.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Getting Started with Analysis

25

Option
Analytical member Analytical member, multiple values

Description L is the length of the member in the analysis model. L is the length of the member in the analysis model with user-defined factors and lengths for each member.

1.3 Analysis information and settings


This section generally discusses the analysis process and describes analysis settings.
Topics

A closer look at the analysis model (p. 26) Loads in analysis (p. 28) Load modeling code (p. 29) Analysis method (p. 30)

A closer look at the analysis model


This section gives detailed information on how Tekla Structures creates analysis models of physical models.

The methods used to create a physical model affect the analysis model. Because of this, you may need to try different modeling methods and analysis model properties in order to create an accurate analysis model of a complex physical model.
See also

Objects (p. 27)

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Getting Started with Analysis

Nodes connecting members and elements (p. 27)

Objects
Tekla Structures ignores the following objects in the analysis, even if you have included them in the analysis model (see Objects in an analysis model (p. 60)):


Truss members

Parts and loads that are filtered out (see Analysis model filter (p. 61)) Component objects (minor parts, bolts, reinforcing bars, etc.) Parts with the Ignore setting (see Member analysis class (p. 12))

Tekla Structures does not split members with the Truss, Tension only, or Compression only setting (truss members) when two or more truss members intersect with a normal member or with another truss member.

Nodes connecting members and elements


Tekla Structures first creates analysis nodes:

On member axes at the ends of parts At the intersection points of member axes At the corners of elements

Tekla Structures then checks if the analysis members have common nodes. Tekla Structures creates common nodes for members if a connection exists between the members.
Element nodes

This is how Tekla Structures creates nodes when plates connect with other parts:

Connected part Beam Column Another plate

Action Tekla Structures splits the beam and creates nodes in it at the element corners. Tekla Structures creates a node at the column. Tekla Structures creates the analysis elements so that the plates have common nodes on the edges of the plates.

Node colors

The color of the node shows the status of the connectivity of the node and whether the node has been selected.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Getting Started with Analysis

27

Node color Magenta

Connectivity status Disconnected

Selection Selected

Example

Magenta

Disconnected

Not selected

Green

Connected

Selected

Green

Connected

Not selected

Loads in analysis
These are the principles that Tekla Structures follows when it processes loads in the physical model to create analysis model loads. You define which loads are included in the analysis model. Tekla Structures applies these loads to members and elements, based on each loads part name or selection filtering criteria, bounding box, and load panel properties. See Applying loads to parts (p. 40) and Modifying load distribution (p. 41). In load decomposition, the parts to which a load is applied are projected to the load plane. The load is then applied to these parts according to the load panel properties, of which the loads spanning properties and distance from each part are most important.
Point loads

A point load is applied to the nearest node, or member or element location. If the point load is not located directly on any of these, it may either snap to the nearest location or it may be split into several loads, depending on the filtering criteria, bounding box, and load panel properties.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Getting Started with Analysis

Line loads

A line load is transferred to members and elements that are inside the bounding box of the line load, and that match the part name or selection filtering criteria of the load. In special cases the line load may be decomposed to point loads if it is not perpendicular to the part it is applied to. If several members receive the load, the load is distributed based on the length of each member and the distance between the load and member. Area loads are decomposed to line loads, and in special cases to point loads if they are not perpendicular to the part they are applied to. These decomposed loads are then applied to members and elements. Members inside the bounding box of the load and that match the part name or selection filtering criteria receive the load. Load panel properties, especially single or double spanning and spanning direction, also affect load decomposition. Tekla Structures binds loads to nodes or members in the analysis model. A load is a nodal load if:

Area and uniform loads

Nodal load

It is between two nodes and the distance to the nearest node is less than 110 mm. It is not between two nodes (even outside the member) but inside the bounding box and meets the part name or selection filtering criteria.

Nodal loads do not cause parts to bend.


Member load

If a load does not meet the criteria for the nodal load, it is a member load. Member loads lie along the length of the member and cause member deformations. Temperature loads are like line loads which affect an entire member. The left, right, top, and bottom surfaces of the member a temperature load affects define the direction of the load.

Other loads

Load modeling code


Use the Options dialog box to determine the building code and safety factors Tekla Structures uses in load combination. 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Tools > Options > Options... > Load modeling. Go to the Current code tab. Select the code in the Load modeling code list box. Change load combination factors on the appropriate tab if needed: Description The code to follow in analysis and load combination. More information

Tab
Current code

TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Getting Started with Analysis

29

Tab
Eurocode

Description The partial safety factors in limit states and reduction factors, for the Eurocode, based on load group types. The partial safety factors in limit states, for the British code, based on load group types. The partial safety factors in limit states, for the US code, based on load group types. Uniform building code, American code. The partial safety factors in limit states, for the French code for steel structures, based on load group types. The partial safety factors in limit states, for the French code for concrete structures, based on load group types. International building code. American code. American Concrete Institute publication 318.

More information Load combination factors (p. 66)

British

AISC (US)

UBC (US) CM66 (F)

BAEL91 (F)

IBC (US) ACI

5.

Click OK.

If you have to change the code during a project, you will also need to change the load group types and check load combinations.

Analysis method
You can use either the linear (first order), or non-linear (second order, P-delta), analysis method in Tekla Structures. The non-linear method considers the non-linear nature of the geometry. This takes into account major deflections, but not the non-linear nature of materials. Tekla Structures treats materials as linear. See also Analysis method (p. 62).

1.4 Additional information resources


You can find additional information related to Analysis & Design in the following locations:

Analysis & Design related webinars: http://www.tekla.com/international/solutions/ building-construction/Pages/wednesdaywebinarcampaign.aspx Information on the analysis applications Tekla Structures links with: https:// extranet.tekla.com/BC/tekla-structures-en/product/interfaces/Pages/Default.aspx

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Getting Started with Analysis

Loads

Introduction

Once you have modeled physical structures by creating parts you can start adding loads. In Tekla Structures, you can create point loads, line loads, area loads with uniform or variable distribution. You can also model temperature, wind, and seismic loads. Either attach loads to specific parts or to locations. This chapter explains how to create and group loads. It also includes a general description of load groups, load types, and load properties. Load reference (p. 45) contains step-by-step instructions for all load commands. We assume that you have created a Tekla Structures model and have a basic understanding of modeling. This chapter is divided into the following sections:

In this chapter

Assumed background Contents

Basics (p. 31) Grouping loads (p. 32) Load types and properties (p. 35) Distributing loads (p. 39) Working with loads (p. 42) Load reference (p. 45)

2.1 Basics
This section presents some Tekla Structures vocabulary and concepts to help you start to model loads.
Load model

A load model is the portion of the Tekla Structures model that includes all loads, together with the load group and building code information related to them. Each load in a load model has to belong to a load group. Each load can only belong to one load group. A load group can contain one or more loads. A load group is a set of loads that are treated alike during load combination. Load groups should contain loads caused by the same action and to which you want to refer collectively. Tekla Structures assumes that all loads in a group:

Load group

TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Loads

31

Have the same partial safety and other combination factors Have the same action direction Occur at the same time and all together

See Grouping loads (p. 32) and Load combination (p. 66). You need to create load groups because the same action can cause different types of loads, for example, point loads and area loads. See Load types (p. 36). You can include as many loads as you like in a load group, of any load type.
Working with loads

In Tekla Structures, you can attach each load to a part for modeling purposes. You can also create floating loads that are bound to locations rather than parts. See Attaching loads to parts or locations (p. 39). Use the loads bounding box and part name filter or a selection filter to define which parts carry the load. See Applying loads to parts (p. 40).

Topics

Automatic loads and load groups (p. 32)

Automatic loads and load groups


Self-weight

Tekla Structures automatically calculates the self-weight of structural parts using the density of the material and the dimensions of the part. To automatically include the self-weight of parts in load combinations, select the Include selfweight check box when you create load combinations. See Creating load combinations (p. 68).

Wind loads

Use the Wind load generator (28) tool to define the effects of wind on a structure. See Create Wind Load (p. 52). To automatically include seismic loads in the x and y directions in load combinations: 1. 2. Define the code to follow in the seismic analysis. Define the load groups to include in the seismic analysis and their factors.

Seismic loads

For more information, see Seismic analysis (p. 63).


See also

Load combination types (p. 67) Attaching loads to parts or locations (p. 39)

2.2 Grouping loads


Load groups should contain loads caused by the same action and to which you want to refer collectively. Tekla Structures assumes that all loads in a group:


Topics

Have the same partial safety and other combination factors Have the same action direction Occur at the same time and all together

Load group properties (p. 33) Load group compatibility (p. 33) Working with load groups (p. 34)

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Loads

Load group properties


To define the properties of a load group, click the Load groups icon on the Loads and Analysis toolbar to open the Load Groups dialog box. The properties are:
Current

When you apply loads in the model, Tekla Structures applies the Current load group. You can only define one load group as Current. Each load group must have a unique name. Use load group names to define the visibility and selectability of loads. For example, you can select, modify, or hide loads based on their load group. See Filtering objects. The type of a load group is the type of action that causes the loads. Actions causing loads are building code specific. See Load modeling code (p. 29). Most building codes use some or all of the following actions and load group types:

Name

Type

Permanent, dead, and/or prestressing loads Live, imposed, traffic, and/or crane loads Snow loads Wind loads Temperature loads Accidental and/or earthquake loads Imperfection loads

Tekla Structures automatically determines and applies the self-weight of parts. See Automatic loads and load groups (p. 32).

Direction

The direction of a load group is the global direction of the action that causes the loads. Individual loads in a load group retain their own magnitudes in the global or local x, y, and z directions. See also Load magnitude (p. 38). Load group direction affects which loads Tekla Structures combines in load combination:


Color See also

z direction groups are combined with both x and y direction groups. x or y direction groups are not combined with each other.

Use different colors for different load groups. Load Groups... (p. 45) Load group compatibility (p. 33) Working with load groups (p. 34)

Load group compatibility


When Tekla Structures creates load combinations for structural analysis, it follows the building code you select in Tools > Options > Options... > Load modeling. See Load modeling code (p. 29) and Load combination (p. 66). To accurately combine loads which have the same load group type, you need to identify which load groups:

Can occur at the same time (are compatible) Exclude each other (are incompatible)

TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Loads

33

To define load group compatibility, click Load groups icon on the Loads and Analysis toolbar to open the Load Groups dialog box. Enter numbers to indicate compatibility.
Compatibility

Compatible load groups can act together or separately. They can actually be one single loading, for example, a live loading that needs to be split in parts acting on different spans of a continuous beam. Tekla Structures then includes none, one, several, or all of the compatible load groups in a load combination. Incompatible load groups always exclude each other. They cannot occur at the same time. For example, a wind loading from the x direction is incompatible with a wind loading from the y direction. In load combination Tekla Structures only takes into account one load group in an incompatible grouping at a time.

Incompatibility

Tekla Structures automatically applies basic compatibility facts, such as self-weight being compatible with all other loads, or live loads being compatible with wind load. Tekla Structures does not combine loads in the x direction with those in the y direction. Compatibility indicators are all 0 by default. It indicates that Tekla Structures combines the load groups as defined in the building code.
See also

Load Groups... (p. 45) Working with load groups (p. 34)

Working with load groups


Use the Load groups dialog box to view, define, modify, and delete load groups. For example, this is where you set load group properties and indicate load group compatibility. Click the Load groups icon on the Loads and Analysis toolbar to open the dialog box:

Load group types vary according to the code defined in Tools > Options > Options... > Load modeling. If you have to change the code during a project, you will also need to change the load group types and check load combinations.

Checking loads and load groups


To find out which load group a load belongs to, select the load in the model and click the Load groups by loads button. Tekla Structures highlights the load group in the dialog box.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Loads

To find out which loads belong to a load group, select the load group in the dialog box and click the Loads by load groups button. The associated loads are highlighted in the model. If you have many loads in the model, you can show the group name and magnitude in the model view by right-clicking a load and selecting Inquire from the pop-up menu. Tekla Structures also highlights the parts that carry this load.

Changing the load group


To move a load to a different load group, select the load in the model, then select a load group in the dialog box and click the Change load group button.

Importing and exporting load groups


To use the same load groups in other models, you can import and export load groups.


See also

Right-click on a load group in the Load Groups dialog box and select Export... from the pop-up menu to allow the load group to be used in other models. Right-click on the load group list in the Load Groups dialog box and select Import... from the pop-up menu to use load groups from another model.

Load Groups... (p. 45)

2.3 Load types and properties


Introduction

Each load has a type and properties which define it (e.g. magnitude, direction, and distribution). This section describes the different load types and the properties of each load type. Use the load properties dialog box to view or modify the properties of a load. Click Analysis > Properties > Loads and select a load type to open its properties dialog box.

Filtering by properties Topics

You can use load types and groups in filters. For example, you can select, modify, or hide loads based on their type and load group. See Filtering objects. Load types (p. 36)

TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Loads

35

Load forms (p. 37) Load magnitude (p. 38) Temperature loads and strain (p. 39)
See also

Grouping loads (p. 32) Distributing loads (p. 39)

Load types
Tekla Structures includes the following load types:

Uniform load Area load Point load Line loads

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Loads

Load type Point load Line load

Description A concentrated force or bending moment that can be attached to a part. A linearly-distributed force or torsion. By default it runs from a point to another point. You can also create a line load with offsets from the points. A line load can be attached to a part. Its magnitude can vary linearly across the loaded length. A linearly-distributed force bounded by a triangle or quadrangle. You do not have to bind the boundary of the area to parts. Area loads can have openings. A uniformly-distributed force bounded by a polygon. Uniform loads can have openings. You do not have to bind the polygon to parts. An area load that can be defined for zones in the structure.

Area load

Uniform load

Wind load Temperature load

A uniform change in temperature, that is applied to specified parts, and that causes axial elongation in parts. A temperature difference between two surfaces of a part that causes the part to bend.

Strain

An initial axial elongation or shrinkage of a part.

To ensure that load analysis is correct, use area and uniform loads for loads on floors. For example, when the layout of beams changes, Tekla Structures recalculates the loads to the beams. It will not do this if you use point or line loads on individual beams.

Load forms
Distributed loads (line and area loads) can have different load forms.
Line load

The load form of a line load defines how the load magnitude varies along the loaded length. The options are:

Option

Description The load magnitude is uniform across the loaded length. The load has different magnitudes at the ends of the loaded length. The magnitude changes linearly between the ends.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Loads

37

Option

Description The load magnitude changes linearly, from zero at the ends of the loaded length, to a fixed value in the middle of the loaded length. The load magnitude changes linearly, from zero at one end of the loaded length, through two (different) values, back to zero at the other end.

Area load

The load form of an area load defines the shape of the loaded area. It can be:

Option

Description Quadrangular

Triangular

For information on how to define the length or area a load affects, see Loaded length or area (p. 41).
See also

Load magnitude (p. 38)

Load magnitude
Load magnitude can occur in x, y, and z directions. The coordinate system is the same as the current work plane, so positive coordinates indicate a positive load direction. See Work plane. For example, when you create loads perpendicular to sloped parts, shifting the work plane helps you to place loads accurately. See Defining the work area.

Some types of loads can have several magnitude values. For example, the magnitude of line loads may vary along the loaded length. See Load forms (p. 37). In the load properties dialog boxes, the following letters denote magnitudes of different types:

P is for a force acting on a position, along a line, or across an area. M is for bending moments acting on a position or along a line. T is for torsional moments acting along a line.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Loads

Temperature loads and strain


Temperature loads can be caused by:

An increase or decrease in temperature A difference in temperature between the top and bottom surfaces of a part A difference in temperature between the sides of a part

Temperature changes cause axial elongation or uniform volume expansion in parts. Different surface temperatures cause parts to bend.
Strain

Strain is an initial axial elongation (+) or shrinkage (-) of a part. To define the temperature loads and strain that affect parts, click Analysis > Properties >
Loads > Temperature Load... and use the Magnitude tab.

See also

Create Temperature Load (p. 51)

2.4 Distributing loads


This section explains how to attach loads and how to define which parts, or lengths and areas of parts, carry loads.
Topics

Attaching loads to parts or locations (p. 39) Applying loads to parts (p. 40) Loaded length or area (p. 41)

Attaching loads to parts or locations


You can attach loads to parts or locations for modeling purposes. Attaching a load to a part binds the load and the part together in the model. If the part is moved, copied, deleted, etc., it affects the load. For example, a prestressing load moves with the part to which it is attached, and disappears if the part is deleted. If you do not attach a load to a part, Tekla Structures fixes the load to the position(s) you pick when you create the load. To attach a load to parts or locations, open the load properties dialog box. On the Distribution tab, select an option in the Load attachment list box:

Option
Attach to member Dont attach

Description Attaches the load to a specific part. If the part is moved, copied, deleted, etc., it affects the load. The load is not attached but it is considered a floating load. This load is bound to the position you pick when you create the load, not to parts.

If you select the Attach to member option, you must select the part before picking the position for the load.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Loads

39

To define which parts carry a load, see Applying loads to parts (p. 40).

Applying loads to parts


In order to apply loads in the structural analysis model, Tekla Structures searches for parts in the areas that you specify. For each load, you can define the load-bearing parts by name or selection filter, and the search area. To do this, open the loads properties dialog box and click the Distribution tab.

Load-bearing parts

To define the load-bearing parts by name: 1. In the Load-bearing parts list box: Select Include parts by name to define the parts that carry the load.

2.

Select Exclude parts by name to define the parts that do not carry the load.

Enter the part names.

You can use wildcards when listing the part names. See Wildcards.

To define the load-bearing parts by selection filter: 1. In the Load-bearing parts list box: Select Include parts by filter to define the parts that carry the load.

2.

Select Exclude parts by filter to define the parts that do not carry the load.

Select the selection filter in the second list box.

For more information on selection filters and filtering, see Filtering objects.
Bounding box

Use the loads bounding box to define the area to search for the parts that carry the load. The bounding box is the volume around the load that Tekla Structures searches for load-bearing parts.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Loads

Each load has its own bounding box. You can define the dimensions of a bounding box in the x, y, and z directions of the current work plane. The dimensions are measured from the reference point, line, or area of the load. See also Handles (p. 43). Offset distances from the reference line or area do not affect the size of the bounding box. See Loaded length or area (p. 41).
See also

Each loads load panel properties also affect which parts receive the load. See Modifying load distribution (p. 41).

Loaded length or area


If a line, area, or uniform load affects a length or area which is difficult to select in the model, select one close to it. Then use the values in the Distances fields in the load properties dialog boxes to pinpoint the length or area. You can shorten or divide the loaded length, and enlarge or reduce the loaded area.
Line load

To shorten or divide the length of a line load, enter positive values for a and b.

Area load

To enlarge the area an area load affects, enter a positive value for a. To reduce the area, enter a negative value.

Modifying load distribution


By default, Tekla Structures distributes loads using the panel method. To modify the way loads are distributed, modify the properties on the Load panel tab in the load properties dialog box. The properties are:

Property
Spanning

Description
Single: in the direction of the primary axis only Double: along the primary and secondary axes

Primary axis direction

If Spanning is set to Single, you can define the primary axis direction by selecting a part in the model and setting this option to Parallel to part or Perpendicular to part. To manually define the primary axis weight when Spanning is set to Double, you must also define the primary axis direction.

Automatic primary axis weight

Yes: Tekla Structures automatically calculates the load portions for primary and secondary directions. No: Enter the weight for the primary direction in the Weight field. Tekla Structures calculates the

weight for the secondary direction by subtracting this value from 1.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Loads

41

Property
Load dispersion angle Use continuous structure load distribution

Description The angle by which the load is projected onto the surrounding elements.
Yes: for uniform loads on continuous slabs. For the

first and last spans, the distribution of support reactions is 3/8 and 5/8, instead of 1/2 and 1/2.

No Example

When using double spanning, automatic primary axis weight and the weight value affect the proportions of the load which is applied to the primary axis and to the perpendicular axis.

If Automatic primary axis weight is Yes, the proportions will be in proportion to the third power of the span lengths in these two directions, i.e. the shorter the span, the bigger the proportion of the load. The Weight value does not matter.

If Automatic primary axis weight is No, the given Weight value (0.50 in this example) is used to divide the load.

2.5 Working with loads


To modify the properties of a load, double-click it in the model to open the relevant load properties dialog box. When you have finished, click Modify to update the properties of the load in the model.
Topics

Changing loaded length or area (p. 43) Scaling loads in model views (p. 43) Defining varying wind loads (p. 44)

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Loads

Changing loaded length or area


As well as changing load properties, you can modify loads by:


Handles

Moving line load ends Moving uniform load corners Changing the shape of openings in loads Adding corners to uniform loads

Tekla Structures indicates the ends and corners of line, area, and uniform loads using handles. When you select a load, the handles are magenta.

You can use these handles to move load ends and corners: 1. 2. 3. Select the load to display its handles. Click the handle you want to move. Tekla Structures highlights the handle. Move the handle(s) like any other object. See Moving an object. If you have Drag and drop on, just drag the handle to a new position. See Moving an object using drag-anddrop.

To add corners to uniform loads, use the Modify Polygon Shape command. See Modifying the shape of a polygon.

Scaling loads in model views


You can have Tekla Structures scale loads when you are modeling. This ensures that loads are not too small to see, or so large that they hide the structure. To scale loads in model views, click Tools > Options > Options... > Load modeling and go to the Arrow length tab:

TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Loads

43

Example

You define that point loads with magnitude of 1 kN or less are 250 mm high in the model, and point loads with magnitude of 10 kN or more are 2500 mm high. Tekla Structures linearly scales all point loads that have a magnitudes between 1 kN and 10 kN between 250 mm and 2500 mm.

Defining varying wind loads


The Create Wind Load (p. 52) command allows you to define which zones have concentrated wind load. Each zone is the height of the wall. Define the width of the zone using either dimensions or proportions. You can define up to five zones for each wall. In the example below, the loads in the global x direction are multiplied by 3 at both corners of wall 1.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Loads

The Wind load generator (28) dialog box contains one tab for each wind direction.

2.6 Load reference


This section consists of the reference pages for the load commands. To create loads, use the icons on the Loads and Analysis toolbar or select a command from the Analysis > Loads menu. The following table lists the commands for creating loads and gives a short description of each one.

Command Load Groups... (p. 45) Create Point Load (p. 47) Create Line Load (p. 48) Create Area Load (p. 49) Create Uniform Load (p. 50) Create Wind Load (p. 52) Create Temperature Load (p. 51)

Icon

Description Displays the Load Groups dialog box. Creates a point load at a picked position. Creates a line load between two picked points. Creates an area load using three picked points. Creates a uniformly-distributed polygonal area load using at least three picked points. Creates wind loads on a structure. Defines a temperature change in a part, or a temperature difference between two part surfaces.

Load Groups...
Synopsis

This command displays the Load Groups dialog box that you can use to manage load groups.

TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Loads

45

Description

Tekla Structures lists all the existing load groups in the Load Groups dialog box. Use the dialog box to view, define, modify, and delete load groups.

Column
Current

Description The @ symbol identifies the current load group. To change the current load group, select a load group and click the Set current button. Unique name of the load group. Load group type, based on the action that causes the loads in the group. Direction of the action that causes the loads in the load group. A number that identifies all the load groups that are compatible with each other. A number that identifies all the load groups that are incompatible with each other. The color that Tekla Structures uses to show the loads in the group.

More information Load group properties (p. 33)

Name Type

Direction

Compatible

Load group compatibility (p. 33)

Incompatible

Color

Load group properties (p. 33)

Usage

Click Analysis > Loads > Load Groups.... To define a new load group: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Click Add. Select the default load group from the list. Click the load group name to modify it. Click the load group type and select a type from the list box. Click the load group direction to modify it. To indicate compatibility with existing load groups: In the Compatible column, enter the number you have used for the load groups that are compatible with this load group. In the Incompatible column, enter the number you have used for the load groups that are incompatible with this load group. Click OK to close the dialog box. Select the load group from the list. Change the name, direction, group type, or compatibility indicators. Click OK to close the dialog box. Select the load group from the list. Click Delete. Click OK in the warning dialog box. This also deletes the loads in the load group.

7. 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3.

To modify an existing load group:

To delete a load group:

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Loads

When you delete a load group, Tekla Structures also deletes all the loads in the load group. If you try to delete the only load group, Tekla Structures will warn you. At least one load group must exist. To find out which loads belong to a load group: 1. 2. 3. Open the Load Groups dialog box. Select a load group in the dialog box. Click the Loads by load groups button. Tekla Structures highlights the loads in the model. Open the Load Groups dialog box. Select a load in the model. Click the Load groups by loads button. Tekla Structures highlights the load group in the dialog box. Select the load in the model. Select a load group in the Load Groups dialog box. Click the Change load group button. Select the load groups to export in the Load Groups dialog box. Right-click and select Export... from the pop-up menu. In the Export Load Groups dialog box, browse for a folder and enter a name for the load group file. Click OK. In the Load Groups dialog box, right-click on the load group list and select Import... from the pop-up menu. In the Import Load Groups dialog box, browse for the load group files (.lgr) to import. Click OK.

To find out which load group a load belongs to: 1. 2. 3.

To move a load to a different load group: 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3.

To export load groups:

To import load groups:

You can include several load groups in one load group file.

See also

Working with load groups (p. 34) Grouping loads (p. 32)

Create Point Load


Synopsis Preconditions Description

This command creates a point load at a position you pick. Shift the work plane to create loads perpendicular to sloped parts. Tekla Structures creates the point load using the properties in the Point Load Properties dialog box. The filename extension of a point load properties file is lm1.

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47

Field
Load group name

Description The load group to which the load belongs.

More information Grouping loads (p. 32) Load Groups... (p. 45)

Magnitude tab Load attachment Load-bearing parts

Load magnitudes in the x, y, and z directions of the work plane. Indicates if the load is attached to a part. Parts to which the load is applied, or not applied, on the basis of part names or selection filters. Dimensions of the bounding box in the x, y, and z directions. Properties used in the load panel load distribution method.

Load magnitude (p. 38) Attaching loads to parts or locations (p. 39) Applying loads to parts (p. 40)

Bounding box of the load Load panel tab

Modifying load distribution (p. 41)

Usage

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Double-click the Create point load icon. Enter or modify the load properties. Click Apply or OK to save the properties. If you have selected the Attach to member option, select the part to attach the load to. Pick the position of the load.

See also

Points Creating a point Using commands

Create Line Load


Synopsis Preconditions Description

This command creates a line load between two picked points. Shift the work plane to create loads perpendicular to sloped parts. Tekla Structures creates the line load using the properties in the Line Load Properties dialog box. The filename extension of a line load properties file is lm2.

Field
Load group name

Description The load group to which the load belongs.

More information Grouping loads (p. 32) Load Groups... (p. 45)

Load form Magnitude tab

Defines how the load magnitude varies along the loaded length. Load magnitudes in the x, y, and z directions of the work plane.

Load forms (p. 37) Load magnitude (p. 38)

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Loads

Field
Load attachment Load-bearing parts

Description Indicates if the load is attached to a part. Parts to which the load is applied, or not applied, on the basis of part names or selection filters. Dimensions of the bounding box in the x, y, and z directions. Offsets from the load end points, used to shorten or lengthen the loaded length. Properties used in the load panel load distribution method.

More information Attaching loads to parts or locations (p. 39) Applying loads to parts (p. 40)

Bounding box of the load Distances

Loaded length or area (p. 41) Modifying load distribution (p. 41)

Load panel tab

Usage

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Double-click the Create line load icon. Enter or modify the load properties. Click Apply or OK to save the properties. If you have selected the Attach to member option, select the part to attach the load to. Pick the starting point. Pick the end point.

See also

Points Creating a point Using commands

Create Area Load


Synopsis Preconditions Description

This command creates an area load using three picked points. Shift the work plane to create loads perpendicular to sloped parts. Area loads affect triangular or quadrangular areas. If you select the triangular load form, the points you pick define the loaded area. To create a quadrangular load form, pick three points and Tekla Structures automatically determines the fourth corner point. Tekla Structures creates the area load using the properties in the Area Load Properties dialog box. The filename extension of an area load properties file is lm3.

Field
Load group name

Description The load group to which the load belongs.

More information Grouping loads (p. 32) Load Groups... (p. 45)

Load form Magnitude tab Load attachment

Defines the shape of the loaded area. Load magnitudes in the x, y, and z directions of the work plane. Indicates if the load is attached to a part.

Load forms (p. 37) Load magnitude (p. 38) Attaching loads to parts or locations (p. 39)

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49

Field
Load-bearing parts

Description Parts to which the load is applied, or not applied, on the basis of part names or selection filters. Dimensions of the bounding box in the x, y, and z directions. Offset used to enlarge or reduce the loaded area. Properties used in the load panel load distribution method.

More information Applying loads to parts (p. 40)

Bounding box of the load Distances Load panel tab

Loaded length or area (p. 41) Modifying load distribution (p. 41)

Usage

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Double-click the Create area load icon. Enter or modify the load properties. Click Apply or OK to save the properties. If you have selected the Attach to member option, select the part to attach the load to. Pick three corner points.

Tekla Structures automatically takes openings in plates, slabs, and panels into account.

See also

Points Creating a point Using commands

Create Uniform Load


Synopsis

This command creates a uniformly-distributed, polygonal area load using at least three picked points. Shift the work plane to create loads perpendicular to sloped parts. Uniform load is an area load distributed uniformly on a polygonal area. The bounding polygon is defined by at least three corner points you pick. Uniform loads can have openings. Tekla Structures creates a uniform load using the properties in the Uniform Load Properties dialog box. The filename extension of a uniform load properties file is lm4.

Preconditions Description

Field
Load group name

Description The load group to which the load belongs.

More information Grouping loads (p. 32) Load Groups... (p. 45)

Magnitude tab Load attachment

Load magnitudes in the x, y, and z directions of the work plane. Indicates if the load is attached to a part.

Load magnitude (p. 38) Attaching loads to parts or locations (p. 39)

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Loads

Field
Load-bearing parts

Description Parts to which the load is applied, or not applied, on the basis of part names or selection filters. Dimensions of the bounding box in the x, y, and z directions. Offset used to enlarge or reduce the loaded area. Properties used in the load panel load distribution method.

More information Applying loads to parts (p. 40)

Bounding box of the load Distances Load panel tab

Loaded length or area (p. 41) Modifying load distribution (p. 41)

Usage

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Double-click the Create uniform load icon. Enter or modify the load properties. Click Apply or OK to save the properties. If you have selected the Attach to member option, select the part to attach the load to. Pick three corner points. (Pick the other corner points.) Pick the first point again and click the middle mouse button to finish picking.

Tekla Structures automatically takes openings in plates, slabs, and panels into account.

See also

Points Creating a point Using commands

Create Temperature Load


Synopsis

This command defines a temperature change in a part, or a temperature difference between two part surfaces. Tekla Structures creates the temperature load using the properties in the Temperature Load Properties dialog box. The filename extension of a temperature load properties file is lm6.

Description

Field
Load group name

Description The load group to which the load belongs.

More information Grouping loads (p. 32) Load Groups... (p. 45)

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Field
Magnitude tab

Description Temperature change in the part. Difference in temperature between the left and right sides of the part. Difference in temperature between the top and bottom surfaces of the part. Axial strain of the part. A positive value indicates elongation, a negative value indicates shrinkage.

More information Temperature loads and strain (p. 39)

Load attachment Load-bearing parts

Indicates if the load is attached to a part. Parts to which the load is applied, or not applied, on the basis of part names or selection filters. Dimensions of the bounding box in the x, y, and z directions.

Attaching loads to parts or locations (p. 39) Applying loads to parts (p. 40)

Bounding box of the load Usage

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Double-click the Create temperature load icon. Enter or modify the load properties. Click Apply or OK to save the properties. If you have selected the Attach to member option, select the part to attach the load to. Pick the starting point. Pick the end point.

To apply temperature load to an entire structure, enter the load in the Temperature change for axial elongation field and adjust the bounding box to surround all the beams and columns in the structure.

See also

Points Creating a point Using commands

Create Wind Load


Synopsis Preconditions Description

This modeling tool creates wind loads on a structure.

Tekla Structures creates wind loads using the properties in the Wind load generator (28) dialog box. The properties are:

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Field
Wind load direction

Description The options are:

More information

Global X Global -X Global Y Global -Y Global X, -X, Y, -Y (for all

directions)
Nominal wind pressure Top level Bottom level Ground level Part names Front Left side Back Right side Internal Z profile tab

The highest level of the wind loads. The lowest level of the wind loads. The level of the ground around the building. Parts to which the load is applied, or not applied. The external exposure factors for the windward, leeward, and side walls. A positive value indicates pressure, a negative value indicates suction. The internal exposure factor. The distribution of wind load along the height of the building, in terms of pressure factors. Starts from the ground level. Zones for concentrated corner loads for each wall. You can define up to five zones for each wall. Defining varying wind loads (p. 44) Applying loads to parts (p. 40)

Global X, Global Y, Global -X, Global -Y tabs

Tekla Structures automatically includes wind loads in load combinations. account.


Usage Wind load generator (28) automatically takes openings in plates, slabs, and panels into

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Double-click the Create wind load icon. Enter or modify the properties. Click Apply or OK to save the properties. Pick points to indicate the shape of the building on the bottom level. Click the middle mouse button to finish.

Wind load generator (28) creates area loads using the load panel distribution method. For more information, see Modifying load distribution (p. 41).

See also

Automatically including loads in combinations (p. 70)

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Analysis and Design

Introduction

This chapter includes a general description of analysis and design model properties and an overview of analysis commands. You will also learn how to create load combinations. This chapter is for engineers who run structural analysis on concrete and steel structures. We assume that you have read the Chapter 1, Getting Started with Analysis (p. 7), first and defined the support conditions for parts. This chapter is divided into the following sections:

Audience Assumed background Contents

Analysis part properties (p. 55) Analysis model properties (p. 59) Load combination (p. 66) Working with analysis and design models (p. 71) Analysis and design reference (p. 73)

3.1 Analysis part properties


An analysis part is a representation of analysis properties applied to a physical part. It indicates, for example, the location of the member axis. To access the properties of an analysis part: 1. 2. Select the part and right-click. Select Properties... from the pop-up menu. The analysis part properties dialog box is displayed. The table below describes the analysis part properties. They correspond to the user-defined attributes (UDA) of parts used in the previous versions of Tekla Structures.

Property
Analysis tab Class

Description Defines how different members are handled in the analysis. For more information see Member analysis class (p. 12).

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55

Property
Built-up section mode

Description Indicates the role of the part in a built-up section that consists of a main part and one or more sub-parts. In the analysis, subparts are merged to the main part. The options are:


Design group Automatic update

Automatic Not part of built-up section: Disconnects the part from

a built-up section.
Main part of built-up section: Always use to define the

main part of a built-up section.


Sub-part of built-up section Beam sub-part of built-up section: Defines that the part is a part of the built-up when the main part of the built-up is a beam. Column sub-part of built-up section: Defines that the part is a part of the built-up when the main part of the built-up is a column.

Defines which design group the part belongs to. Used in optimization. Defines if the analysis part is updated according to the changes in the physical model. The options are:


Start or End

Yes - Physical model changes are considered No - Physical model changes are ignored

Start releases and End releases tabs

Defines which of the predefined or user-defined combinations for support conditions is used for member start or end. For more information see Defining support conditions (p. 15). Defines the support condition. The options are Supported or Connected. For more information see Defining support conditions (p. 15). Defines the displacement and rotation for member start or end. For more information see Defining support conditions (p. 15). Defines whether the composition is a Non-composite beam, Composite beam or Automatic composite beam. For more information see Analyzing composite beams (p. 18). Defines the material of the slab. Defines the thickness of the slab. Defines if the effective slab width is calculated automatically or based on the values you enter. For more information see Analyzing composite beams (p. 18).

Support condition

Ux, Uy, Uz, Rx, Ry or Rz

Composite tab Composite beam

Material Thickness Effective slab width

Spanning tab

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Analysis and Design

Property
Spanning

Description Defines which parts carry loads. The options are:


Single spanning plates carry loads in the direction of the primary axis. Beams or columns parallel to the spanning direction are not connected to the part, and will not carry the load from part. Double spanning parts carry loads along the primary and

secondary axes. Beams or columns in both directions will carry the load from part.

Primary axis direction

Defines the direction of the primary axis in one of the following ways:


Show direction on selected members

Enter 1 in the axis field which is parallel to the primary axis direction. Click Parallel to part, and then select the beam in the model that is parallel to the direction. Click Perpendicular to part, and then select the beam in the model that is perpendicular to the direction.

A red line indicates the primary spanning direction of the part carrying the load.

Loading tab Generate self weight load

The analysis model includes the part weight, for example a deck, as a load even if the part is not otherwise included in the analysis model. If the part is included in the analysis model, so is its selfweight. The option No works only with the analysis types Ignore and Rigid diaphragm.

List boxes for additional loads

Enter slab live load or additional self-weight (screed, services) using three additional loads with load group name and magnitude. The directions of these loads follow the direction of the load group to which they belong. Use this filter to ensure that area load from a slab is transferred to the correct parts, for example, beams supporting the slab. Typically you would enter the beam name as the filter value. Use to assign most of the load to the middle supports on continuous structures.

Part names

Use continuous structure load distribution

Design tab

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Property

Description

Use the Design tab in the part properties dialog boxes to view and modify the design properties of individual parts in an analysis model. Design properties are properties which can vary, according to the design code and the material of the main part (for example, design settings, factors, and limits). For more information see Design information (p. 19).
Position tab

Use the Position tab to define the position of the analysis part. For more information on the options, see Member position (p. 20).
Bar attributes tab Start offset, End offset

Calculates offsets to account for longitudinal eccentricity at the member end (resulting in bending moment). These offsets have no effect on the topology on the analysis model. Offset value is only passed as a member attribute to the analysis.

Replacement profile name

Select a profile from the profile catalog. You can use different analysis profiles at the start and end of parts if the analysis application you use supports it. To use different profiles at part ends, enter two profiles separated by a pipe character, for example: HEA120|HEA140

Curved beam mode

Defines whether a beam is analyzed as a curved beam or as straight segments. Select either:

Use curved member Split into straight segments

Use the advanced option XS_AD_CURVED_BEAM_SPLIT_ACCURACY_MM in Tools > Options > Advanced Options... > Analysis & Design to define how closely straight segments follow the curved beam.
No. of split nodes

Use to create additional nodes or analyze a beam as straight segments, for example, a curved beam. Enter the number of nodes. To define additional nodes in the member, enter distances from the part starting point to the node. Enter distances, separated by spaces, for example:
1000 1500 3000

Split distances

Bar start number, Member start number Area attributes tab

Defines the start number for bars and analysis members. For more information see Defining numbering series.

You can use the options on this tab when the Class of the analysis part is set to Plate on the Analysis tab.
Element type Rotation of local XY Element size

The shape of the elements. Defines the rotation of the local XY plane.
x and y: The approximate dimensions of the elements, in the local x and y direction of the slab. For triangular elements, the approximate dimensions of the bounding box around each element. Holes: The approximate size of the elements around

openings.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Analysis and Design

Property
Area start number Simple area (ignore cuts etc) Smallest hole size to consider Supported

Description Defines the start number for the plate. For more information see Defining numbering series. Select Yes to create a simpler analysis model of plates, where cuts and openings are not considered. Use to ignore small openings in plates in the analysis. Enter the size of the bounding box around the opening. Use to define supports for plates and beams. You can create supports for the bottom edge of a wall, for all edge nodes of a slab, or for all nodes of a beam. For walls the bottom edge can be inclined. The options are:


Rigid diaphragm properties

Simply: only translations are fixed Fully: both translations and rotations are fixed

Defines the filter used when filtering objects for rigid diaphragms.

3.2 Analysis model properties


This section explains the properties that Tekla Structures uses to create analysis members and analyze them. These properties apply to all members in an analysis model. Tekla Structures also takes into account the individual analysis properties defined in the parts properties. See Determining member properties (p. 11).
Defining analysis model properties

To set the properties for a new analysis model: 1. 2. 1. 2. 3. Click Analysis > Analysis & Design Models.... Click New.... Click Analysis > Analysis & Design Models.... Select the model. Click Properties....

To view or modify the properties of an existing analysis model:

Analysis application

Tekla Structures links with a number of analysis applications and also supports export with them in several formats. The analysis application you use to run structural analysis uses data from the analysis model to generate analysis results. Each analysis model must have a unique name, which you can define. For example, you could use a name that describes the portion of the physical model you want to analyze. Objects in an analysis model (p. 60) Member axis (p. 61) Member end connectivity (p. 62) Model merging with analysis applications (p. 62) Analysis method (p. 62) Seismic analysis (p. 63) Modal analysis (p. 64) Design codes and methods (p. 65)

Model name

Topics

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Contents of STAAD.Pro results files and reports (p. 65)

Objects in an analysis model


You can define which objects to include in an analysis model. For example, you can create analysis models of:


Creation method

The entire physical and load models A particular sub structure under a specific loading A single part

To define which objects to include in an analysis model, open the Analysis Model Properties dialog box. On the Analysis model tab, select an option from the Creation method list box. The options are:

Option
Full model

Description Includes all main parts and loads, except for parts whose analysis type is set to Ignore on the Analysis tab of part dialog box. Tekla Structures automatically adds physical objects to the analysis model when they are created. Includes all the main parts and loads that are inside or partly inside the work area when you create the analysis model. Only includes selected parts. Only includes selected parts and loads, and parts created by components. To later add or remove parts and loads, use the following buttons in the Analysis & Design Models dialog box:

By work area

By selected parts By selected parts and loads


Floor model by selected parts and loads

Add selected objects Remove selected objects

Only includes selected columns, slabs, floor beams, and loads. Tekla Structures replaces columns in the physical model with supports.

Tekla Structures ignores some objects in the analysis. See A closer look at the analysis model (p. 26). Even if you select Full model, Tekla Structures does not include parts created by most components in the analysis model. The following components set the analysis properties of the parts they create, so these parts are included in the analysis model:

Truss (S78) Shed (S75) Building (S58) and (S91) Slab generation (61) and (62)

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Analysis and Design

When you create an analysis model using the Full model option, the number of objects in the Analysis & Design Models dialog box changes only when you update the analysis model.

See also

Analysis model filter (p. 61)

Analysis model filter


To use the analysis model filter to select objects to include in an analysis model, select a filter from the Filter list box on the Analysis model tab in the Analysis Model Properties dialog box. The analysis model filter works in similar way to the selection filter (see Filtering objects using a selection filter), but Tekla Structures saves the settings with the analysis model properties. So you can go back and check the criteria you used to select objects. Tekla Structures automatically adds new objects you create in the physical model to the analysis model if they fulfill the criteria in the analysis model filter.

Use the analysis model filter to filter out non-structural parts, such as railings, from the analysis model.

See also

To add individual objects to an analysis model, or to remove them, see Adding or removing analysis objects (p. 72). To check which objects are included in an analysis model, see Checking objects contained in an analysis model (p. 71). Analysis model properties (p. 59) Working with analysis and design models (p. 71)

Member axis
The locations of the member axes of parts define where the analysis members actually meet, and their length in the analysis model. They also affect where Tekla Structures creates nodes. To define member axis locations for all members in an analysis model, open the Analysis Model Properties dialog box. On the Analysis model tab, select an option from the Member axis location list box. The options are:

Option
Neutral axis

Description The neutral axis is the member axis for all parts. The location of the member axis changes if the profile of the part changes. The part reference line is the member axis for all parts. See also Part handles. The part reference line is the member axis for all parts. The location of the neutral axis defines axis eccentricity. The member axis of each part is defined individually according to the parts properties. See Member position (p. 20).

Reference axis Reference axis (eccentricity by neutral axis) Model default

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61

If you select the Neutral axis option, Tekla Structures takes the part location and end offsets into account when it creates nodes. See End offsets. If you select either of the Reference axis options, Tekla Structures creates nodes at part reference points.
See also

Analysis model properties (p. 59)

Member end connectivity


You can choose to define the support conditions of individual analysis members according to the parts properties, or the support conditions of connections between parts. See Support conditions (p. 14). To have Tekla Structures use the support conditions of connections: 1. 2. For each connection or detail, open the properties dialog box. On the Analysis tab, select Yes in the Use analysis restraints list box. See Analysis properties of components (p. 22). Open the Analysis Model Properties dialog box for an analysis model. On the Analysis model tab, select Yes in the Member end release method by connection list box.

Select No in the Member end release method by connection list box to have Tekla Structures use the support conditions of individual parts.
See also

Analysis model properties (p. 59)

Model merging with analysis applications


Updating changes

You can merge analysis models with some analysis applications, which means that existing models in Tekla Structures analysis models can be updated when changes occur in the remote A&D application. To use model merging, select Enabled in the Model merging with analysis applications list box in the Analysis Model Properties dialog box. In analysis applications that support model merging, you can, for example, add special loads to analysis models, in addition to the loads created in Tekla Structures, then make changes in Tekla Structures, and still keep the model in the analysis application up to date.

Keeping node and member numbers

With all analysis applications, model merging helps in keeping the node and member numbers unchanged when changes occur in the analysis model.

Node numbers are kept if the node coordinates stay the same. Member numbers are kept if the start and end node numbers stay the same. Old numbers are not re-used.

Resetting models

To renumber nodes and members, or to remove a Tekla Structures analysis model from an analysis application, click the Reset button next the Model merging with analysis applications list box in the Analysis Model Properties dialog box.

Analysis method
To define the analysis method for the model, open the Analysis Model Properties dialog box. On the Analysis tab, select an option from the Analysis method list box. The options are:

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Analysis and Design

Option
1st order P-delta Non-linear

Description Linear analysis method. A simplified second order analysis method. This method gives accurate results when deflections are small. Non-linear analysis method

If you select P-delta, Tekla Structures takes into account the additional stresses induced by the deflections of the structure. This leads to the iteration of deflection.
Iteration

The accuracy of the second order analysis depends on the number of iterations; the longer the iteration goes on, the more accurate the analysis. Increasing the number of iterations also increases processing time and analysis model size. To limit the number of iterations in second order analysis, enter a value in the Maximum number of iterations field. You can also set the accuracy, which is the relative tolerance used to control the iteration of deflection. Iteration stops when the analysis reaches the accuracy or the maximum number of iterations you define on the Analysis tab.

See also

Analysis model properties (p. 59)

Seismic analysis
Type

To define which building code to use to generate seismic loads, use the Seismic tab in the Analysis Model Properties dialog box. You can create lateral seismic loads in the x and y directions according to several codes using a static equivalent approach (z is the direction of the gravity loads). Select one of the following options in the Type list box:

Option
None UBC 1997 UBC 1994 IBC 2000 IS 1893-2002 IBC 2003 IBC 2006 IBC 2006 (ZIP) IBC 2006 (Longitude/ Latitude) AIJ Response spectrum Properties

Description Seismic analysis not run. Uniform Building Code 1997 Uniform Building Code 1994 International Building Code 2000 Indian Standard. Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures International Building Code 2003 International Building Code 2006 International Building Code 2006, with an option to add a ZIP code in the properties. International Building Code 2006, with an option to add longitude and latitude information in the properties. Japanese code Response spectrum specification

Depending on the code you select, you can define some or all of the following:

Whether to calculate the accidental torsion Seismic zone coefficient (Zone) Importance factor Numerical coefficients Rw for the lateral loads in x and y directions Soil profile type

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63


Seismic loads

Soil factor Site class SDS, SD1, S1 Near source factors NA and NV CT value to calculate time period Periods of structure (in seconds) in the x and y directions Response reduction factor Type of structure Damping ratio Depth of foundation below ground level

Use the Seismic masses tab in the Analysis Model Properties dialog box to define the load groups and load group factors to include in the seismic analysis.
seismic mass check box.

To include the self-weight of parts in the seismic analysis, select the Include self-weight as

modal analysis masses button.

To use the same load groups from the modal analysis in the seismic analysis, click the Copy To move load groups between the Selected load groups and Not selected load groups lists, select a load group and use the arrow buttons between the lists.

See also

Analysis model properties (p. 59)

Modal analysis
To use modal analysis properties (resonant frequency and the associated pattern of structural deformation called mode shapes) instead of static load combinations: 1. 2. Open the Analysis Model Properties dialog box. Select Yes in the Modal analysis model list on the Analysis tab. This forces Tekla Structures to ignore static load combinations. On the Modal analysis tab, define the following properties: Description The number of natural mode shapes in the structure. The maximum natural resonant frequency of the structure. Select check boxes to indicate the directions for which Tekla Structures includes the self-weight of parts in the modal analysis. Select to include the same load groups in the modal analysis as in the seismic analysis.

Property
Count of modes Max frequency Include self-weight

Copy seismic masses

3. 4.

To move load groups between the Selected load groups and Not selected load groups lists, select a load group and use the arrow buttons between the lists. For each load group, enter a load factor and set the mass direction, the options are:


See also

XYZ to include the load in all three directions. Model default to include the load only in the direction of the load.

Analysis model properties (p. 59)

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Analysis and Design

Design codes and methods


Use the Design tabs in the Analysis Model Properties dialog box to define the code and method to use in structural design. The design options available vary depending on the material. The design code options available vary depending on the analysis application you use. The design method options of different materials are:

Option
None

Description Tekla Structures only runs a structural analysis and creates data on stresses, forces, and displacements. Tekla Structures checks whether the structures fulfill the criteria in the design code (i.e. whether cross sections are adequate). Tekla Structures defines the required area of reinforcement.

Material Steel Concrete Timber Steel Timber Concrete

Check design

Calculate required area

Design properties
When you select a design code and method for a material, Tekla Structures lists the design properties in the lower part of the Design tab in the Analysis Model Properties dialog box. Click on an entry in the Value column to change the value of a particular property. To change the design properties of specific parts, use the Design tab in the appropriate part properties dialog box. See Design information (p. 19).
See also

Analysis model properties (p. 59)

Contents of STAAD.Pro results files and reports


If STAAD.Pro is the analysis application you use, you can define the contents of the analysis results files and reports in the Analysis Model Properties dialog box in Tekla Structures. Use the Output tab to define the contents of the analysis results files. Use the Job tab to define the contents of the STAAD.Pro reports. The properties you can include in reports are:

Property
Name Client Number Part Reference Comment Engineer Checker Approved

Field in STAAD.Pro reports


Job title, Client, Job Number, Part, and Reference fields in the report header

(displayed on each page).

Comments field in Job information item in the

report.
Engineer and Checker names appear in the report header and in the Job information field.

Acceptor name, appears in the Job information field.

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3.3 Load combination


Introduction

Load combination is a process in which some simultaneously acting load groups are multiplied by their partial safety factors and combined with each other according to specific rules. Load combination rules are specific to a design process and are defined in building codes. One of the most typical design processes is the limit state design. The result of the load combination process is a load combination. You can have Tekla Structures automatically create load combinations, or you can create and modify them manually.

Topics

Load combination properties (p. 66) Load combination factors (p. 66) Load combination types (p. 67) Creating load combinations (p. 68) Automatic load combination (p. 69) Automatically including loads in combinations (p. 70) Manual load combination (p. 70)

Load combination properties


Load combination properties define how Tekla Structures combines loads. The following properties control the load combination process:


Name and ID

Load modeling code (p. 29) Load combination factors (p. 66) Load combination types (p. 67) Load group compatibility (p. 33)

Each load combination must have a unique name. Use names that describe the load situation. Each load combination has an ID. This is an incremental number, based on order in which load combinations are created in the analysis model.

See also

Creating load combinations (p. 68)

Load combination factors


You can use values for load combination factors that are building-code specific or user-defined. To use building-code specific factors, click Tools > Options > Options... > Load modeling. On the Current code tab, select an option from the Load modeling code list box. See Load modeling code (p. 29). If you change any values on the code-specific tabs, save the properties using a new name. To do this, enter a name in the field next to the Save as button and click the Save as button.

You should not need to change these settings during the project. If you have to, you will also need to change the load group types and check load combinations.

Partial safety factors

The partial safety factors needed in the limit state design appear on the code-specific tabs. They are:

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Analysis and Design


Reduction factors

Unfavorable partial safety factor in the ultimate limit state (sup) Favorable partial safety factor in the ultimate limit state (inf) Unfavorable partial safety factor in the serviceability limit state (sup) Favorable partial safety factor in the serviceability limit state (inf)

Depending on the codes you use, you may need to use other combination factors. For example, the Eurocode contains three reduction factors (0, 1, 2). Reduction factors exclude the impractical effects of simultaneous loads. Creating load combinations (p. 68)

See also

Load combination types


You can perform several types of load combination, which vary according to the building code you use. The options are:

Combination type
Load groups (LG)

Description Each load group forms a load combination. All partial safety factors equal 1.00. Combines load groups that occur persistently and transiently. Uses the partial safety factors of the ultimate limit state when combining loads. Combines load groups that occur quasi-permanently and rarely. Uses the partial safety factors of the serviceability limit state when combining loads. Combines load groups that occur quasi-permanently. Uses the partial safety factors of the serviceability limit state when combining loads. Combines load groups that occur quasi-permanently. Uses the partial safety factors of the serviceability limit state when combining loads. Combines load groups and uses factors according to the French codes CM66 or BAEL91.

Applies to All codes

Ultimate limit state

(ULS)

Eurocode, British, AISC

Serviceability limit state Rare (SLS RC)

Eurocode

Serviceability limit state Quasi-permanent (SLS

Eurocode

QP)
Serviceability limit state

(SLS)

AISC

Normal loads Extreme loads Displacement loads Accidental loads Ultimate loads Ultimate accidental loads Earthquake loads

CM66, BAEL91 CM66 CM66 CM66 BAEL91 BAEL91

Combines load groups and uses factors according to the Eurocode.

Eurocode

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67

Combination type
Loads for public structures Loads for public structures with drifted snow Loads for non public structures Loads for non public structures with drifted snow Loads for public non concrete and masonry structures Loads for public non concrete and masonry structures with drifted snow Loads for non concrete and masonry structures Loads for non concrete and masonry structures with drifted snow Loads for public concrete and masonry structures Loads for public concrete and masonry structures with drifted snow Loads for concrete and masonry structures Loads for concrete and masonry structures with drifted snow ACI Table 1 - ACI Table 8

Description Combines load groups according to the US IBC code (International Building Code)

Applies to IBC (US) IBC (US)

IBC (US) IBC (US)

Combines load groups according to the US UBC code (Uniform Building Code)

UBC (US)

UBC (US)

UBC (US) UBC (US)

UBC (US)

UBC (US)

UBC (US) UBC (US)

Combines load groups according to the ACI code (American Concrete Institutions publication 318)

ACI

Use the Load Combination Generation dialog box to define the load combination type.
See also

Creating load combinations (p. 68) Load modeling code (p. 29) Automatically including loads in combinations (p. 70)

Creating load combinations


To create load combinations: 1. 2. Click Analysis > Analysis & Design Models.... In the Analysis & Design Models dialog box, select an analysis model and click Load combinations... to open the Load Combinations dialog box. This lists the existing load combinations, together with their ID, name, type, and the load groups they contain.

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Use the buttons in the Load Combinations dialog box to carry out various tasks. The buttons are:

Button
New...

Description Displays the Load Combination Coefficients dialog box, where you manually create load combinations. See Manual load combination (p. 70). Automatically generates load combinations based on the code and factors in Tools > Options > Options... > Load modeling. See Automatic load combination (p. 69). Deletes the selected load combination. Deletes all load combinations.

Generate...

Remove Remove all

Use the Save as and Load buttons to copy load combinations between analysis models.

Automatic load combination


To automatically create load combinations: 1. 2. 3. 4. In the Load Combinations dialog box, click Generate... to open the Load Combination Generation dialog box. In the upper part of the dialog box, select the check boxes against the combinations you want to create. See Load combination types (p. 67). To automatically include the self-weight of parts, select the appropriate check box in the lower part of the dialog box. See Automatically including loads in combinations (p. 70). Click Apply or OK.

Tekla Structures creates the load combinations for different load groups and limit states according to the load modeling code you select, and uses the combination factors defined in Tools > Options > Options... > Load modeling. See also Creating load combinations (p. 68) and Manual load combination (p. 70).

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Automatically including loads in combinations


You can automatically include various loads in load combinations. To do this, select the appropriate check boxes in the Load Combination Generation dialog box. The options are:

Check box
Include self-weight

Description Automatically includes the selfweight of parts in load combinations. This means that you do not have to model selfweight loads separately. See Automatic loads and load groups (p. 32). Can be used to reduce the amount of load combinations when minimum permanent loading only needs to be considered in lateral loading situations.

Applies to All codes

Minimum permanent load with lateral loads only

Eurocode

To automatically include seismic loads in load combinations, use the Seismic and Seismic masses tabs in the Analysis Model Properties dialog box. See also Seismic analysis (p. 63).

If the analysis model has imperfection loads, Tekla Structures automatically creates load combinations with both the positive and negative directions (x and -x, or y and -y).

See also

Creating load combinations (p. 68) Load modeling code (p. 29) Load combination types (p. 67)

Manual load combination


To create load combinations manually: 1. In the Load Combinations dialog box, click New... to open the Load Combination Coefficients dialog box.

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2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Select a combination type. See Load combination types (p. 67). Enter a unique name for the load combination. Try to make the name as descriptive as possible. Use the arrow buttons to move load groups between the Loads available list and the Combinations table. Modify the combination factors in the Combinations table by clicking a value. Click Apply or OK.

See also Creating load combinations (p. 68) and Automatic load combination (p. 69).

3.4 Working with analysis and design models


& Design Models... and use the Analysis & Design Models dialog box. Topics

This section explains how to examine and modify analysis models. Click Analysis > Analysis Checking objects contained in an analysis model (p. 71) Adding or removing analysis objects (p. 72) Viewing analysis results (p. 72) Exporting an analysis model (p. 72) Copying an analysis model (p. 73) Copying an analysis part (p. 73)

See also

Creating load combinations (p. 68) Analysis > Analysis & Design Models... (p. 74)

Checking objects contained in an analysis model


To check which parts and loads an analysis model contains: 1. 2. 3. Click Analysis > Analysis & Design Models.... In the Analysis & Design Models dialog box, select a model. Click the Select objects button. Tekla Structures highlights and selects the parts and loads in the physical model.

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Adding or removing analysis objects


As well as changing the properties of an analysis model, you can also modify existing analysis models by adding and removing objects. To add or remove parts and loads: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. In the physical model, select the parts and loads to add or remove. Click Analysis > Analysis & Design Models.... In the Analysis & Design Models dialog box, select a model. To add the objects to the analysis model, click Add selected objects (p. 81). To remove the objects from the analysis model, click Remove selected objects (p. 81).

Viewing analysis results


Once you have exported the analysis model, you can view the results. For information on analysis results, see Get results (p. 82) and Analysis > Analysis & Design Models... (p. 74). So that you can perform a visual check, you can have Tekla Structures use different colors to show the utilization ratio of steel parts in the physical model. To do this: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Export the analysis model. Click Analysis > Analysis & Design Models.... In the Analysis & Design Models dialog box, select an analysis model. In the model, click View > Representation > Object Representation.... In the Object Representation dialog box, select the object group whose utilization ratios you want to show. In the Color column, select Color by analysis utility check.... In the Utility Ratio Ranges dialog box, set the ranges of ratio for each of the colors that Tekla Structures uses to show safe and unsafe parts. Click OK. Tekla Structures shows the utilization ratio of the steel parts in the selected analysis model using the following colors:

To show the utilization ratio of steel parts in a report, add the AD$$UtilityRatio template field in the report template you use.

Exporting an analysis model


When you export an analysis model, Tekla Structures runs structural analysis and exports the analysis model into a folder. The export folder is the model folder by default. To export an analysis model: 1. 2. 3. Optional: Define the export folder in the Analysis Model Properties dialog box. Click Analysis > Analysis & Design Models.... In the Analysis & Design Models dialog box, select a model.

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4.
See also

Click Export.

Analysis model properties (p. 59)

Copying an analysis model


You can create copies of existing analysis models. You can then use the copies, for example, to create multiple calculations with different settings. To copy an analysis model: 1. 2. 3.
See also

Click Analysis > Analysis & Design Models... Select an analysis model in the Analysis & Design Models dialog box. Click Copy.

Analysis > Analysis & Design Models... (p. 74)

Copying an analysis part


You can create copies of existing parts together with the applied analysis properties and node offsets. You can then use the copies, for example, to create multiple calculations with different settings. Before you start, ensure that you have an analysis model selected in the Analysis & Design models dialog box. To copy an analysis part: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the physical part. Click Edit > Copy, or right-click and select Copy from the pop-up menu. Pick the origin for copying. Pick one or more destination points. Tekla Structures creates a physical part and an analysis part with identical settings to the original. To stop copying, click Edit > Interrupt.

5.
See also

Copying an object

3.5 Analysis and design reference


This section consists of the reference pages for the analysis and design commands. Use the commands on the Analysis menu to work with analysis and design models. The following table lists the analysis and design commands and gives a short description of each one.

Command Analysis > Analysis & Design Models... (p. 74)

Icon

Description Displays the Analysis & Design models dialog box so that you can work with analysis and design models. Creates nodes to analysis members.

Create Node (p. 75)

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Command Create Rigid Link (p. 76) Merge Selected Nodes (p. 76) Reset Editing Of Selected Parts (p. 83)

Icon

Description Creates rigid links between nodes. Merges nodes that are located close to each other. Resets the selected parts to the default analysis settings. All manual adjustments and editing are removed.

Analysis > Analysis & Design Models...


Synopsis

This command displays the Analysis & Design Models dialog box so that you can work with the analysis and design models. The Analysis & Design Models dialog box lists all existing analysis and design models. Use this dialog box to view, add, modify, export, update, and delete analysis and design models. The properties in the dialog box are:

Description

Column
Analysis model name Analysis application Creation method Number of parts

Description A unique name for the analysis model. User-definable. The analysis application or format used in the analysis of the analysis model. Defines which objects are included in the analysis model. The number of physical parts included in the analysis model.

More information Analysis model properties (p. 59) Analysis application (p. 9) Objects in an analysis model (p. 60) Members, bars and area objects (p. 10)

When you create an analysis model using the Full model option, the number of objects in the Analysis & Design Models dialog box changes only when you update the analysis model.

Usage

The following table explains the functions of the buttons in the Analysis & Design Models dialog box:

Button
New...

Description Displays the Analysis Model Properties dialog box so that you can create new analysis models. See New... (p. 77). Creates a copy of the selected analysis model. Deletes the selected analysis model. Displays the properties of the selected analysis model. See Analysis model properties (p. 59).

Copy Delete Properties...

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Analysis and Design

Button
Select objects

Description Highlights and selects the parts and loads that are included in the analysis model in the physical model. See also Checking objects contained in an analysis model (p. 71). Displays warnings on errors that occurred during analysis model creation. Adds the parts and loads that are selected in the physical model to the selected analysis model. See Add selected objects (p. 81). Removes the parts and loads that are selected in the physical model from the selected analysis model. See Remove selected objects (p. 81). Displays the load combinations in the selected analysis model. Also use to create new load combinations. See Load combinations... (p. 81). Updates the information on the analysis model list. Reconstructs the whole model. Exports the model to the analysis application. Starts the analysis application and opens the selected analysis model in it. Use to exit the analysis application. Saves the maximum axial force, shear force, and bending moment at the part ends as user-defined attributes in the part properties. To view these results, open a parts user-defined attributes dialog box. See Get results (p. 82). Same as Get results but only saves results for the selected parts. Closes the Analysis & Design Models dialog box.

Display warnings Add selected objects Remove selected objects Load combinations... Refresh Rebuild Export Open application Close application Get results

Get results for selected Close See also

Working with analysis and design models (p. 71)

Create Node
Synopsis

Creates nodes to analysis members. To create a node: 1. 2. Click Analysis > Create Node. Pick the location where you want to add the node. The nodes are not moved along with the part when the part is moved.

See also

Nodes and rigid links (p. 10)

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Create Rigid Link


Synopsis

Creates rigid links between nodes. To create a rigid link: 1. 2. 3. Click Analysis > Create Rigid Link. Pick the start point for the rigid link. Pick the end point for the rigid link.

See also

Nodes and rigid links (p. 10)

Merge Selected Nodes


You can merge nodes that are located close to each other. To merge nodes: 1. Select the nodes you want to merge in the model.

2.

Click Analysis > Merge Selected Nodes. If the analysis part option Keep axis position always is set to Yes, Tekla Structures prompts you to set it to No. Accept the change by clicking Set keep axis as No. Pick the location which you want the nodes to be merged to.

3.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Analysis and Design

When you do this, Tekla Structures merges the nodes into a single node and extends the analysis parts accordingly.

See also

Create Node (p. 75)

New...
Synopsis

This command displays the Analysis Model Properties dialog box and creates a new analysis model. Create the physical and load models. Define the support conditions for parts and connections.

Preconditions

Description

Tekla Structures creates the analysis model using the properties in the Analysis Model
Properties dialog box.

To automatically include all the objects in the physical and load models in the analysis model, use the Full model creation option. To create an analysis model for specific parts and loads, select the objects to include in the model, or fit the work area to include them.

Field/Tab/ Button
Analysis model name Creation method

Description A unique name for the analysis model. User-definable. Defines which objects are included in the analysis model.

More information Analysis model properties (p. 59) Objects in an analysis model (p. 60) Analysis model filter (p. 61)

Filter

Defines which objects to include in the analysis model, based on the list of available select filters.

Filtering objects

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Field/Tab/ Button
Secondary member filter

Description Defines which of the included objects are considered to be secondary analysis members. The nodes of secondary analysis memberscan move more freely than the ones of primary analysis members. The analysis application or format used in the analysis of the analysis model. To use the same application or format by default for other new analysis models, select the Set as the default check box.

More information Filtering objects

Analysis application

Analysis application (p. 9)

Auto-detect secondary members

Defines whether Tekla Structures recognizes automatically for example skewed members as secondary parts. Defines whether the axis is free to move. Member position (p. 20)

Default keep axis for secondary members Analysis model rules...

Creates rules to define how Tekla Structures handles individual parts when it creates analysis models, and how parts are connected with each other in the analysis. Defines whether a beam is analyzed as a curved beam or as straight segments. Select either:

Creating analysis model rules (p. 80)

Curved beams

Use curved member Split into straight segments

Use the advanced option XS_AD_CURVED_BEAM_SP LIT_ACCURACY_MM in


Tools > Options > Advanced Options... > Analysis & design

to define how closely straight segments follow the curved beam.


Consider twin profiles Member axis location Member end release method by connection

Defines whether twin profiles are taken into account in the analysis. Defines which line is used as the axis of each analysis member. Defines whether the support conditions of connections or parts are used. Member axis (p. 61) Member end connectivity (p. 62)

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Analysis and Design

Field/Tab/ Button
Automatic update

Description Defines if the analysis model is updated according to the changes in the physical model. The options are:

More information


Model merging with analysis application

Yes - Physical model changes are considered No - Physical model changes are ignored

When changes occur in the analysis model, defines whether:

The node and member numbers are kept unchanged. The model in the analysis application is updated.

Model merging with analysis applications (p. 62)

Analysis method Maximum iterations Accuracy of the iteration Modal analysis model check

Defines whether second order stresses are taken into consideration. Tekla Structures repeats second order iteration until it reaches one of these values. Defines whether modal analysis properties are used instead of static load combinations. Defines the job information in reports. Defines the contents of the analysis results file. Properties required by seismic analysis. Properties required by modal analysis. Design codes for different materials. The material-specific principle used to compare stresses and material capacities.

Analysis method (p. 62)

Modal analysis (p. 64) Contents of STAAD.Pro results files and reports (p. 65) Seismic analysis (p. 63) Modal analysis (p. 64) Design codes and methods (p. 65)

box
Job Output Seismic tab Seismic masses tab Modal analysis

tab
Design code Design method

Usage

Click Analysis > Analysis & Design Model... to open the Analysis & Design Models dialog box. To create a new analysis model of the entire physical and load models: 1. 2. 3. 4. Click New.... In the Creation method list box, select Full model. Enter or modify the remaining analysis model properties. Click OK.

To create a new analysis model for specific parts and loads:

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
See also

Select the objects you want to include in the analysis model, or fit the work area to include them. Click New.... In the Creation method list box, select By work area, By selected parts, By selected parts and loads, or Floor model by selected parts and loads. Enter or modify the remaining analysis model properties. Click OK.

Analysis > Analysis & Design Models... (p. 74) Working with analysis and design models (p. 71)

Creating analysis model rules


You can create rules to define how Tekla Structures handles individual parts when it creates analysis models, and how parts are connected with each other in the analysis.
Preconditions Usage

Create the physical parts and define their individual analysis properties if needed. To create analysis model rules: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Click the Analysis model rules... button in the Analysis Model Properties dialog box. Click Add to add rules to define how two groups of parts are connected with each other in the analysis. In the Selection filter 1 column, select a filter to define the first part group. In the Selection filter 2 column, select a filter to define the second part group. In the Status column: Select Disabled to prevent connections between the part groups. In the Linkage column, select an option:

Option (blank)
Merge Rigid link Rigid link, moment release at node 1 Rigid link, moment release at node 2 Rigid link, moment release at both nodes

Description Merges nodes or creates a rigid links. Always merges nodes when parts matching the selection filter 1 connect with parts matching the selection filter 2. Creates a rigid link when parts matching the selection filter 1 connect with parts matching the selection filter 2. Creates a rigid link and a moment release at the nodes of parts matching the selection filter 1. Creates a rigid link and a moment release at the nodes of parts matching the selection filter 2. Creates a rigid link and moment releases at the nodes of parts matching the selection filters 1 and 2.

To work with the rules:


1.

Click Move up or Move down to change the order of rules. Click Selection filter... to create a new selection filter that suits your needs. Click Test selected part or Test selected parts to see how rules affect the parts selected in the model. Click Remove to delete the selected rules. To save the analysis model rules for later use, enter a name in the field next to the Save as button, and then click Save as.

To save the settings:

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Analysis and Design

The filename extension of an analysis model rules file is adrules. 2.


See also

Click OK to save the rules and close the Analysis Model Rules dialog box.

Filtering objects

Add selected objects


Synopsis Preconditions Description

This command adds parts and loads to the selected analysis model. Create an analysis model. Use this command when you have created analysis models using the By selected parts or By selected parts and loads method. 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Analysis > Analysis & Design Models.... Select the analysis model you want to add objects to. Select the objects to add. Click Add selected objects.

Usage

See also

Remove selected objects (p. 81) Adding or removing analysis objects (p. 72)

Remove selected objects


Synopsis Preconditions Description

This command removes parts and loads from the selected analysis model. Create an analysis model. Use this command when you have created analysis models using the By selected parts or By selected parts and loads method. 1. 2. 3. 4. Click Analysis > Analysis & Design Models.... Select the analysis model you want to remove objects from. Select the objects to remove. Click Remove selected objects.

Usage

See also

Add selected objects (p. 81) Adding or removing analysis objects (p. 72)

Load combinations...
Synopsis

This command opens the Load Combinations dialog box so that you can work with load combinations. Set the code to follow in load combination in Tools > Options > Options... > Load modeling
> Current code.

Preconditions

Create an analysis model.


Description Usage

To create load combinations: 1. Click Analysis > Analysis & Design Models....

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2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

In the Analysis & Design Models dialog box, select an analysis model and click Load combinations.... In the Load Combinations dialog box, click Generate... to open the Load Combination Generation dialog box. Select the check boxes against the combinations you want to create. See Load combination types (p. 67). To automatically include the self-weight of parts, select the appropriate check box. See Automatically including loads in combinations (p. 70). Click Apply or OK. Tekla Structures creates the load combinations based on the selected building code.

To create your own load combinations and use combination factors that are not code-specific, click the New... button in the Load Combinations dialog box. See Manual load combination (p. 70).

See also

Creating load combinations (p. 68) Load combination (p. 66)

Get results
Synopsis

The Get results and Get results for selected commands save the maximum axial force, shear force, and bending moment at the part ends as user-defined attributes in the part properties. When you click Get results or Get results for selected and then save the model, Tekla Structures saves the analysis results of all load combinations in a database, analysis_results.db5, in the current model folder.

Preconditions

Use the following advanced options in Tools > Options > Advanced Options... > Analysis & Design to define the analysis member points whose results are saved in the database:


Description

XS_AD_MEMBER_RESULT_DIVISION_COUNT XS_AD_MEMBER_RESULT_DISP_DIVISION_COUNT XS_AD_MEMBER_RESULT_MIN_DISTANCE XS_AD_MEMBER_RESULT_GRID_SIZE

Run the analysis.

Command
Get results

Icon

Description Saves the results for each part in the selected analysis model. Saves the results for the parts that you select in the physical model.

Get results for selected

To view the results, open the user-defined attributes dialog box for the part. To access the analysis results database, use the .NET or Excel design interface. If you do not want to create the analysis results database, set XS_AD_RESULT_DATABASE_ENABLED to FALSE in Tools > Options > Advanced Options... > Analysis & Design.
Usage

To save the results of an analysis model as user-defined attributes: 1. Click Analysis > Analysis & Design Models....

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TEKLA STRUCTURES 17 Analysis and Design

2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4.
See also

Select the analysis model. Click Get results. Click Analysis > Analysis & Design Models.... Select the analysis model. Select the parts in the physical model. Click Get results for selected.

To save the analysis results of specific parts in an analysis model as user-defined attributes:

Viewing analysis results (p. 72)

Reset Editing Of Selected Parts


Synopsis

Resets the selected parts to the default analysis settings. All manual adjustments and editing are removed. Use this command if you want to undo the modifications to the selected analysis parts. 1. 2. Select the parts to reset. Click Analysis > Reset Editing Of Selected Parts.

Preconditions Usage

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Index
a
analysis and design additional information resources ........................... 30 overview ................................................................ 55 prior to ..................................................................... 9 analysis and design models ......................................... 74 analysis application ........................................................ 7 merging models..................................................... 62 analysis member offsets............................................... 21 analysis members properties ........................................................11, 24 analysis method .....................................................30, 62 analysis model rules..................................................... 80 analysis models.............................................................. 7 a closer look .......................................................... 26 adding or removing objects ................................... 72 checking objects.................................................... 71 copying.................................................................. 73 creating ...........................................................59, 77 creating rules......................................................... 80 exporting ............................................................... 72 filtering objects ...................................................... 61 modifying.........................................................59, 72 objects................................................................... 60 properties .............................................................. 59 resetting editing..................................................... 83 seismic loads......................................................... 63 viewing results....................................................... 72 analysis parts copying.................................................................. 73 properties .............................................................. 55 analysis settings ........................................................... 26 applying loads to parts ................................................. 40 area load ...................................................................... 49 area objects.................................................................. 10 attaching loads to parts......................................................... 39 automatic loads ............................................................ 32 in load combinations ............................................. 70 seismic loads......................................................... 63 self-weight ............................................................. 32 wind load ............................................................... 52

b
bars...............................................................................10 bounding box ................................................................40 buckling length..............................................................24

c
color by analysis class..................................................12 color by analysis utilization check.................................72 combination factors ......................................................66 combining loads............................................................66 common nodes .............................................................27 compatibility of load groups ..........................................33 components in analysis..............................................................22 slabs in analysis ....................................................23 composite beam ...........................................................18 copying analysis models.....................................................73 analysis parts ........................................................73 creating analysis models.............................................. 59, 77 load combinations .................................................68 loads......................................................................45 nodes.....................................................................75 rigid links ...............................................................76

d
defining load groups............................................................34 nodes.....................................................................26 support conditions .................................................15 degree of freedom ........................................................14 deleting load groups............................................................34 design codes and methods...........................................65 design information ........................................................19 distributing loads...........................................................39

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84

DOF see degree of freedom .......................................... 14

e
editing resetting ................................................................ 83 effective buckling length ............................................... 24 elements....................................................................... 10 exporting analysis model ...................................................... 72

f
filter in analysis models................................................. 61 filtering analysis model objects .......................................... 61 frame objects................................................................ 10

h
handles of loads.................................................................. 43

i
intermediate analysis members.................................... 24 intermediate nodes....................................................... 10 iteration......................................................................... 62

k
Kmode .......................................................................... 24

load combination ..........................................................66 automatic...............................................................69 code.......................................................................29 creating combinations ...........................................68 factors............................................................. 29, 66 manual...................................................................70 properties ..............................................................66 types......................................................................67 load forms.....................................................................37 load groups...................................................... 31, 32, 45 automatic...............................................................32 compatibility...........................................................33 defining..................................................................34 deleting..................................................................34 modifying ...............................................................34 properties ..............................................................33 load model ............................................................... 7, 31 load modeling code ......................................................29 load types .....................................................................36 loads ...................................................................... 31, 45 applying .................................................................40 attaching................................................................39 automatic...............................................................32 bounding box.........................................................40 combining ..............................................................66 creating..................................................................45 distribution .............................................................39 forms .....................................................................37 grouping ................................................................32 in analysis..............................................................28 load panel..............................................................41 magnitude..............................................................38 modifying ...............................................................42 properties ..............................................................35 scaling in model views...........................................43 seismic ..................................................................63 types......................................................................36 wind load generator...............................................52 longitudinal member offset ...........................................21

l
line load ........................................................................ 48

m
member analysis class .................................................12 member axis of all parts in analysis model .................................61 of individual parts ..................................................20 member end connectivity..............................................62 member end release method........................................62 member position ...........................................................20

TEKLA STRUCTURES 17

85

members.......................................................................10 keeping numbers ...................................................62 properties........................................................ 11, 24 merging models with analysis applications..........................62 nodes.....................................................................76 modal analysis ..............................................................64 modifying analysis models .............................................. 59, 72 load groups............................................................34 loads ......................................................................42

s
safety factors.................................................................66 scaling loads in model views..............................................43 seismic analysis ............................................................63 seismic loads ................................................................63 self-weight.....................................................................32 slabs components in analysis .........................................23 spanning of loads ..................................................................41 split nodes.....................................................................10 split position ..................................................................10 strain ...................................................................... 39, 51 support conditions.........................................................14 defining ..................................................................15 symbols..................................................................16

n
nodes ..................................................................... 10, 27 creating........................................................... 75, 76 defining ..................................................................26 keeping numbers ...................................................62 merging..................................................................76

p
partial safety factors......................................................66 parts analysis properties.................................................55 physical model ................................................................7 point load ......................................................................47

t
temperature load.................................................... 39, 51

u
uniform load ..................................................................50 utilization ratio ...............................................................72

r
reduction factors ...........................................................66 rigid links.......................................................................10

w
wind load generator ............................................... 44, 52

86

TEKLA STRUCTURES 17