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Wolverine Tube Inc.

wishes to express its appreciation to
Dr. K. J. Bell and Dr. A. C. Mueller
for authorship of this manual.

Acknowledgement is made in the text for
material which has been used
from other sources.

2001, electronic distribution
by Wolverine Tube, Inc.
Research and Development Team

1984, original paper distribution
by Wolverine Division of UOP Inc.
All rights reserved.


Chapter 1 Basic Heat Transfer
Section 1 Basic Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
Conduction 6
Single Phase Convection 8
Two Phase (Liquid-Gas/Vapor) Flow 11
Condensation 14
Vaporization 17
Radiation 19
Section 2 Basic Heat Exchanger Equations
The Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient 21
The Design Integral 23
Section 3 The Mean Temperature Difference
The Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) 25
Configuration Correction Factors on the LMTD 27
Section 4 Construction of Shell and Tube heat Exchangers
Why a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger? 32
Basic Components of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers 32
Provisions for Thermal Stress 35
Mechanical Stresses 37
The Vibration Problem 37
Erosion 38
Cost of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers 38
Allocation of Streams in a Shell and Tube Exchanger 39
Section 5 Application of Extended Surfaces to Heat Exchangers
The Concept of the Controlling Resistance 40
Types of Extended Surface 40
Fin Efficiencies and Related Concepts 41
The Fin Resistance Method 43
Some Applications of Finned Tubes 45

Section 6 Fouling in Heat Exchangers
Typical Fouling Resistances 45
Types of Fouling 45
Effect of Fouling on Heat Transfer 46
Materials Selection for Fouling Services 46
Removal of Fouling 47

Chapter 2 Sensible Heat Transfer
Section 1 Heat Exchangers with Low- and Medium-Finned Trufin
Areas of Application 58
Description of Low- and Medium-Finned Trufin 59
Section 2 Basic Equations for Heat Exchanger Design
The Basic Design Equation and Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient 60
Fin Efficiency and Fin Resistance 61
Mean Temperature Difference, F Factors 62
Section 3 Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop during Flow across Banks of Trufin Tubes
Heat Transfer In Trufin Tube Banks 72
Pressure Drop During Flow Across Banks of Low-Finned Trufin Tubes 74
Effect of Fouling on Trufin 76
Section 4 Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Inside Tubes
Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Single Phase Flow inside Round Tubes 77
Heat Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Inside Tubes 83
Section 5 Preliminary Design of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
Basic Principles of Design 85
Preliminary Design Decisions 86
Procedure for Approximate Size Estimation 89
Section 6 Delaware Method for Shell-Side Rating of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
Introduction 96
Calculation of Shell-Side Geometrical Parameters 97
Shell-Side Heat Transfer Coefficient Calculation 106
Shell-Side Pressure Drop Calculation 107

Section 7 Examples of Design Problems for Low- and Medium-Finned Trufin in
Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
Design of a Compressor After-cooler 116
Design of a Gas Oil to Crude Heat Recovery Exchanger 122

Chapter 3 Condensing Heat Transfer
Section 1 Trufin Tubes in Condensing Heat Transfer
Modes of Condensation 142
Areas of Application 142
Types of Tubes Available 143
Section 2 Condensation of Vapor inside High-Finned Trufin Tubes
Vapor-Liquid Two-Phase Flow 144
Condensation Heat Transfer 154
Mean Temperature Difference for In-Tube Condensation 162
Section 3 Condensation of Vapor outside Low- and Medium-Finned Trufin Tubes
Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers for Condensing Applications 166
The Basic Design Equations 172
Mean Temperature Difference 173
Condensation of a Superheated Vapor 173
Condensation with Integral Sub-cooling On the Shell-side 174
Film-wise Condensation on Plain and Trufin Tubes 178
Film-wise Condensation on Tube Banks 180
Pressure Drop during Shell-side Condensation 181
Section 4 Examples of Design Problems for Low- and Medium-Finned Trufin in Shell
and Tube Condensers
Condenser Design for a Pure Component: Example Problem 182
Condenser Design for a Multi-component Mixture: Example Problem 192

Chapter 4 Trufin Tubes in Air-cool Heat Exchangers
Section 1 Heat Exchangers with High-Finned Trufin Tubes
Areas of Application 208
High-Finned Trufin 209
Description of Equipment 210

Section 2 Heat Transfer with High-Finned Trufin Tubes
Fin Temperature Distribution and Fin Efficiency 215
Effect of Fouling on High-Finned Trufin 217
Contact Resistance in Bimetallic Tubes 218
Section 3 Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in High-Finned Trufin Tube Banks
Heat Transfer Coefficients in Cross-flow 219
Mean Temperature Difference in Cross-flow 221
Pressure Drop in Cross-flow 223
Other Air-Side Pressure Effects 225
Section 4 Preliminary Design Procedures
Principles of the Design Process 226
Selection of Preliminary Design Parameters 226
Fundamental Limitations Controlling Air-cool Heat Exchanger Design 228
Section 5 Final Design 235

Chapter 5 Trufin Tubes in Boiling Heat Transfer
Section 1 Boiling Theory
Pool Boiling Curve 240
Nucleation 242
Nucleate Boiling Curve 243
Maximum or Critical Heat Flux 244
Film Boiling 245
Boiling Inside Tubes 246
Sub-cooling and Agitation 246
Section 2 Vaporizers - Types and Usage
General 248
Boiling Outside Tubes 248
Boiling Inside Tubes 250
Other Types of Evaporators 252
Section 3 Boiling Heat Transfer
Pool Boiling - Single Tube 254
Single Tube in Cross Flow 258
Boiling on Outside of Tubes in a Bundle 258

Boiling Inside Tubes 259
Boiling of Mixtures 263
Section 4 Falling Film Heat Transfer
Vertical In-Tube Vaporizer 266
Horizontal Shell-Side Vaporizer 267
Dry Spots - Film Breakdown 267
Section 5 Special Surfaces
Boiling on Fins 268
Mean Temperature Difference 269
Section 6 Pressure Drop
Tube-Side Pressure Drop 271
Shell-Side Pressure Drop 273
Section 7 Fouling 275
Section 8 Design Procedures
Selection of Re-boiler Type 278
Pool Type Re-boilers 278
In-tube or Thermosyphon Re-boilers 279
Section 9 Special Considerations
Examples of Design Problems 283
Section 10 Example of Design Problems for Trufin in Boiling Heat Transfer
Design Example - Kettle Re-boiler 284
In-Tube Thermosyphon - Example Problem 287
Boiling Outside Trufin Tubes - Example Problem 292