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Chapter 9:
Everyday Expertise: Learning Within and Across Formal and Informal Settings
ByHeatherToomeyZimmermanandPhilipBell KeypointsbyBrianNagy,ChristineSimms,andShannonFoster

I.TheNeedforaNewFramework A.Thisstudyofinformalenvironmentsconsidershowpeoplelearnbothwithin singlesettingsandacrossmultiplesettings B. Learnersdonotactwithequalcompetencyinallsettingsinwhichthey participate,evenwhenthecontentisthesame C. Learnerscompetentinaninformalsettingmayfalterinthesametypeof performanceinaformallearningsetting D. Cognitivecapabilityisonlyonecomponentofwhatisneededtounderstand learningperformances E. Frameworkbuildsonsocialtheoriesofdevelopment 1. Socioculturalviews a) Culturaltoolsmediatelearnersexperiences 2. Ecologicalmodelsofpsychology a) Learnersarepartofcommunitiesatvariouslevel b) Differentlearningexperiencesareavailablewithineach community 3. Distributedperspectivesonthinkinganddoing a) Learningwithinanenvironmentextendsbeyondcognition F. Theroleoftheenvironmentmustberecognizedandappreciated G. Individual/personal,social/community,andculturalaspectsinteracttoshape individuallearningprocesses H. Thepersonalandsocialexperiencesofthelearnermustbeconsideredwhen designinglearningexperiences 1. Example:StreetvendorsinBrazilcandomathatwork,butcannotdoit inaschoolsetting(Saxe,1998) 2. Example:Basketballplayerscancalculategamerelatedstatistics,but falterinschoolmath(Nasir&Hand,2008)environment I. SocialDevelopmenttheoriesusedindevelopmentofthisframework 1. Socioculturalviews(Vygtosky,1978Rogoff,2003) a) Notesthatinculturalsettings,anewlearnerhasanexperienced guideofournotestomodelthelearning

EcologicalModelsofpsychology(Bronfenbrenner,1979) a) Noteshierarchyofexperiencewithinthegroup 3. Distributedperspectivesonthinkinganddoing(Pea,1993Hutchins, 1995) a) Notesnotjustwhatisbeingthoughtabout,butalsothe surroundingvariablesthataffectcognition II.TheEverydayExpertiseFrameworkforUnderstandingLearningEnvironments A. Considersactivityengagementrelatedto 1. Affectiveandepistemicresources 2. Influencesfromsocialinteractions a) Family b) Classrooms c) Peergroups 3. Largersocietalinfluences a) Culturalandmaterial b) Physicalresources B. Isnothierarchical C. Interweavesinteractiveelementsinlearningenvironments III.ThreeInterconnectedLevelsoftheEverydayExpertiseFramework A. Individualaspectsuseanarrayofanresourcestomakesenseoftheworld. 1. Knowledge 2. Conceptualelementsdevelopedovertime(diSessa,2002) 3. Howthenatureofknowledgeisunderstood(Hammer,Elby,Scherr,& Reddish,2005) 4. Interestsandemotionalstatesoftheindividual(Hidi&Renninger, 2006Renninger,2009) B. CulturalAspects 1. Culturaltoolsarefoundinlearnerseverydayphysicalenvironment a) Languages b) Technologies c) Dispositions d) Stylesoftalking e) Physicalartifacts f) Worldviews g) Stereotypes h) Otherconceptualelementsthatbroadlypermeatesocietal groups 2. Eachlearnerstoolkitofculturaltoolsisunique 3. Cultureisconsideredbroadly

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a) Ethnicgroups b) Socialclassgroups c) Disciplinespecific(ex.science)cultures d) Familyorsmallgroupsubculturesorideocultures C. SocialAspects 1. EverydayExpertisebelievesalearningenvironmentthatisinformalis stillsocial,regardlessofwhoisengagedatonemomentbecause therewasinteractionwithothersinordertoreachthatpoint(Ash, 2003Crowley&Jacobs,2002Falk&Dierking,2000) 2. Apersonandhisorhersocialsettingareinvolvedinaninterconnected unitcalledsituatedactivity. 3. Situatedactivitypresumestheasynchronousinvolvementofothers a) Readingabookaloneinvolvestheauthorandpublisherofthe book b) Readinginthelibraryinvolveswhatthelearnerknowsaboutthe socialnormsofthatsetting c) Choicesmaderelatedtoactivitiesinvolvehowwehavebeen influencedbyothersinthepast D. BringingtheThreePlanesTogether 1. Fundamentallyasocialtheoryoflearninglinkingallthreeanalytical planesinlearningenvironments 2. Culturedoesnotpredestineindividuals,butrather a) Providesresources b) Providestheagencyindividualsneedtoresistandchange culture E. TheEverydayExpertiseFrameworkbenefitslearnersbyavoiding presumptivestereotypicaltraitswithingroupsbecauseofindividual experienceandaffect,aswellasgoalsandmotives. IV.TheEverydayExpertiseFrameworkinPractice:TwoExamplesResearchuses EverydayExperienceFrameworktounderstandlearnersupportinspecificspaces A. EverydayExpertiseandFamiliesinScienceCenters 1. Studymuseumgoingfamiliesinalargesciencecenter 2. UsesEverydayExpertiseFrameworktounderstandhowfamilies makesenseofbiologicalcontentpresentinthemuseum a) Analyzeethnographicanddiscoursevia (1) Preandpostvisitinterviews (2) Videorecordingsofvisits (3) Codingandanalysisofconversations 3. Complexenvironmenthas

Multipleentrances Variousexhibitswithavarietyofinteractivecomponents (1) Engageawiderangeofpriorknowledgeand experiences (2) Creatediversesocialinteractions (3) Presentamyriadofculturalexperiences 4. Researchersmapfamilyvisitstotracksensemakingpractices 5. Thefindingsofthesciencecentersroleinlearningaffordsaviewof a) Useofsignageandinteractiveexhibitcomponents b) Designimplicationsofexhibitsignage B. EverydayExpertiseandAdolescentYouthinEnvironmentalEducation ProgramsResearchusesEverydayExpertiseFrameworktounderstand hownarrativespositionyouthincertainwaysinenvironmentallearning environments 1. UsesBrunersdefinitionofnarrativecognitiontodefinenarrativesas a) Socialaccounts b) Inseparablefromlearningenvironmentsplacebasedaspects 2. Examinesissuesofsocialjusticebyunderstandinghowaccessto meaningfullearninginfluences a) Individualaspects b) Socialaspects c) Culturalaspects 3. Findsthatlearnersarenotpassivereceiversofsocialandcultural influencesanddeveloptheirownnarrativesaboutraceand environmentaleducation. 4. Narrativesaboutplace a) Areconstructedwithinenvironmentaleducationinstitutions b) ConsidermultiplelevelsoftheEverydayExpertiseFramework c) Eitherlimitoropenlearningpathways d) Delivermessagesnotreflectiveofrealityfor resourceimpoverishedyouth e) Leadtostereotypingofcertainyouthinsomecultures f) Influencelearnersfutureparticipationinactivitysystems g) Influencelearnersuseofculturaltools V.TheEverydayExpertiseFrameworkinDesign:ConsideringLearningWithinand AcrossSettingshelpsdesignersdeveloplearningenvironmentsthatconnectyouth, backgrounds,andvaluestothegoalsofformalandinformalinstruction. A. MicrosandMeConnectingHomeandSchoolwithDigitalPhotography (Zhou,Bricker&Bell,2007)

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Isa5thgradebiologycurriculumthatusesdigitalphotographyand selfdocumentationdesignedtomakesciencerelevantandconnect learnershomeandcommunityexperiencestoschoolbasedlessons 3. Tapsintoindividual,social,andculturalaspectsofyouthsknowledge withoutessentializingyouthtopredeterminedethnicgroup membershiptraits 4. Hastwodesignergoals a) Makethebiologicalsciencesmorepersonallyrelevantinside andoutsideofschool b) Encourageparticipationthatwouldallowyouthstogainaccess toculturaltoolsofscience 5. Documentshowstudentskeeptheirbodieshealthybytakingdigital photos 6. Compilesinformationtocreateaculturaltoolkittobesharedamong classmates,tyingtogetherindividual,social,andculturalplanes 7. Useauthenticscientificpracticesforlearnersparticipation B. TreeInvestigatorsConnectingHomeandOutdoorEducationinMuseums (Lendetal,2007)designbasedresearchprojectbasedonyouths competenciesandintereststoconnecttoobservationandclassification 1. Useseducationaltechnologytoconnectsitebasedobservationswith onlineresourcestoconnectmultiplelearningenvironments 2. Augmentsrealitybyprovidingadditionalresourcestoengagestudents withintheirphysicalspace 3. Stronglyreliesonplacesensitiveaspectsoftheoriginalsetting 4. EverydayExpertiseFramework a) Tailorssituatedactivitiestotheyouthsinterests b) Considersstudentssharedanddivergentexperiencesat schoolandinthecommunity c) Deliverstexttailoredtoagelevelandschoolrequirements d) Encouragesactiveengagementintheenvironment 5. Usessmallgroupstocreateanewsituatedactivitybyusingleveraged schoolandhomebasedactivities VI.Conclusion A. TheEverydayExperienceFrameworkperspectiveonlearninganddesign allowslearningtohavemultipledimensions:individual,social,andcultural. B. TheEverydayExperienceFrameworkgivesfullconsiderationtohowpeople learnwithinandacrossenvironments. C.UseofEverydayExperienceFrameworkcreatelearningspacesthatare designedtobeculturallyrelevantandindividuallysignificant.

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References

Jonassen,D.H.,&Land,S.M.(2012).Theoreticalfoundationsoflearningenvironments. NewYork:Routledge. Zimmerman,H.,&Bell,P.(2012).EverydayExpertise:LearningWithinandAcrossFormal andInformalSettings.InTheoreticalFoundationsofLearningEnvironments(2nded., pp.224241).NewYork,NY:Routledge.