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Data and Availability

Protection
Module 10

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


Copyright © 2006 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. 10-1
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Virtual Infrastructure Virtual Machines Operations


Virtual Infrastructure Overview

ESX Server Installation VM Creation & Management VM Resource Monitoring

Networking VM Access Control Data & Availability Protection

Storage VM Resource Management Troubleshooting Tips

VirtualCenter Installation

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


Copyright © 2006 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. 10-2
Importance and module objectives

• Importance
• Administrators have the very important tasks of protecting their
systems against data loss and to make data continuously available
to their end users
• Objectives for the learner
• Identify the components that get involved when performing backups
using VMware Consolidated Backup (VCB)
• Implement a VMware HA Cluster

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


Copyright © 2006 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. 10-3
Module lessons

• Lesson 1: Backup Strategies


• Lesson 2: High Availability Strategies

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


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Lesson 1:
Backup Strategies

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


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Lesson topics

• Backup strategies
• VMware Consolidated Backup (VCB)

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


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Backup strategies for VMs

• Perform a VM file-level backup using a backup agent


in the VM
• Perform a Windows VM file-level backup using
VMware Consolidated Backup (VCB)
• Perform a full virtual machine backup using VCB

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


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VM file-level backup using backup agent

• Use to perform file-level


backups of the guest OS
• Check Backup Compatibility
Guide for supported backup
agents

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


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VMware’s recommendations for backups

• Store application data in


separate virtual disks from
system images

• Use backup agents inside


guest OSes for application
data
• If Windows, perform VCB file-
level backups
• Use full virtual machine
backups for system images
• Or plan to redeploy from
template

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


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VMware Consolidated Backup (VCB)

• A LAN-free, online backup solution of VMs for


ESX Server + SAN
• Backup is offloaded to a dedicated, physical host
• Filesystem-consistent backup
• VMware Tools can quiesce filesystem before files are backed up
• Supports different backup flavors
• File-level backup (Windows guests)
• Full virtual machine backup (all guests)
• Works with major 3rd party backup software
• Requires a physical, Windows 2003 server and fibre
channel SAN

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


Copyright © 2006 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. 10-10
VCB components

vma.foo.com

vma’s C: drive

mydata
VMFS datastore

esx.foo.com

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


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VMware Consolidated Backup (VCB)

Pros Cons
• A way to provide LAN-free, • Requires use of a separate
online backups of virtual disks physical server running
• Not necessary to purchase a Windows (the “backup proxy”)
backup client per VM • Cannot restore directly into the
• Possible to back up to FC- virtual disk
attached tape drives
• Integrated with backup
solutions
• No resource contention on ESX
Server host
• Better performance. Shorter
backup window.

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


Copyright © 2006 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. 10-12
Restore methods

Restore method Pros Cons


Administrator(s)
Minimum number of
Centralized involved in file-level
agents to maintain
restore

Restore can be delegated;


Still not quite self-
Per-group good compromise
service restore
between number of agents
and ease of restore

Agents required in
Self-service Self-service restore
each virtual machine

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


Copyright © 2006 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. 10-13
Centralized restore
Files to restore Backup agent on backup
from backup 1 proxy server only

Copy files to target


3 virtual machine
using CIFS share
Administrator restores
2 to backup proxy…

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


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Full virtual machine backup using VCB

•vcbMounter and vcbRestore backup/restore an entire virtual


machine
• For example, to back up a VM to a local directory on the backup
proxy named C:\myvm:

vcbMounter.exe –h 192.168.1.210 –u administrator


-p vmware –a ipaddr:192.168.56.124 –t fullvm
–r C:\myvm

• To restore a VM to its original location from a backup located in


C:\myvm:
vcbRestore.exe –s C:\myvm

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


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Lesson summary

• VCB allows you to perform file-level backups of Windows


VMs and full virtual machine backups of any VM
• The restore method that you choose is a tradeoff
between the number of backup agents to install vs. ease
of restore task

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


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Lesson 2:
Virtual Machine
High Availability

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


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Lesson topics

• Strategies for clustering VMs using third-party software


products
• Clustering VMs using VMware HA (High Availability)

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


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Clustering inside VMs for high availability

• Cluster-in-a-box
• Protects against operator error,
application and OS crashes
• Cluster-across-boxes
• Protects against operator error,
application and OS crashes,
hardware failures
• Shared storage required
• Cluster between physical and
virtual machines
• Low-cost N+1 redundancy
• Shared storage required

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


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What is VMware HA?

• Provides high availability to virtual machines through


automatic failover on a cluster of ESX Server hosts
• Integrated with VMware DRS (Distributed Resource Scheduler)
• An optional VirtualCenter feature
• Configuration, management and monitoring done
through the VI client
• Customizable behavior for individual virtual machines

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


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VMware HA in action

VC Server

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


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VMware HA does not manage 1-VM failures

To restart a single VM in the event of a VM failure,


use a VC alarm to launch a script

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


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What are the prerequisites for VMware HA?

• You should be able to power-on a VM from all hosts


within the cluster
• Access to common resources (shared storage, VM network)
• Host should be configured for DNS
• DNS resolution of all hosts within cluster

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


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How should I set up my hosts’ networking?

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


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Create cluster

Configure cluster for VMware HA and/or DRS

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


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Configure cluster

Configure host failures and admission control settings

How much redundant


capacity will we have?

Which is more important:


uptime or resource fairness?

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Some capacity planning examples

Failover capacity: 1 host failure Failover capacity: 2 host failure

VMware HA cluster VMware HA cluster

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Add host to cluster

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


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Which VMs should be restarted first?

If there is insufficient spare capacity


during failover, VMs with higher
priority get failed over first

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


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Architecture of a VMware HA cluster

VC Server

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


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What if a host is running but isolated?

• A network failure might ?


cause a “split-brain”
condition

• VMware HA waits
15 seconds before
deciding that a host is
isolated
• This interval is not
presently configurable

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


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Choose response to isolation per VM

Power VM off to release


lock on its disks

Allow VM to continue to
run while host isolated

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


Copyright © 2006 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. 10-32
Troubleshooting VMware HA

• Ensure IP connectivity, DNS resolution


• Ensure that storage and networks are visible
throughout the cluster
• Ensure that no one has managed hosts directly,
bypassing VC
• Check logs:
/opt/LGTOaam512/log/*
/opt/LGTOaam512/vmsupport/*

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


Copyright © 2006 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. 10-33
Lab for lesson 2

• Using VMware HA
Two ESX Server
• In this lab, you will perform the
following tasks: teams belong to one
• Add VMware HA functionality to Cluster team
an existing cluster
• Cause VMware HA to restart VirtualCenter VirtualCenter
Server Server
virtual machines following the #3 #4
“crash” of a physical server

ESX Server ESX Server


#3 #4

Student 03a Student 03b Student 04a Student 04b

DRS/HA Cluster Team

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


Copyright © 2006 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. 10-34
Module summary

• Use VCB to perform file-level backups of Windows virtual


machines
• Use VCB to perform virtual disk backups of all virtual
machines
• Check prerequisites for hosts and VMs in a VMware HA
cluster
• Plan your HA cluster
• Failover level and admission control
• Hosts and VMs’ resource availability and requirements

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


Copyright © 2006 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. 10-35
Questions?

VMware Infrastructure 3: Install and Configure – Rev B


Copyright © 2006 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. 10-36