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Zhou Hua, Yang Huayong The State Key Lab of Fluid Power Transmission and Control, Zhejiang University, 20# Yugu Road, Hangzhou, P.R. China; Olli Pohls Hytar Oy Water Hydraulics, Turjankatu 1 B, FIN-33100 Tampere, Finland

Water hydraulics is a new research area using filtered natural water or sea water as working medium in hydraulic systems instead of mineral oil with advantages of energy saving, fire resistance and no pollution. By the end of 1990s Zhejiang University decided to bring our state key laboratory to the very forefront of water hydraulics research by investing in a sophisticated and versatile test environment. The research objects, construction and control modes of the built Water Hydraulic Test Rig (WHTR) are introduced in this paper. Keywords: water hydraulic test rig, research objects, control modes, axial piston pump

water is the ultimate and most attempting choice. Industrys interest in modern water hydraulics has also led to a steadily growing number of tasks to research institutes and universities involved in water hydraulics. Industrys own investments in developing facilities for water hydraulics and founding of international associations and committees dedicated for promoting modern water hydraulics are worth mentioning in this context, too. In 1997, the State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power Transmission and Control (SKLOFP) of Zhejiang University decided to build a modern WHTR to test our own developed pumps and valves. We send out an inquiry to almost water hydraulics companies around the globe for the rig. Besides enabling study of basic physical phenomena the WHTR will also make it possible to develop water hydraulic components of our own. As the leading and most advanced North European water hydraulic systems engineering and manufacturing house Hytar Oy won the supplying contract, the heart of which is the by Hytar developed modern axial piston pump and motor capable of running even on sea water as the pressure media. Hence this writing tells about the modern WHTR, research objects, control modes and about the axial piston pump of Hytars.

For many decades water hydraulics has been used in applications where oil hydraulics has been ruled out because of its fire, explosion or product-spoiling risk. Well-known examples of these traditional application areas can be found e.g. from steel, mining, rubber or even offshore industry. Water hydraulics is also used in large fluid volume hydraulic systems such as press controls. However in afore-said applications pure water, or non-additive-containing water is rarely used as the pressure media, the vast majority of systems run on water-based fluids (HFA, HFB and HFC) of different kind instead. In 1990s industry throughout the world began to focus more and more in finding environment-friendly solutions for their processes and machinery. Since some form of hydraulics is today present at almost every machine, industry is very interested in substituting oil from hydraulic systems and, in that respect pure or tap



The following is research objects and subjects to be studied and researched with the aid of the water hydraulic test system [1]: Detection of performance and durability of water hydraulic pumps Testing of static and dynamic response of water hydraulic pumps

Supported by NSFC (No. 50005019 ) and '211' Engineering Fund of Education Ministry

Fig.1 WHTR 40.210-45 water hydraulic test rig

11 3 4 10m 1 2 8.1 100m 9.1 9.2 18 19 -1~9bar T 21 45Kw M 22 23



12 13

37 0~10bar 0~250bar 0~250bar 4~20mA 4~20mA 4~20mA 40 41.1 41.2 17 i/p T2 16 R1'' C P5 i/p P4 R1/4'' i/p P3 R1/4'' 36.1 36.2

5.1 6

3m 10m




500L 8.2 100m 9.3

7 Pmax=210bar Q0=100L/min n=750~1500rpm

R1/2'' R1/4''


33.4 31.1 33.2 27.1 30 27.2 28 10m 29 R1'' P1 32.1 R3/8'' B 33.1 R1'' P2 31.2 R1/2'' R1/4'' R1/4'' D 38 39.2 39.1 MP1 MP2 R1'' T1 R1/4'' 39.4 MPB 32.2 33.3 34 R3/8'' 31.3 35 A R1/4'' MPA 39.3


0~250bar 4~20mA 0~250bar 5.2 25 26 i/p


Fig.2 Circuit diagram of the WHTR

Obtaining of actual wear condition and wear particles of water hydraulic components Determination of cavitation characteristics of water hydraulic pumps and valves Study on typical velocity or force control system.

The WHTR (Fig.1) is an unique tailor-made test rig according to below technical specification: p = 21 MPa Q = 40 l/min (pump),100 l/min (nominal design flow of valves) P = 45 kW (electric motor 380 VAC 50 Hz) n = 750 to 1500 RPM (frequency converter driven electric motor) V = 500 litres (water tank) PR = 2 kW (water heater in tank) PC = 45 kW (plate heat exchanger type cooler in return line) fluid: tap water @ max. +45C versatile instrumentation with digital displays: torque (0-500 Nm) pump case bleed (DN 15 paddle wheel transmitter) return line flow (DN 40 paddle wheel transmitter) water temperature in tank (50+50C) water temperature in pressure line (-50+50C) 3 off high pressure (0-250 bar) pressure (0-10bar) vacuum pressure gauge-switch (-1 - +9 bar) high pressure gauge-switch (0-250 bar).

The WHTR is a stand-alone type unit that carries all hydraulic and electric components and instrumentation on its steel-fabricated frame. Circuit diagram of the WHTR is presented in Fig. 2 of this paper. High pressure piping and tank are manufactured of stainless steel. Following the practise of modern power hydraulics all high pressure control valves are mounted on/in a machined valve manifold allowing construction of a rather complex valve circuit in an utter dense package. Use of manifold technology is beneficial and ideal from the avoidance of pipe fitting spills and maintenance point of view. It also enables an easy and swift change between original control valves of the system and valves to be developed by the SKLOFP. The test system even includes an adapter and shaft coupling for rapid connection of SKLOFPs own test pump with minimum of effort. The WHTR is equipped with three filters: high pressure filter (10 m abs.), return line filter (10 m abs.) and tank-fill filter (10 m abs.). Furthermore below the tank can be found two inlet screens (80 MESH 177 m) for pump and a reserve tank outlet line. A stainless double acting cylinder ( 50/30-400) manufactured by Hytar Oy (Fig. 3) is also included in the scope of delivery to widen the research possibilities on the test system. Cylinder, pump and control valves of the test rig all present the latest state-of-the-art in the design and performance of modern water hydraulics, e.g. directional control valves utilise ceramic spool valve technology as well as well-proven seat technology.

Fig.3 Hytar cylinder ( 50/30-400)

All measurement signals (torque, flow rates, temperatures, pressures) with LED display can be hooked to computerised data acquisition system via the terminal blocks in the electric connection cabinet of the rigs. Furthermore the frequency converter ACS 600 of ABB Industry Oy used in the test system has its own display for rotational speed of pump. The frequency converter has a multiple choice of functions to be utilised upon users need: menu-programmable PID

control, up/down speed ramps, prevention of pump running dry or under vacuum etc. On/off control signals to the solenoid valves of the test rig come from the users control system or mere electric switches depending on the use or test set up of the test system. These on/off-signal cables are connected to the terminal blocks. The following describes the operation diagram and control mode and control signal connections for the PID control macro of the frequency converter. The PID control macro is used for controlling a process variable -

such as pressure or flow - by controlling the speed of the driven electric motor. The rotation speed, toque, delivery pressure and flow rate of the pump should be controlled by the PID control macro. Fig.4 is the schematic diagram of the PID control mode selection for the system's parameters. The process reference signal of the PID control macro is connected to analogue input AI1 and process feedback signal to analogue input AI2. Alternatively, a direct speed reference can be given to the ACS 600

through analogue input AI1. Then the PID controller is bypassed and the ACS 600 no longer controls the process variable. Selection between the direct speed control and the process variable control is done with digital input DI3. Two analogue and three relay output signals are available on terminal blocks. Default signals for the Actual Signal Display Mode of the Control Panel are SPEED, ACTUAL VALUE1, and CONTROL DEVIATION. Fig.5 is the operation diagram for the PID control macro.

P ,Q
Control Mode Selection


PID Control Macro

P ,Q n,T n,T

Frequency Converter

Shaft Coupling

Fig.4 Schematic diagram of the PID control mode selection for the system's parameters

Input Power






Actual value START/STOP(EXT1) START/STOP(EXT2) Speed/Process (EXT1/EXT2) Run Enable Const. Speed







Replay Outputs

EXT1(rpm)=Direct Speed Control EXT2(%) = Process PID Control

M 3~


Fig.5 Operation Diagram for the PID Control Macro


Besides the traditional application areas of water hydraulics Hytar Oy has always been most eager in seeking for non-traditional and new applications for modern water hydraulics or technology related to

handling of pressurised water. As a token of its commitment to promote and widen application possibilities of modern water hydraulics Hytar Oy developed a fixed displacement axial piston pump (Fig. 6, Table 1) which was later launched as an axial piston motor as well [2-4].

Fig.6 Hytar Axial Piston Pump (App) / Motor (Apm) Table 1 Hytar APP pumps Model Displacement Max speed Min speed Max output pressure Min inlet pressure Max inlet pressure Filtration Mounting position Max operating temperature Direction of rotation Weight APP20R 20 cm3 1800 rpm APP31R 31 cm3 1800 rpm APP40R 40 cm3 1500 rpm (1800 rpm with boosted inlet)

600 rpm 210 bar (3000 Psig) 210 bar (3000 Psig) 160 bar (2300 Psig) 1.1 bar abs. (16 Psia) 6.0 bar abs. (87 Psia) 10 m (abs.) Horizontal, pressure and bleed connection upwards 40C (100F) Clockwise (Counter clockwise upon request) 26 kg (57 lb)

Once fully commissioned during autumn 2000 the Water Hydraulic Test Rig has given the Zhejiang University a versatile tool to carry out comprehensive research of modern water hydraulics and to study physical phenomena of water itself and, to promote the use of environment-friendly technology in our region of world. Zhejiang University is grateful of Hytar Oy carrying out successfully the manufacture of the test rig. Both of these two departments wish that the WHTR help to build both scientific and human bridges between different cultures across the world.

[1] Hua Zhou, Huayong Yang. Diagnosis of Cavitation Inception in Water Hydraulic Piston Pump. The 6th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, May 26-28, 1999, Tampere, Finland. [2] Terv J., Kuikko T., Vilenius M. Development of Sea Water Hydraulic Power Pack. The 4th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, September 26-29, 1995, Tampere, Finland. [3] Pohls O., Rantanen O., Kuikko T. Sea Water Hydraulic Axial Piston Machine. The 6th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, May 26-28, 1999, Tampere, Finland. [4] Kuikko T., Ahola M. Sea Water Axial Piston Pump and Motor. International Workshop on Water Hydraulic Systems and Applications, September 3-4, Lyngby, Denmark.